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Full text of "The expedition for the survey of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris, carried on by order of the British Government in the years 1835, 1836, and 1837; preceded by geographical and historical notices of the regions situated between the rivers Nile and Indus"

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In the Years 1835, 1836, and 1837 ; 






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[Page 1 to 28.J 

''Seat ot Paradise and its four Rivers. — State of the World before the Deluge. — Supposed 

residence of Noah. — Description of the first Babylonia. — Construction of the Afk. 

First Settlements in Armenia. — State of Antediluvian Knowledge. — Primeval 
Astronomy, and its preservation among the Kirghis Kazaks. — Cycles of the Ancients. 
— Traditional History. — Record* preserved in Armenia. — Shem proceeds to Shinar.— 
Japhet and Ham continue in Armenia. — Noah's precepts. — First Human Immolalion 
by Lamech — Arkite Worship. — Antediluvian Idolatry or Sabaism. — Ham's Sin and 
Curse. — Trifling change caused by the Deluge.^ — Noah's Allotment. — Japhet occupies 
the northern extremity of Asia and Europe. — Shem occupies Babylonia, Syria, &c. — 
Ham removes from Asia Minor to Byblus. — Possessions of Cush. — Ham's Idolatry in 
Syria. — Canaan and Mizraim's Territories. — The Emim, Amalekites, Philistines, 
Thamudites, Himyarites, and other Tribes in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt. — The Cushites 
invade Babylonia and [expel the people of Shem. — Rise of Nimrud's Kingdom, and 
establishment of Ham's Religion. — Construction and object of the Tower of Babel. — 
Spread of Mankind in consequence. 


[Page 29 to 60.] 



Limits of the Territories about to be occupied. — Directions taken Eastward and Westward. 
—Noah's Family commingle in Armenia.— The Shemitic People reoccupy Babylonia. 
—The mixed Tribes of this Territory called Chaldeans.— Spread of the Cushites from 
Babylonia to Media, Persia, and Central Asia.— Phut, the supposed Leader of the 
Mongols. — Georgian and Tibetan character. — Similarity of Eastern and Western 
Architecture. — Western origin of the Chinese.— Spread of the Cushites Northward 
and again Westward, along the Taurus.— Second commixture of the Sons of Japhet 
and Ham.— Descent of the Chasdim into Babylonia.— The Cushite Dominions centre 
in Babylonia. — Spread of the Sons of Togorniah, Gomer, and other Descendants of 
Japhet.— Nimrud's Death.— Ninus or Belus II. invades Armenia.— Haik and his 
Descendants govern Armenia.— Tombs of Noah and his Wife.— Haikanians and 
Togormeans.— Aramais changes the name of Gihon to Araxes.— War of Aram with 
the Medians.— Derivations of the name of Armenia.- Settlements of Togormah.— 


Meshed and Askenaz.— Northern spread of the Sons of Japhet.— Ham's Posterity in 
Syria and Arabia.— The 'A.dites and other lost Tribes of Arabia.— Traditional 
Account of the Curse of Ham and his Descendants in Africa.— Cusha-dwipa, within 
and without.— Sanc'ha-dwi'pa.—Axumitic or Amharic character. — Countries of 
Habache or Ethiopia, Nubia. &c., first occupied, next Egypt.— Architecture carried 
inio Greece.— Tne Chaldtan Kingdom of U'r.— Kahtan and his followers occupy 
Arabia.— Possession of Jerah and Uzal.— The Cushites pass into Africa.— Chaldeans, 
their Lan^nase used in Mesopotamia. -Derivation of the name of Chaldean.— The 
Chaldean Tribes. -The Chald^an Nation and Priests —Chaldean Philosophy, &c. 

[Page 61 to 86.] 


Abraham quits U'r of the Chaldees.— Tiie Patriarch proceeds from Haran to Damascus, 
Palestine, and Egypt. — Settlement of Abraham and Lot. — Invasion and Discomfiture 
of the Assvriai! Kings. — March of the latter thi'ough the Desert. — Destruction of 
Sodom from nat.iral and supernatural causes. — The Alliance of Lot's Daughters with 
the people of the country, originates the Moabites and Ammonites. — Birth of Ishmael 
and Isaac. — Expiilsicui of the former. — Territory of Ishuia'ers Descendants. — The 
Sons of Keturah and the Midiunites.- State of Egypt from the time of Abraham to 
that of Joseph. — Historical interest of Epypt. — Invasion of the Hyk-sos, part coming 
through Abyssinia. — Their Dominion in Egypt, and Period of their Expulsion. — The 
Sons of Esau occupy Blount Seir — Mingled People of Arabia. — Amalekites, Edomites, 
Saracens. &c. — The Horites. Eliphaz the Temamte. — Position of the land of Uz. — 
' Period of Job's Trial. -^The Localities about O'rfuh correspond with tlie circumstances 
in the book of Job. — State of Knowledge in Arabia in the time of Job — The Tobbai 
of Yemen, — E.^peditiou of the Himyarites into Central Asia.— Samarcand founded. — 
Language and written Character of the Himyarites. — Inscriptions found in Yemen, 
also at Hisn Gliorab, Nakb-el Hajar, &c., and others near San'a. — Ard-es-Saba, or 
Land of Sabii. — Himyari Inscription found near 'Aden. — Traces of that People in 
distant Countries — Tlie Hebrew Language, its Cognates and written Character. 

C H A P T E R I V. 

[Page 87 to 110.] 

iKOM B.C. 162;3 TO B.C. Ii522. 

Successive Colonies pioeeed from Arabia into Egypt.— Commerce of the Egyptians main- 
tained principally by Land.— The Sepulchres furnish a Pictorial History of the 
Country.— Cotton. Linen. Porcelain, and other Manufactures.— Alphabetical Writing 
in use antecedently to the construction of the Pyramids. — Costumes of the various 
People.— Pieii Hangings and Carpets manufactured. — Dyeing in use; also Metals, 
C-hariots, and Household Utensils.— System of Cultivation pictorially represented. — 
Use of the Himyaritic character by the .\rabs in the time of Jo.seph.— Agricultural 
Products, and Caravan Trade to distant Countries.— Products and Caravan Trade of 
the Pha-nicians.— I'osition of their Territory.— Settlements of the Phccnicians pre- 
vi()U.sly to the coming of the Shepherds.— Commencement of Sea Navigation and rise 
of Tyre.- Colonies planted in the Mediterranean and Atlantic, &c.— Rapid rise of 
the Egyptians after the expulsion of the Shepherds.— The Egyptians become jealous 


of tlie Hebrews. — Forced Servitiule of the latter. — Coraniencement of their flight from 
the Land of Goshen. — Pursued by Pharaoh. — Passage of the Red Sea, near Suez. — 
Advanced State of the Kdouiites and Midianites. — Jethro visits Moses. — Arab Polity 
made the basis of Moses' Government. — Moses conducts the People to Mount Sinai. — 
I'romulgation of the Moral Law. — Guided by Hobab, the Israelites advance to Kadesh- 
Barnea, and the southern borders of Canaan. — Ketreat from thence after being defeated 
by the Anialekites. — Destruction of Korah and his Companions. — Journey to Ezion 
Cieber and Mount Hor; and eventually to the foot of Mount Pisgah.— Limited extent 
of the country traversed during the Exodus. — Passage of the Jordan. — Some of the 
ancient Inhabitants are driven into Egypt, others settle in Armenia. — War between 
Armenia and Assyria. — Progress of the Egyptian Kingdom. — Sesostris and his Con- 


[Page 111 to 143.] 


Egyptian Keligion and Philosophy carried into Greece. — The Shepherds settle in Phoe- 
nicia, and the Hebrews in Palestine.— Colonies proceed from Phoenicia and Egypt to 
Greece.— Origin of the Argonautic Voyage. — The Fleet returns from Colchis to 
ByamtimiL, plunders Troy, and proceeds to Spain. — Some of the Argonauts return to 
Greece by sea, others by land, with the booty acquired. — Lydia and Assyria. — Ninus 
succeeds to the Throne of the latter Kingdom. — He conquers Bactria, and marries 
Semiramis. — This Queen becomes a great conqueror, atd founds the City ef Shemi- 
ramgerd. — Inscriptions regarding Semiramis found near Lake Van. — Ninus succeeds 
and organizes the Kingdom. — Period of the Trojan War.— Menmon ser^'es at the 
siege with an Armenian contingent. — Establishment of the Hebrew Kingdom. — 
David succeeds Saul, and is acknowledged by the Twelve Tribes. He makes Jeru- 
salem the capital, and establishes his dominion over Judea, Syria, and a part of 
Mesopotamia. — Accession of Solomon. — The Court and Regal Establishments of this 
Monarch. — Cost of the great Temple at Jerusalem. — Solomon erects another Temple 
for his Egyptian Queen, and constructs Tadmor and the other Store Cities. — Inquiry 
concerning the position of Ophir. — Visit of the Queen of the South, or Abyssinia. — 
Her Posterity by Solomon reign. — Saba and Slieba Synonymous. — TJie Himyarites 
and Saba?ans of Africa the same people. — Early Land Trade, and difficulties attending 
Ship Caravans or Mercantile Fleets. — Products of the Countries on the Mozambiqae. 
— Distance, and Time required for a Voyage to this Coast. — The other, or Eastern 
Voyage, was probably founded on a previous Caravan Trade to India. — Sanscrit 
Names of the Merchandize. — ^Aurea Chersonesus supposed to be Ophir. — Distance. 
and Time required for a Coasting Voyage to the Straits of Malacca — Trade by 
Barter. — The Tyrians employed by Solomon. — Tiie Tyrian Hercules, and eaily 
Colonies of Tyre. — Establishment of Carthage, and various Settlements made by this 
cduimercial kingdom in Spain and elsewhere.- — Accession of Kehoboam, and separation 
of the Ten Tribes. — Shishak invades Judea. — Consolidation of the Armenian King- 
dom. — Invasion of Zerah the Ethiopian. — The Kings of Assyria, according to Ctesias. 
— Invasion of Judea by Pul. — Tiglath Pileser carries the Jews captive into Assyria. — 
Nabonassar, and Works of Semiramis at Babylon. — Second Captivity of the Jews, by 
Shalmaneser, and interchange of the Ten Tribes with the .\ssyrians. — Sennacherib 
succeeds Shalmaneser ; subjects the Babylonians, and invades Judea. — Siege of Jeru- 
salem and destruction of the Assyrians. -Sennacherib flit-s to Nineveh ; is assassinated 
by Adrammelech and Sharezer, his sous. — Profane Accounts of the Discomfiture of 
the Invaders. 



[Page 144 to 168.] 

BABYLON, 538 or 636 B.C. 

Hezekiah's Treasures.— Babylon and Ninevehunited.— E<;batana taken.— March to Cilicia. 
— Chinilidanus and the Scythian Invasion.— Cyaxares.—Nabopolasar and Nineveh.— 
Saracus destroys himself.— Nabopolasar governs Nineveh.— Pharaoh Necho's Fleets 
and invasion of Babylonia, Carchemish, &c.— Nebuchadnezzar as the General of his 
father invades Palestine and Egypt.— Daniel carried captive.— The Army returns by 
two routes to Babylonia. -Nebuchadnezzar mediates between the Lydians and Medes. 

March to Jerusalem. — Plunder of the Temple.— Nebucliadnezzar adorns Babylon. — 

Rebellion of Zedekiah.— Jeremiah's prophecy.— Nebuchadnezzar besieges Jerusalem, 
and carries Captives to Babylon.— Judea laid waste. — Tyre besieged and taken. — Nebu- 
chadnezzar attacks Egypt and carries Spoils to the Temple of Belus. — Commerce, 
Canals, and Works of Nebuchadnezzar. — Nebuchadnezzar's Prophecy. — He loses his 

reason. He resumes the throne. — His Death and Character. — Evil-Mcrodach succeeds 

and is Assassinated.— Neriglessor succeeds.— His War -with Cyrus.— An Embassy 
comes from India to Babylon. — Depravity of the Babylonians. — Belshazzar ascends 
the throne of Babylon. — His mother, Nitocris, prepares for a siege. — Advance of 
Cyrus. — The river Gyndes drained by means of numerous Channels. — Babylon 
beleagured. — The stratagem of diverting the River. — Assault of Babylon. — Babylonia 
added to Assyria. 


[Page 109 to 200.] 


Cyrus the Great visits Persia. -His Accession and Forces.— Daniel's authority. — Prepa- 
rations for Building the Temple at Jerusalem. — Cyrus' Decree. — The Medes and 
Persians become one Nation. — Cambyses succeeds. — Invasion of Egypt and Ethiopia. — 
His Death. — Snierdis usurps the Throne. — His Death. — Stratagem and Accession of 
Darius Hyst.ispes.— Rebellion in Susiana and Babylonia. — Darius marches to quell the 
latter.— Revolt and Capture of Babylon, according to Herodotus. — A Revolt in the 
Upper Provinces recalls Darius. — His authority is established. — Organization of 
the Empire. — Posts established. — Use of Firnuins. — The Temple at Jerusalem Rebuilt. 
— Voyage of Scylax. — Invasions of Scythia and Greece. — Zerd-husht, or Zoroaster, and 
the Ruligion of the Magi. — Invasion of Greece. — Battle of Marathon. — Fresh Arma- 
ments of Darius. — His Death. — Character. — Xerxes' Succession. — Invasion of Greece. 
— Contingents. — March. — Bridge over the Hellespont. — Thrace. — TherniopylsE. — 
Salamis. — lietreat into Asia. — Battles of Plata;a and Mycale. — Death of Xerxes. — 
His Character. — Artaxerxes Longimanus, or Ahasuerus, succeeds. — Esther. — The 
Jews. — Reception of Themistocles at the Court of Assyria.— Double Victory of the 
Greeks on the Coast of Pamphylia. — Peace between the Greeks and the Assyrians. — 
Xerxes Murdered. — Sogdianus and Darius Nothus. 



[Page 201 to 250.] 

o60 B.C. 

Nature of Eastern Governments.— Cyrus appointed Satrap of Lesser Asia. — Origin of his 
Rebellion. — His Government and Annaments. — Cyrus advances through Asia Minor. 
— His March from Myriaudrus to the Rivers Chains, the Daradax, and Euphrates. — 
Advance from Thapsacus to the River Araxes and Towns of Corsote and CarmandEe. 
— March from the Pilic towards Babylon, — Battle of Cunaxa, and Death of Cyrus. — 
Commencement of the Retreat. — The Greeks reach the Median Wall, and cross the 
River Tigris. — March to Opis, Larissa, Mespila, and Jebel Jiidf. — Advance through 
Kurdistan to the Rivers Centrites and Teleboas. — Passage of the Rivers Euphrates, 
Phasis, and Harpasus. — Advance to Gymnias and Mount Theches. — March to Trebi- 
zonde and Cerasunt. — The Mossynceci, Chalybes, and Tibarenians. — City of Cotyora. 
— Voyage to Harmeae, and thence along the Coast of Paphlagonia to Heraclea. — 
Separation and Defeat of the Greeks — The Greeks re-unite and Defeat the Troops of 
Phamabazus. — The Greeks join Seuthes, and take service under the Lacedaemonians. 
Xenophon resigns the Command.— State of Greece and Asia at tlie close of the King's 
Reign. — Character and Death of Artaxerxes. 


[Page 251 to 296.] 


Resou'-ces of Macedonia, and her Constitution. — Philip's Accession and Wars. — Battle of 
Cha?ronea. — Assassination of the King and succession of Alexander. — Appointed 
Leader of the Greek Confederacy.— Civil and Military state of Macedonia. — Alex- 
ander's Campaigns on the Danube and against the Illyrians. — Preparations and Inva- 
sion of Asia. — Situation of Persia under Darius Codomauus. — Government and weak- 
ness of the Satrapies when invaded. — Alexander crosses the Hellespont, trusting to 
success for his resources. — Battle of the Granicus. — Advance to Sardis and Ephesus 
into Caria. — Winter there. — The Married Soldiers visit Greece.^Telmessus and other 
cities of Lycia taken. — Alexander passes Mount Climax, and marches to Celsenae and 
Gordium. — Asia Minor submits. — Cilicia, Campestris, and rugged Cilicia invaded. — 
Approach of Darius. — Battle of the Issus.— Visit to the Captives. — Darius' Baggage, 
&c., taken at Damascus. — Invasion of Phoenicia. — Capture of Tyre and Gaza.— Sub- 
jection of Egypt.^Visit to the Oasis of Amnion. — Settlement of the Government of 
Egypt. — March to Thapsacus and through Mesopotamia. — Passage of the Tigris. — 
Preparations of Darius. — Battle of Arbelu. — March to Babylon and Restoration of the 
celebrated Temple. 

[Page 297 to 338.] 


March to Susa, the Persian Gates, and Persepolis. — Advance to Ecbatana. — Treasure 
found in those Cities. — Advance to the Caspian Gates. — Pursuit and Death of Darius. 

X- ' 


- Invasion of Hyrcania.— Campaigns in Khorasan and Drangiana.— Alexandria and 
Caucasum J.uilt.— Invasion of Bactria.— Passage of the Oxus.- -March to Maracauda 
and the Jaxartes.-Siege of Cyropolis.— Acti^rity of Spitameues.— Warlike People 
north of the Paropamisus.- Capture of the Fort of Oxyartes.- Alexanders Marriage 
to Roxana.-Expedition into Margiana.— Hill Fort of the ParKtacaj taken.-Winter 
at Zariaspa, and Death of Clitus.— Return the Paropamisus, and March to the 
Indus.— Siege of Aomas.— Visit to Nysa.— Alexander passes the Indus and defeats 
Porus.— Sakala taken.— The Army refuses to cross the River Hyphasis. 


[Page 339 to 378.] 


Preparations for the return of the Army and Fleet.— Projected Trade with India as the 
basis of the intended Commerce. — Alexander abandons his purposed Conquests in 
Eastern India. — Descent of the Indus and despatch of Forces under Crdterus and 
Hephaestion. — Alexander crosses the Desert. — The Difficulties of the March.— He 
reaches Kirmun. — Slow descent of Nearchus. — Halt at Kartichee. — Advance to the 
River Arabius, and along the coast of the Oritje. — Voyage to Cape 'Arabah, the Town 
of Mosarna, and the extremity of the Coast of the Ichthyophagi. — The Fleet reaches 
Cape Jask and Harmozia. — Nearchus meets Alexander. — Voyage continned to Diri- 
dotus or Teredon. — Ascent of the Pasitigris to Agines and Susa. — Ancient and modern 
Distances of the V^oyage. — Games and Sacrifices at Susa. — Asiatics and Europeans to 
be united bj^ Marriages and other nieans. — Discontent of the Army. — The general 
employment of .Asiatic Mercenaries. — Former project of Commerce. — Geography of 
the Kiirun and Kerkhah. — Alexander ascends the Tigris to Opis. — Bunds and Dikes, — 
Mutiny at Opis. — Alexander goes to Susa. — Advance across the Zagros into Media. — 
Visit to the Nisaan plains. — March against the Cosscei and to Babylon. — Alexander's 
preparations.— Reinforcements of vessels and troops. — His gigantic prt>jects, anil 
Death. — Digression on the Coarse, Risings, Flooding, &c., of the Indus. 

[Piige 379 to 400.] 


State of the Empire at the time of Alexander's Death. — Threatened Hostilities. — Arrange- 
ments for the Succession. — The various Governors retain their situations. — Roxana 
puts Statiia and her Sister to Death. — Eumenes enters Cappadocia.— Deatli of Per- 
diccas. — Defeat and Blockade of Eumenes. — Invasion of Phoenicia, and March towards 
Babylonia. — The Army of Eumenes escapes from an Inundation, and enters Susiana. 
— Eurydice and Philip put to Death by Olympias.— Campaigns in Susiana.— March 
through the Cossa-an Mountains.— Campaign in Media. — Drawn Battle, and Death of 
Eumenes.— Antigonus settles the minor Governments. — Combinations against, and 
Preparations of Antigonus.— Antigonus marches into Asia Minor. — Demetrius Defeated 
near Gaza. — The Nabatheaus, and I'.xpeditions of Antigonus against Petra. — Roxana 
and her son Alexander murdered by Cassander.— Barsine, Hercules, and Olympias 
put to Death. — Antigonus and the other successors of Alexander assume regal titles, - 
Expeditious of Antigonus and Demetrius : they proceed against Egypt, and are re- 


pulsed. — Demetrius besieges Rhodes, and fails iu repeated Attacks. — Sieges of Fortresses 
in ancient and modern times. — Seleucus extends his Empire into India. — His Treaty 
with Sandrocottus, and March into Asia Minor. — Forces assembled under Seleucus and 
Antigonus near Ipsus. — Result of the Battle. — Subdivision of Alexander's Empire into 
four great Kingdoms. — Demetrius is taken, and dies in Captivity. — Death and Cha- 
racter of Seleucus.— Accession of Ptolemy Philadelphus. — Prosperity of Egjpt under 
this Monarch. 


[Page 401 to 446.] 


Seleucus Callinicus invades Parthia. — His Death. — Parthia becomes independent. — Antio- 

chus the Great'succeeds. -"Suppression of the Rebellions in Media and Persia Ptolemy 

Philopater gains Palestine and Ccelo-Syria, and visits Jerusalem. — Increase of the 
Roman power in Asia. — Demetrius Nicutor invades Parthia, and is taken prisoner. — 
Extension of the Parthian Dominions. — Judicious Polity of Mithridates. — .\ntiochus 
Sidetes invades Parthia, and is killed in battle. — Pacorus, King of Parthia, seeks the 
friendship of the Romans. — Campaign of Lucullus iu Armenia. — Pontus becomes a 
Roman province. — Crassus invades Parthia. — Surena takes the Field. — Fate of the 
Roman army. — Surena's Triumph at Ctesiphon. — Surena's Death. — Circuitous march 
of Antony into .Media. — Siege of the Capital. — Retreat from Praaspa to the Araxes. — 
Augustus proclaimed Emperor. — Preparations of ./Elius Callus. — March of the Roman 
Army into Arabia Felix. — Return of the Expedition to Egypt. — Siege of Jotapata by 
the Romans. — Sta^e of Jerusalem.— Siege and Capture of the City. — Massacre of the 
Inhabitants. ^Trajan's Accession. — Invasion of Assyria, and descent of the River 
Euphrates.— The jSahr-Malka opened for the passage of his Fleet. — Capture of Ctesi- 
plion, and descent to the Persian Gulf. — Return of Trajan. — Siege of Atra. — Severus 
descends the Euphrates.— Passage of the Nahr-Malka, and Capture of Ctesiphon. — 
Second and third Siege of Atra. — Retreat of Severus. — Wars of Sapor, and Capture 
of Valerian. — Invasion of tne Romiin Provinces in Europe by the Goths, &c. — Rise of 
Odenatus, Prince of Palmyra — He makes War on Sapor. — Death of Odenatus.— 
Zenobia seizes some of the Roman Provinces. — Her contests with Aurelian.' — Siege 
and Fall of Palmyra. — Galerius Defeats the Persians.— Wars of Sapor II. and-Con- 
stantine. — Remarkable Siege of Nisibis. — Rise of Julian. — His preparations for War. 
— Descent of the River Euphrates with a Fleet and Army to Anatho. ^Fearful Hur- 
ricane encountered when approaching this City. — Descent of the River continued. — 
Siege and Capture of PerisaLoras, cS:c.— Julian crosses Mesopotamia to Ctesiphon. — 
Retreat and Death of Julian. — Jovian succeeds and effects a Ketreat with the Roman 
Army. — Belisarius is Defeated by the Persians. — Chosroes invades Syria, and Cap- 
tures Antioch. — Chosroes is routed by Justinian. — Second Invasion of the Roman 
Territories, and total Defeat of Chosroes. — Rebellion of Varanes put down by 
Chosroes. — Decline of the Persian power. 


[Page 447 to 470.] 

FROM A.D. 40 TO 1097. 

Early connection of Arabia with other Countries. — Central situation and geographical 
position of this Territory. — Flood of El Arim. — Foundation of the kingdoms of Ghas- 
san and Hiriih.— Conquests of the Tobbai. — Invasion and Conquest of Yemen by the 


Abyssinians.-State of Eeligion amongst the Arabs up to the time of Muhammed.- 
War of the Elephant.-Subjection of Yemen by the Persians.— The plans of Mu- 
hammed favoured by circumstances.- Early life of the Prophet, and commencement 
of his Ministry.- Attractive Doctrines of the new Eeligion.— Accession of Abu Bekr 
and 'Omar.-Character of the latter Prince.-The Dress, Arms, &c., of the Arabs, 
adapted for difficult enterprises.-Conquests of 'Omar.-Accession of 'Othmau.-The 
Berbers: commencement of the Moorish dynasty in Africa.— Ayeshah commences a 
Civil War against 'Ali. -Invasion of Spain by the Moors.— Arab Conquests in the 
Mediterranean and elsewhere.— Fiscal arrangements of 'Omar ben 'Abd-el-'Aziz.— 
The Moors penetrate into France.— Commencement of the reign of the Abassides.— 
Baghdad occupied.-Rise of Hariin-el-Eashid.- State of the Khaliphat during his 
rei^.— Intercourse cultivated between Arabia and Europe.— Temporary division of 
his Territory.— Accession of Mamiin.— He encourages Philosophy and Literature- 
Assemblies of Learned Men at the court of Baghdad.— Cultivation of the Persian, 
Indian, and Greek Languages encouraged.— Style of refreshments at the Khaliph's 
palace.— His liberality.— Revenue of the principal Court Physician.— Mu'tasem's 
accession and contests with Justinian.— His encouragementof Architecture.— Military 
and Civil organization.— Extensive privileges of Muslims.— Formation of regular 
Troops in Arabia.— Discontent in consequence at Baghdad.— Construction of the city 
of Sammarrah.— A cartel established for the exchange of Muslim prisoners, &c.— 
Wars with the Greek Empire.— Recitals of the Rawi to the Khaliph at night.— Muta- 
wakkel builds a great palace.— Learned Men in the time of Mamun.— Subdivision of 
power in Arabia.— Origin of the Huns and Turkish Tribes.— Conquests of Mahmiid. 
Ghi'zni and the Afghans.— Rise and progress of the Seljukian dynasties. 


[Page 471 to 504.] 


State of the Seljukian rulers in the Eleventh Century. — Peter the Hermit visits Jerusalem, 
and urges a Crusade. — The state of Europe fayourable to such an enterprise.— Pro- 
gress of the first Crusaders through Europe and Lesser Asia. — Favourable disposition 
of the Fatimites. — Capture of Antioch. — Divided state of the Muslims. — Capture of 
Jerusalem, and Massacre of the People. —The Khaliph Niir-ed-din, and his General, 
Saliih-ed-di'n.— Change in Salah-ed-din's character. — Tei-mination of the Fatimite 
dynasty of Egypt. — Death of Nur-ed-di'n, and rise of Salah-ed-din. — Campaign in 
Palestine. — Defeat, and return to Egypt.— Salah-ed-din's Campaign in Mesopotamia, 
Syria, and Yemen. — Frank and Egyptian Fleets in the Red Sea.— Capture of Aleppo, 
Sinjiir, Nisi'bin, Damascus, &c. — Defeat of tlie Crusaders at Hatti'n. — Salah-ed-din 
takes Jerusalem. — Tyre is retained by the Crusaders. — The Franks being reinforced 
besiege ' Akka. — Saliih-ed-din encloses the besiegers. — Progress of the Siege. — Obsti- 
nate defence of the Muslim Garrison. — Salilhed-din marches towards Kdniyeh. — The 
Franks are reinforced from Europe. — 'Akka is closely pressed. — The Kings of France 
and England arrive to assist in the Siege. — Fresh efforts of Saldh-ed-diu to relieve 
'Akkii. — Several Battles are fought. — The Fortress capitulates. — The Crusaders march 
against 'Askulan. — Defeat of Salah-ed-di'n. — Treaty of Peace with Richard Cocur de 
Lion.— Death, and Character of SaUih-ed-di'n. — The Franks are joined by a Fifth 
Armament from Europe. — They are repulsed in Egypt. — Frederic II. arrives, and 
makes a Treaty. — Louis IX. is defeated near Mansourah. — Battle between the Tem- 
plars and Ilospitallicrs. — Louis IX. lands in Africa, and dies near Tunis. — The 
Franks arc driven out of Palestine. — Separation of the Shi 'ah and Sunnie Creeds, — 
Limits, &c., of Mongolia. — Rise of Genghis Khan.— Origin of the name. — Consolida- 


tion of his Kingdom. — Invasion of China. — Subjection of Kharism, Khorasan, Persia, 
&c. — Extent of his territories. — Part of Russia is subjected. — Kiptshak becomes a 
Russian Province. — The Persian successes of Genghis Khan. — Origin, and titles of 
Tamerlane. — Turkistan subjected. — Fresh Conquests meditated by Tamerlane. — Kho- 
ra-san and Southern Russia subdued.— Campaign in Siberia, and against Toktamish. — 
Taimiir subjects Southern Persia, Baghdad, Mesopotamia, Armenia, &c. — Taimur's 
Campaigns in India, Anadoli, Syria, &c. — Capture of Baghdad. — Defeat of Bajazet. — 
Death of Tai'mur. — Taimiir and Alexander compared. — Taimur's Successors, and 
subdivision of his Ten'itories. — Persia, and the Sophi Dynasty. — Nadir Shah and his 
Successors. — The Seljukians of Riim, and rise of the 'Osmanli Turks. — Saltan Murad 
reigns at Adrianople, and conquers most of European Turkey. — Career, and death of 
Bajazet, and temporary Restoration of the Seljukides. — Success of Sultan Murad II. — 
Capture of Constantinople, and first use of Gunpowder. — Sultan Suleiman extends his 
Conquests in Europe, transports a Fleet to the Red Sea, and sails to India. — Organi- 
zation of his Empire. — Yemen, Georgia, Cyprus, and Daghestan are added to the 
Turkish Territories. — Extent of the latter in the time of Muhammed III. — Turkey 
comes into warlike Collision with European Powers. — Treaties of Belgrade and 
Kuchuk Kainarji. — The French invade Egypt and Syria. — War of Russia and Eng- 
land against the Porte, in 1S06. — Accession and Reforms of Sultan Mahmiid II. — 
F2ffects of these changes. — Rebellion in Greece. — Battle of Navarino. — Russian War 
of 1828 and 1829. — Loss of Territory, and present Limits of Turkey. 


[Pago 505 to 537.] 


Settlement of the Indo-Chinese and Egyptian races. — The similarity of the Monuments of 
Art denotes a common origin of the People. — First settlement in Bactria. — Spread of 
Religion and Knowledge from thence to Hindustan, to China, the Indian Archipelago, 
and America. — Resemblance of the People of the latter country to those of Central 
Asia.— The Syro-Arabian race, and extent of their Territorj-. — The Scythian people 
and their early Conquests. — Character, Government, &c., of the ancient Scythians. — 
Their settlement in Mesopotamia, and on the borders of Egypt. — Affinity of the 
European and Asiatic Languages. — Inroads of the Kimmerians, the Scythians, and 
Franks, into Europe. — Connexion of the Scandinavians and Normans with the East. — 
Settlements in Europe previous to the Irruption of the Black Sea. — Settlement of the 
Celts in different parts of Europe. — The Scandinavian worship handed down from 
Asia. — Colonies from Spain and Barbary settle in Ireland. — Centi-al Asia connected 
with Greece through Asia Minor. — Relations of the latter country with Persia. — 
Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus derived their knowledge in part from Asia. — The 
Grecian Sages seek instruction in Asia.— Democritus. — Philosophy and Astronomy 
first cultivated in Asia. — Orpheus the supposed founder of the Greek religion. — 
Thales studied in Phoenicia and Egypt. — Pherecydes the Tutor of Pythagoras. — Solon 
visits Egypt and Lydia. — Ctesias. — Hecateus. — Hellanicus, the cotemporary of Hero- 
dotus, writes a histoiy of Persia and Babylon. — Pythagoras visits the Egyptians, the 
Chaldeans, Persians, and Scythians, and returns to Greece. — Plato visits Egypt, 
acquires Eastern learning, and makes Philosophy attractive. — Aristotle derived his 
knowledge from the East. — Plato's philosophy was founded upon that of the Persians 
and Indians.— Democritus is instructed by the Magi and Chaldeans, and travels to 
India and Ethiopia. — Antiquity of the Magian and Indian tenets. — The Greeks 
improve upon Eastern Literature. — Herodotus and his Acquirements. — Isocrates and 
his Pupils. — Astronomy, Mechanics, Geometry, Mineralogy, Botany, and Medicine, 
derived from the East. — Hippocrates.— Galen. — Intercourse with the East, by Mer- 


chants and Travellers.— Journey of Marco Polo.— Genoese Commerce.— Travels of 
Jeukinson and others.— Queen Elizabeth encourages Commerce with Babylon, &c.— 
Travels of Benjamin of Tudela and others.— The Author visits Asia, and descends the 
' Euphrates in 1830.— The French Republic attempts to open a Commerce through 
E^-pt._pians of Napoleon.— Proposed Expedition to the mouth of the :Prontes, and 
his subsequent plan of combined operations against India. 


[Page 538 to 566.] 

State of Oriental Literature considered at four different periods.— Asiatic Civilization 

. during the first period.— Thales and other Sages acquire Knowledge in the East. — 
Intercourse between Asia and Europe. — Second Period : Literary intercourse com- 

, raenced by Alexander the Great. — Library and School of Alexandria. — The people of 
the East were prepared for Christianity. — Influence of the change of Religion upon 
Literature. — Spread of Learning and Civilization from Alexandria. — Rome becomes 

-.. the centre of the Christian world. — Third period: Rise of the Arab nation. — The 
Arabs resort to literature as an occupation, and become the medium of modern 
Civilization. — Study of the Koran, and practical use of Astronomy, Geometry, 
Grammar, and Jurisprudence. — Learned men employed at Baghdad. — History, 
Novels, and learned works. — Music and Literature cultivated by the Arabs in the 
eighth century. — Bede's knowledge of Eastern Countries, and use of Arabic names, 
&c.— The Benedictine Monks.— Their friendly relations with the Arabs.— The Monks 
spread a knowledge of the East. — The modern Sciences cultivated at Baghdad. — 
Pursuits of Al Miimiim. — Rare Works collected.— Sanscrit and other Works translated. 
— Cultivation of Astronomy.— The Abbot of St. Gallen. —Arabic Manuscripts 
; collected and preser\'ed in Europe. — The Moors introduce Arabic Learning into 
Europe. — Rhymes of Olfrid. — European Versification like the Arabic— Proven^ale 
Poetry, and Rhymes of Boethius. — Lyric and romantic Poetry. — The Italians adopt 
the Arabic Poetry. — Mathematical Sciences studied in Spain. — First use of Indian 
Notation. — Arabic studied in the schools in France and Spain. — Spread of Arabic 
I^aniing in Europe. — Learned Arabs of the Eleventh and Twelftli Centuries. — 
Progress of Oriental studies in Africa. — Gerhard of Cremona translates the Almagest 
and other works. — Raymond, Archbishop of Toledo, encourages Oriental studies. — 
Abii-l-Senna and other works translated. — First translation of the Koriin. — Hermannus 
translates Aristotle's works. — Coustantinus introduces Arabic medicine into Italy. — 
Travels and Acquirements of Constautinus. — Adelard of Bath, and his translation of 
Euclid, &c.— Astronomical Tables prepared. — Adelard's Treatise on the Astrolabe. — 
Arabic Seminaries in France and Spain. — Samuel, a Jew of Fez. — Translation of EI 
Battaui's works.— Roger of Hereford. — Daniel Morley. — The Emperor Frederic II. 
encourages Eastern Learning.— His Circular to the Colleges, &c.— Michael Scot and 
his Translations.— Alphonso encourages the study of Astronomy.— Fourth period : 
Superiority of Western Literature over that of Eastern Countries. 

[Page 567 to 603.] 

Proposed Notice.— Ancient Commerce of India.— Trade overcomes the difficulties caused 
by Wars, &c.— Various branches of ancient Commerce.— Trade of Egypt and the 
Ishmaelites.— Commerce of Arabia with Tyre.— Routes from Tyre to Palmyra and 


Rain Ion. — Route to Central Asia.— Trade of the Hindus, eastward and westward. — 
Trade with Asia in the time of Pliny. — Koutes to Eastern China and India, through 
l?;ilkh, &c.— Commerce on the Southern Shores of the Euxine. — Limited extent of the 
Greek Commerce by Sea. — Commerce of the Rhodians, Phrygians, Milesians, and 
-Carians. — Greek Colonies in Asia Minor. — Limits of their Voyages. — Commerce of 
the Plioenicians, Carthaginians, and Gauls with Britain. — Nature of this Trade. — 
ICarly Trade of the Hindus, and Merchandise in demand. — Trade from the Persian 
Gulf, F:irs, Sec, to China.— The earliest Navigation was probably that of the Persian 
Gulf. — Early Navigation of the Persians, the Arabs, and Hindus. — Commerce in the 
time of Nebuchadnezzar. — The black Jews settle in Malabar. — Arab Vessels in the 
time of Nearchus. — Commerce encouraged by Alexander's successors. — Route from 
E;rypt to India. — Discovery of the Trade Winds. — Direct voyages made to India, in ) 
tiie time of Augustus, from the Southern Coast of Arabia. — Mii^iammed enjoins Trade 1 
as a religious duty. — Mercantile cities of the Arabs. — Extensive range and intercom- 
iiiuuication of their Coumierce. — Mekkah becomes one of the centres of Trade.^Pros- 
perity of the Arabs in the time of the Abassides. — Etiects of Luxury. — Mutawakkel \ 
establishes Trading Factories. — Learned Men accompany the Caravans. — Precious 
Stones and other valuable Commodities are exchanged throughout the Arabian Empire. 
—Furs, &c., brought from the Northern Regions across the Caspian and Black Seas, 
and European goods sent into Khorasun. — Trade in Silk, Pearls, Carpets, rich Cloths, 
&c., partly by barter, partly by coin. — Exports of Glass, Carpets, Cloth, &c. — Swords 
were not sent abroad. — Costly stuffs. Cloths^ and other fabrics. — Embroidered stuffs 
representing Historical and Geographical subjects. — Commerce from Basrah to India, 
China, and Africa. — Change of system in Trading with China. — A Hindu Physician 
sent by land to Hariiu-el-Hashid. — Eastern Commerce carried on by Jews, through 
the Red Sea, &c. — Route through Aleppo to India, and through Barbary to Baghdad. 
— Arabian Trade chiefly confined to Eastern Countries. — Trade by a circuitous route 
between Constantinople and India. — ^"enice becomes a trading Port. — Rise of Com- 
merce in England. — Merchants settle in Constantinople. — Rapid progress of Venetian 
Trade. — Genoa becomes a mercantile Republic. — Trade of this Port with India through 
the Black Sea.^ — Colonies established on the Shores of the Euxine. — Trade of the 
Genoese with Europeans. — England shares indirectly in Eastern Commerce. — A , 
Company called the Merchant Adventurers established in England. — Scale of Duties 
fixed for foreign Trade. — Exports from England to Flanders, &c.- — The ^'enetian 
Trade opened with India through the Red Sea. — Bruges becomes a mercantile Depot. 
— Prosperity of Commerce in France. — Discovery of the Western Coast of Africa. — 
Discovery of America. — Rise of Antwerp. — Trade drawn to Lisbon. — Various routes 
to Iiidia. — The River Euphrates becomes the principal line. — Vojages of Rauwolf, 
Balhi, and Newberrie. — Patent of Queen Elizabeth for Trade by this Route. — Appli- 
cation of the Merchants for a Loan.— Voyages of Fitch and Newberrie along the 
Iji-phrates. — Queen Elizabeth keeps a fleet of Boats on the Euphrates. — Consequent 
cIK'apMe^:s of Goods from India. — Establishment of the East India Company. — Colonial 
Trude of England, and its advantages. — Increase of Exports and Imports during Five 
Centuries. — The Turkey or Levant Companies of England and France. — State of the 
'i'rade of the Levant, of Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, Persia, and Mesopotamia. — Trade 
of lh? Arabian and Persian Gulfs. — Partial and proposed Navigation of the Euphrates. 
— Facilities and advantages of opening the River Euphrates. — Openings for commercial 
enterprise on the Rivers of JMesopotamia. 


[Page G04 to G32.] 

Ruins in Babylonia. — Kiln-burnt and Sun-dried Bricks. — Construction of the Pyramids. 



—Cement and Layers of Reeds.— Some Pyramids of Brick, others of Stone.— 
Pyramids of Mexico, &c.— Excavations in Assyria and elsewhere— Great Fire 
Temple near Ispahan.— Singular Sepulchral Excavations.— Ancient Causeways and 
Roads.— Canals.— Bunds.— Dikes.— Tunnels.— Arches.— Ancient Mines.— Rocks re- 
moved by Fire.— Phoenician and Assyrian remains. — Tomb of Cyrus. — Ancient 
Writing, Sculpture, and Painting.— Ruins of Persepolis.— Floating and Stationary 
Bridges. — Cements, &c. 

[Page 633 to 665.] 


Logs, Rafts, and inflated Skins.— Boats of Branches and Wicker-work, covered with 
Bitumen.— The Boats of Hit, and their Construction.— Dimensions, &c., of Noah's 
Ark.— Round Boats of Mesopotamia.— Canoes of Reeds and of Timber.— Wooden 
Boats of Hit and 'A'nah.— Ferry-boats, and mode of using them. — Sea-going Boats. — 
Persian and Arab Boats.— Trankeys and Bagalas. — Early use of the Compass.— 
Chinese Vessels and Boats. — Subaqueous Walls. — Water-baskets. — Water-levers. — 
Bullock-rollers. — Water-wheels. — Persian Wheels. — Kanats or Kahreezes. — Souterazi. 
— Cisterns. — Reservoirs, Tanks, and Cisterns in Syria, India, &c. 


No. of 

39. Mount Ararat .... 
30. Birs Nimriid .... 

To face page 25 

3L Ruins of Nineveh 

, 39 

34. Great Mosque and interior of Ur'fa 

41. Tyre 

40. Straits of Bab^l-Mandeb 


; 2 

, 127 

CI. Ruins of Babylon 
50. Ruins of Beles 

, 163 
, 213 

2. Ferry on the Aras 
49. Sardis .... 

, 229 
, 265 

36. Gaza 


1 0. Island of Nearchus 

, 350 

32. Ruins of Siis . , . 

, 356 

46. Cedars of Lebanon 

, 389 

47. Tadmor or Palmyra 

83. Membij .... 

38. Acre 

27. Elath or Eziongeber 

4.5. Part of Dhahab— Gold— On the Re 


, 428 

, 480 

, 585 

48. Persepolis .... 

, 620 

It has been necessary to alter the order of succession of a few of the Plates; but they 
will easily be found by reference to the above pages. 




Seat of Paradise and its four Rivers. — State of^the "World before tlie Deluge 
— Supposed residence of Noah. — Description of tlie first Babylonia. — 
Construction of the Ark. — First Settlements in Armenia. — State of Ante- 
diluvian Knowledge. — Primeval Astronomy, and its preservation among 
the Kirghis Kazaks. — Cycles of the Ancients. — Traditional History. — 
Records preserved in Armenia. — Sliem proceeds to Shinar. — Japhet and 
Ham continue in Armenia. — Noah's precepts. — First Human Immolation 
by Lamech. — Arkite Worship. — Antediluvian Idolatry or Sabaism. — 
Ham's Sin and Curse. — Trifling change caused by the Deluge. — Noah's 
Allotment. — Japhet occupies the northern extremity of Asia and Europe. 
— Shem occupies Babylonia, Syria, &c. — Ham removes from Asia Minor 
to Byblus. — Possessions of Cush. — Ham's Idolatry in Syria. — Canaan and 
Mizraim's Territories. — The Emim, Amalekites, Philistines, Thamudites, 
Himyarites, and other Tribes in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt. — The Cushites 
invade Babylonia and expel the people of Shem. — Rise of Nimrud's King- 
dom, and establishment of Ham's Religion. — Construction and object of 
the Tower of Babel. — Spread of Mankind in consequence. 

The precedino' volume contains an account of the four great The first 

~ . . I'll o volume 

rivers of Western Asia, also of the countries which they fer- descriptive. 
tilize, together with a general description of the territory 
stretching eastward and westward of those streams, as far as 
the banks of the Indus in the former, and those of the jSTile in 
the latter direction. 

Several circumstances, in addition to those briefly enume- 
rated in the Twelfth Chapter, appear to connect that part of 
the world which contains the rivers in question with the ter- 



[chap. I. 

Eden repre- 
sented by 

Its sub- 

ritory of Eden, with which also ancient Armenia, the post- 
diluvian seat of mankind, appears to be identified. According 
to the limits already traced,^ the country whither Adam was 
driven to tabernacle on the eastern side of the garden of Eden ' 
seems to be the mountainous district near Sinjar, which may 
be said to overlook the plain of Shinar, from whence Cain 
went forth subsequently to dwell in the land more eastward, in 
which he built the city of Enoch, and became a husbandman. 

It is scarcely necessary to remind the reader that one section 
of the Tauric chain forms the water-shed of this part of 
AVestern Asia, and that from its bosom, probably issuing from 
a basin or mass of waters,^ flow the rivers Araxes and Halys 
on the northern, and the Tigris and Euphrates on the southern, 
slopes of these mountains. 

It is manifest, from the comprehensive language of Moses,* 
that to our first parents there had been allotted an extensive 
territory, whose subdivisions, namely, Cush, Havilah, and 
Ashur, were watered by four great rivers. It has been seen 
that one of these had changed its name from Gihon to Araxes, 
while the scriptural names of the third [the Hiddekel, Dekel. or 
Dijlath (going before Assyria)] and fourth rivers, as well as the 
country which they enclose [Mesopotamia (Aramnaharaim)], 
having been happily preserved, the southern portions of the 
primeval settlement are thus unquestionably identified. 

It has been seen that in the tract within the river Araxes, 
there are numerous traces of the ancient people of Cush : and 
again, in that which is within the Halys are found the gold, 
pearls, and other productions of the land of Havilah.'* 
• On reference to the index-map, it may be observed that the 
presumed locality of Paradise and the postdiluvian seat of 

' Sec the index-map, and vol. I. from p. 267-277. 

* Gen., chap. III., verse 24, Bellamy's translation. 

* See above, vol. I., note at page 268. 

* Gen., chap. II. 

* At page 415 of the Chronicon Paschale, the Moschi and the Macrones 
as Cushites, and the river of the Ethiopians, are mentioned in connexion 
with one part of Armenia, and in another part of this kingdom the Gym- 
nosophystcc arc amongst the people of Ilavilah, For other particulars con- 
cerning the latter tract, and also that of Cusli, see above, p. 273-277. 


mankind comprised extensive countries. The former was sur- watered by 
rounded and fertilized by four great rivers, which flowed ^n'^'^ bounded 
towards the cardinal points, while four inland seas were situ- ^y ^°°'" ^^^• 
ated near its borders, namely, the Mediterranean westward, the 
Euxine towards the north, the Caspian on the east, and the 
Persian Gulf towards the south.^ 

As the extensive region spreading from hence to the Nile, 
and again to the Indus in the opposite direction, was the 
theatre of the most important events in the history of the 
v/orld, it has been thought proper, before entering upon an 
account of the British expedition to the two principal rivers 
within the limits of this territory, to offer some brief notices of 
those events. The leading circumstances connected with the 
spread of the human race will be also stated, and it is hoped 
that some light may be thrown upon scriptural history, by 
means of the positive and descriptive geography collected for 
this work. The changes to which the political states of the 
countries were successively subjected by the incursions of 
Sesostris and Cyrus — the movements of the multitudinous 
armies of Xerxes, the conquests of Alexander, and the wars of 
his successors — will also be described, and there will be added a 
brief notice of the influence which the eastern campaigns of 
this mighty conqueror had upon the progress of commerce and 
civilization in Europe. 

With reference to the catastrophe which destroyed the old traces of the 
world, not only are its effects to be traced on the earth in a 
striking manner, but the fact is acknowledged by the inhabit- 
ants of almost every land, as a circumstance known by tra- 
dition from their ancestors, whether savage or refined : and 
this event, the most awful ever recorded, is invariably attri- 
buted to the same cause. 

Ovid relates that previously to the Deluge violence reigned Depraved 

,>.-,, state of the 

as far as the earth extended, and all men seemed to have old world, 
entered into a compact to be wicked.^ Another writer, who 
enters more fully into the subject, says that there was in these 
times a great resort of people of various nations, who inhabited 
Chaldea, and lived in a lawless manner, like the beasts of the 

' See above, vol. I., pp. 269, 270. * Met., lib. I., p. 24. 



[chap. I. 

Uuion of the 
Caiuites and 


field.' From these passages, as well as from the book of 
Genesis, we learn that every imagination of man's heart was 
only evil continually.' AVith respect to the expressions, " Sons 
of God, and daughters of men," ^ it appears that the descend- 
ants of Seth, who for a long period had maintained the worship 
of the true God, represent the former ; and that the nomad 
and fallen race of the Cainites, whom they joined probably in 
Babylonia, were the latter.^ This decided falling off com- 
menced amongst the Sethites about a.m. 10/3,' but an addi- 
tional period of 583 years elapsed before the fallen race had 
become men of renown,'' or mighty men and giants, not in 
stature but in apostasy, as the original, Xephilim, has been 
translated by Bishop Home. This was just before the Deluge, 
when it is supposed mankind became sufficiently numerous to 
people the coast of Phoenicia, Arabia Felix, the valley of the 
Nile, part of Central Asia, Assyria, and Syria. In the last 
country. M^e are told that the names of Genus and Genea," and 
those of their descendants, were conferred upon the mountains 
which they occupied, as Casius, Lebanon, and Brathu.® Very 
little has reached us concerning the countries just mentioned 
at this remote period, but with respect to Babylonia and the 
adjoining territory we are better informed. Noah's separation 
from the sons of Seth, to avoid their wickedness, is expressly 
stated by the Jewish historian :^ and that he continued in a 
great measure to live apart, is probable from the circumstance 
of his maintaining his righteousness ; it may also be inferred 
that his distance from Babylonia was not very great, from his 

' From Alexander Polyliistor : see the Cosmogony an* Deluge. Ancient 
Fragments by Isaac Preston Cory, Esq., p. 22. W. Pickering, London, 1832. 

* Gen. chap. VI., v. 5. » Ibid., v. 2. 

* Compare Bibliotheque Orientale, d'Herbelot. Art. Aulad, with the 
Chronology and Antiquity of the most Ancient Nations of the World, by J. 
Jackson, vol. I., p. 203. 

" Ibid., vol. I., p. 60. « Gen., chap. VI., v. 4. 

^ These individuals are supposed to represent Cain and his wife; the former 
name having been derived from Cain by successive transformations which may 
be easily traced. "NVIiittaker's Univers. Hist., vol. I., p. 47. 

» From tlie Cosmogony of Sanchoniatlio Aiiciont Fragments by Isaac 
Pre-ston Cory, Esq., pp. 5, 6. W. Pickering, London, 1839. 

* Jos. Ant., lib. I , c. iii. s. 1, 

CHAP. I.] noah's preparations for the deluge. 5 

preaching faith and repentance to the inhabitants of that and Noah's 

1 1 • • • • IT 1 T • 1 cn- • ' 1 preaching. 

the adjoining region. In the districts about bmjar, the seat 
of the Sethites, bordering on Paradise," Noah might have found 
the requisite materials for building the Ark, namely, bitumen 
and Gopher wood,"* so that this vast structure might have been 
prepared in the course of a short time by his family alone. 
Berossus, in his Babylonian Antiquities, states that Babylonia 
is a country situated between the Tigris and Euphrates, pro- Products of 
ducing abundantly wheat, barley, ocrus, and sesame; the lakes *^^"P°^^™^^* 
produced the roots called gongae, which are fit for food, and 
in point of nutriment similar to barley ; also that there were 
palm-trees, apples, and a variety of fruits, likewise fish and 
birds, both those of flight and those which frequent the lakes : 
he adds, that the country bordering upon Arabia was without 
water and barren, but the parts lying an the other side,^ that is 
Susiana and the Cossoean or Cordyean mountains, were fertile. 
Berossus further states that Cannes, or Xisuthrus (Noah)^, 
appeared on the shores of the Erythrean sea,*^ bordering upon 
Babylonia, where he was enjoined to write a history of the 
beginning, procedure, and conclusion of all things, and deposit 
it in Babylonia, at Sippara, the city of the Sun ^ it is added 
that he was also ordered to build a vessel, and take with him Noah's 
into it his children and his friends, and everything necessary to 
sustain life, together with the different animals, both birds and 
quadrupeds, and then to trust himself fearlessly to the deep.^ 

Jos, Ant., lib. I., c. iii., sec. 1. 

* Georgius Cedrenus, p. 17. Bekker, Bonn, 1838. 

^ Other timber, but more particularly the pine, the cedar, and cypress 
contend for this lionour ; all three are found in this part of the country, but 
the similarity of Gopher to the Hebrew Goupher and the Arabic Kafiir give 
a preference to the last, the Cupressus sempervirens, which may be said to 
be almost indigenous to the districts near Babylon. 

■* Ancient Fragments by Isaac Preston Cory, Esq., pp. 21, 22. W. Pick- 
ering, London, 1832. 

* Eusebius, Canon. Chronici. in the Greek. Fol., Amst. 1658, pp. 6, 8. 

* The Persian Gulf was thus called. Vincent's Commerce of the Ancients, 
&c., vol. II., p. 4. 

' 2 Kings, c. XVII. 24. 31 v. 

^ Ancient Fragments by I. P. Cory, Esq., pp. 26, 27, compared with Gen. 
chap. VI., VII. 


Noah is said to have obeyed the Divine admonition ; but the 
vessel which he constructed is described as having been five 
stadia in length, by two stadia in breadth, whereas the dimen- 
sions given by Moses are much less.^ 
Stability of In a Subsequent part of this work it will be seen^ that this 

the ark. floating habitation might have been prepared in Upper Meso- 
potamia, even by a single family, without any serious difficulty : 
the decks with the firm walls and roofs braced with cross beams, ^ 
in addition to those dividing and supporting the necessary com- 
partments, would give sufficient stability, particularly as the 
structure was to be floated without being launched ; and the 
coating of pitch within as well as without, perfected the work. 
The Miihammedan writers tell us, that during the progress 
of his operations, Noah was tauntingly charged with having 
become a carpenter ; and that he was constantly reviled for his 
useless labour in preparing a vessel, where it could not by any 
possibility be conveyed to the water.^ But his task being 
Swelling of accomplished, the increase of the waters commenced, according 
to the Babylonian records quoted by Berossus,^ on the 15th of 
the Chaldean month,* Jiar or Jar, the second from the vernal 
equinox ; and the swelling floods having raised the Ark fifteen 
cubits above the culminating point of Mount x\rarat, the 
triumph of faith was complete, when the patriarch of the old, 
and the progenitor of the new world, sailed upon what has been 
happily called a shoreless ocean," which covered the remains of 
the animal and human inhabitants of the former world.^ From 
the accounts handed down by the Chaldean writers, it appears 

' Gen., chap. VI., v. 15. 

* See Chapter on tlie Arts and Sciences of I'ran at the end of the volume. 
^ Jos. Ant., lib. I., c. iii., s. 2. 

* Bibliotheque Orientale, Noah ; also p. 9 French translation of Muhammed 
Tabari's Chronicles, translated by M. Dubeux. 

* Cory's Anc. Fragments, p. 33. 
" Apufl Syncel., pp. 30, 38. 

' The Just ones toiled on tlie sea, Avhich had no land. From the Elegy of 
Aeddon : see Mythology and Rites of the British Druids, by Edward Davies, 
p. 495. J. Booth, London. 1809. 

" Bisliop Burnet, in his Theory of the Earth, states that tliere were 
10.737,413,240 souls ; but the number of antediluvians have been computed 
at 519,755,813,889. 

CHAP. I.] NOAH's descent IN ARMENIA. 7 

that, Avheii the flood had been some time upon the earth, and i^ecrease of 
Mas again abated, Xisuthrus sent out birds from the vessel, 
which, not finding any food, nor any place whereupon they 
might rest their feet, returned to him again. ^ After an interval 
of some days, he sent them forth a second time, and they now 
returned with their feet tinged with mud. He then made a 
trial with these birds for the third time, when they returned to 
him no more ; from this he judged, that the surface of the 
earth had appeared above the waters." He now made an open- 
ing in the vessel, and upon looking out, found that it was 
stranded upon the side of some mountain: he immediately 
quitted it with his wife, his daughter, and the pilot. 

Having paid his adoration to the earth, and constructed an Noah's altar 
altar, he oflfered sacrifices to the gods f and disappeared, after 
admonishing his family to pay due /egard to religion, and 
return to Babylonia, in order that they might search for the 
writings deposited in Sippara, also called Pantibibla,^ which 
they were to make known to all mankind : he informed them 
that the place where they were was the land of Armenia.^ It in Armenia. 
Mas pretended that some part of the vessel remained till recent 
times in the Corcyrsean mountains of Armenia, where the 
people of the country used to scrape off" the bitumen, with 
which it was outM^ardly coated, and make use of it as an 
alexipharmic and amulet. The story related by Berossus is 
given nearly in the same w^ords by other profane writers, 
particularly Abydenus and Apollodorus,'' and it agrees with 
that given by Moses. Indeed, the express mention of a coating 
of bitumen by the ancient authors, and the place of descent 
being generally fixed in Armenia, are remarkable circum- 
stances. We find in this part of the country the mountain 
Baris, or Barit, i. e., of the ark or ship;' also Masis and 

' Cory, pp. 27, 28. \Y. Pickering, 1832. 

^ Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. 28; Gen. chap. VIII., v. 11, 12. 

^ And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord, Gen. chap. III., v. 20. 

* Probably from the Chaldee Sephar, a book, or record. 

^ Cory's Anc. Fragments, pp. 28, 29. 

' Ibid., p. 30-35. 

■ Valpy's edition of Stephanus' Thesaurus, p. 322 ; Jos. Ant., lib. I., cap. iii. 
s. 6; and Bryant's IMythology, vol. II. p. 357. 



Mountain of 
the ark. 

Place of 

Progress of 

in the old 

Mesezousar, or mountain of the ark.' In the Hebrew, we meet 
with Har-Irad, or mountain of descent,' and Shamanim (moun- 
tain of the eight), all denoting that the Patriarch first touched 
the earth at this place. As a farther commemoration of this 
important event, we find at the foot of the mountain in question, 
a district and town called Arnohwote, or Noah placed foot,^ 
also a spot called Akhooree, that is, he (Noah) planted a vine- 
yard,^ and in the same vicinity was built the city of Nakhchivan, 
probably the Aporateeioii of Josephus ;^ the place from which 
the first colonies emigrated, taking with them the knowledge 
that had existed in the former world. 

The extent of this knowledge may be fairly presumed to 
have been considerable, having been acquired during sixteen 
centuries ; unless we suppose that man in his original state, 
although possessing in an eminent degree the requisite powers 
of body and mind, continued for so long a period without 
instruction, or the benefit of experience. This, however, would 
be incompatible with his nature, his wants, and his aptitude for 
learning and improvement. Indeed we are warranted in 
believing that the reverse was the case. A knowledge of the 
animal and vegetable world, had, as we know, been imparted 
to mankind at the creation;^ and, amongst those nations who 
have had the least intercourse with the rest of the world, it may 
be seen that a clear stream of knowledge has descended through 
succeeding generations. The arts of life evidently belonged 
to the earliest state of the old world : the Cainites, for 
instance, who were by many years the older of the two sections 
of mankind, invented weights and measures,'' and worked in 
metals,® being artists in general.' They were likewise mu- 

' Tavernier's Travels, book I., ch. ii. 

* Bryant's Mythology, vol. III., p. 5. 

* Derived, according to Moses Choronensis, from the Armenian words 
— Ar, placed ; Noh, Noah ; and wote, foot. 

* From the Armenian— Aivh, he planted ; and oor, vines. No. VIII., 
p 339, of the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

* Or Apobaterion : Antiq., lib. I., c. iii., sec, 5. 

* Gen., chap. I., v. 27 ; chap. II., v, 19, 20. 

' Jos., lib. I., c. ii. s. 2. « Gen., chap. IV., v. 22. 

" lubal Cain, translated into English, is brassfounder or artist. 


sicians,^ and also acquainted with the more ordinary arts of Hfe. 
They were shepherds," agriculturists, and architects ; they were 
also skilled in the formation of defensive works •, for they con- 
structed the fortified city of Hanock or Enoch ; and they were 
the first who made the sword.' 

A very advanced state of science was no doubt the result of Knowledge 
that knowledge which had been imparted by the Creator to Adam.^ 
Adam, who, it will be remembered, lived during three-fourths 
of the whole antediluvian period, to transmit this knowledge to 
his descendants. We are therefore warranted in believing that 
the progress of the antediluvians must have exceeded any 
estimate founded upon the present life of man. 

We are informed that Seth's line persevered in the worship 
of the true God, and in the contemplation of His wisdom, also 
in the study of the motions of the heavenly bodies, the result 
of which, it appears, they engraved on two pillars, one of 
stone, the other of brick;'' and it is added, that Enoch was SetVs line 
the promoter of new inventions or discoveries, as astrology, astronomy, 
or astronomy.^ Even if these circumstances had not been 
noticed by Josephus ^ and other ancient writers, we could not 
doubt that some kind of knowledge of the latter science must 
have existed almost from the origin of the human race ; 
indeed, the concerns of life, even in the very rudest state 
of society, would have rendered this indispensable, and the 
necessity M'ould be still greater in the agricultural state, in 
order to ascertain the duration of the seasons, and regulate the 
operations connected with seed-time and harvest, as objects 
of this nature could not be accomplished without dailv obser- 
vations: these attentively made, must, in the course of time, 
have enabled the ancients to determine the motions of the 
heavenly bodies with considerable precision," without anv other 
assistance than such as was derived from the fields as an horizon, 

' Gen., chap. IV., v. 21. * Verse 20. 

" Gen., chap. IV., v. 17. 22 ; Jos., lib. I., c. ii. 

* Georgius Cedrenus, p. 16. Bekker, Bonn, 1838. 

* Euseb. Preep., lib. IX., c. 17, p. 419. 

* Ant., lib. I., c. ii., sec. 3. 

"^ Historical Account of Astronomy, by John Narrien, E.-q., F.R.A.S. and 
F.R.S., pp. 38, 55, &c. 



The Kirghis 


Notions con- 
cerning cer- 
tain clusters 
of stars. 

and the features of the country, as points to mark the heliacal 
risings and settings, and the motions of the sun, moon, and 

That a certain amount of astronomical knowledge may in 
this way be obtained, is proved by that which has descended 
from father to son, among the remains of a primitive people of 
the present day, who wander with their flocks over the vast 
steppes of Central Asia. Constantly living in the open air, 
the Kirghis Kazak, under the shade of a rock, a cave, or a 
tent, watches the motion of the sun during the day, and the 
more interesting spectacle presented by the heavens on a serene 
night. Like the earliest Chaldeans and Egyptians, he has no 
other means of measuring time than those atlbrded by the sun, 
moon, and stars, distributing his days by the heavens, as a 
European does by his watch. Having no other occupation 
than his pastoral cares, he studies the celestial arch almost 
without being aware that he is doing so, and soon becomes 
familiar with its principal phenomena, adding to this know- 
ledge, like his prototype of Chaldea, a system of astrology, in 
accordance with the rude principles of which, he peoples the 
heavens with good and evil spirits, who preside over the days 
of the year, and to whose influence he supposes all living beings 
to be subject. By such means he professes to be able at plea- 
sure to intimidate his enemies, or console and encourage his 
friends. The names in use for the constellations seem to 
denote a common origin with those of the ancient astronomers. 
The North Pole, more particularly as a directing point, occu- 
pies the first place in the heavens, and is called the Iron Stake ; 
Venus takes the name of the Shepherd, as rising when the 
cattle are brought home, or taken out to pasture ; the Great 
Bear they compare to seven Avolves following a grey and a 
white gelding ; the Pleiades to wild sheep, and when absent, 
supposed to be bringing grass for the terrestrial sheep ; the 
Milky Way is called the road of the birds, emigrating north 
and south.' 

' Alexis (le Levchine. Description des hordes, «S:c., des Kirghis-Kazaks, 
traduite du Russe par Ferey de Pigny, revue par E. Charriere. Paris, 1840, 
p. 386, and some preceding pages. 


It may here be observed, with reference to this subject, that Early know- 
a week, or a period of seven days (which coincides with that i^eelTiyf 
of the creation, and also with a phase of the moon), appears 
to have been the first step taken by mankind towards the 
measurement of time. 

Syncellus states that from Adam to the 165th year of 
Enoch, years of seven days only were used ; and in the 
earliest ages, the weekly period prevailed among the Arabians, 
and other oriental nations, as the Assyi-ians, Egyptians, Indians, 
&c.' To this succeeded the lunar circle of thirty days,^ which i""ar, and 
continued for many ages to be the established year, without 
any longer measure of time. Afterwards, twelve such revo- 
lutions, each commemorated by the festival of the new moon,^ 
comprised the longer period of 360 days. This discovery is annual 
ascribed to Enoch, to whom, by God's command, the knowledge ^'^^^^ ^' 
of the month, the tropics, and the year just mentioned, were 
revealed ;"* and it is evident that the latter period continued in 
use, up to the time of Moses, from 150 days being given to 
the five months of the deluge.^ 

The collected fragments of ancient authors^ leave little 
doubt that, at a remote period of the world, a knowledge was 
obtained of other cycles, as the Saros, Neros, Sossos, &c.'' ; Saros, Neros, 
the last was merely a day, and one of the others may have been 

' Compare Scaliger, de Emendat. Temporum, pp. 6, 9, and Pref. p. xlvi. ; 
Selden, de Jure Nat. et Gent., lib. III. c. xix ; Syncellus, from Alexander 
Polyhistor, p. 33 ; Spectacle de la Nature, t. VIII. p. 53. 

* Diod. Sic., lib. I. p. 5 ; Varro, apud Lactant. Instit., lib. II., xiii., p. 169 ; 
Plin., lib. VII., sec. 48 ; Plutarch in Numa, cap. xviii. ; ex Eudoxo 
Proclus. in Tim. p. 31 ; Stobocus, Pliys., p. 21 ; Gemin., p. 34; Suidas, in 
voce, HXtoc, vol. I., p. 1659. (Gaisford, Oxford, 1834.) Syncellus, p. 41. 
Edit. Goar. Paris, 1642. Folio. 

* It was celebrated by many ancient nations. Spencer, de Leg-. Hebr. Ritual, 
lib. III., sec. 1, dissert. 4. 

* Jewish Tradition from the book of Enoch. Apud Syncellus, p. 41, 
Goar Ed. Paris, 1642. Folio. 

* Compare Genesis, ch. VII., v. 24, with Mr. Richard Allen's Dissertation, 
p. 144, et seq.; also p. 291 of Whiston's Theory of the Earth. London, 

* Translated from Berossus, Abydenus, Megasthenes, Nicholas Damas- 
cenus, Eupolemus, and others, by Isaac Preston Cory, Esq. W. Pickering, 
London, 1832. ^ ' Ibid. p. 32. 



[chap. I. 



the astronomical period of 600 years, at the expiration of which 
the sun and moon return to the same positions nearly in the 
heavens, which they occupied at its commencement.^ The 
The canicular ancients wcre also acquainted with the cynic or canicular year, 
by some called the heliacal, and by others the eniautus, or the 
yeai\ being the interval between two heliacal risings of Sirius. 
They are supposed also to have discovered what they called 
the great year, in which they imagined that the sun, moon, 
and all the planets complete their courses, and return to the 
same sign of the zodiac from which they originally set out.^ 

That such periods are mentioned by those writers, goes far 
to show that they had been previously determined, and handed 
down, either by written testimony, or the streams of traditional 
history radiating from a common centre, which, although 
dimmed by a mixture of error, are found everywhere to pre- 
serve essential marks of truth ; nor is it difficult to imagine, 
and even to follow the links of such a chain. One individual 
would have been sufficient to transmit a knowledge of the 
events which preceded the flood. Lamech, for instance, (son 
of Methuselah,) lived from the time of Adam to that of the 
second progenitor of mankind ; from "svhom again the three 
patriarchs, Eber, Isaac, and Levi, would have sufficed to carry 
the chain down to Moses himself. Such a link would equally 
prevail among the correlatives of this branch in Arabia, where 
Yaafar, the great-grandson of Himyar, might have carried 
down the traditionary chain from Shem to Jethro (the father- 
in-law of Moses). The historian of the early Hebrews only 
gives a complete genealogy of the line of Seth, which he con- 
tinues through that of Shem, M'hilst he brings down the other 
great antediluvian branch only to the daughter of Lamech ; but 
if, as will be presently noticed, Naamah was in reality the wife 
of Ham, a further account would naturally have been preserved 
by some of this race. Sanchoniatho, their historian, gives, like 
Moses, and with a certain degree of resemblance in the names, 
ten generations from Adam to Ham, whilst the records pre- 

' Josephus, lib., I. c. 3. 

* From Censoriiuis : see Ancient Fragments, by I. P. Con', Esq., p. 323. 
W. Pickering, London, 1832. 

and its pre 


served amongst the sons of his eldest hrother (Japhet) are 
still more minute, for which, as will be seen, the earliest loca- 
tions of his descendants in the vicinity of Ararat afforded 
peculiar advantages. 

Owing to the difficulties of the language, and exaggerated Central 

^ _ . , "^ , , . Armenia. 

accounts of the dangers in traversing this mountainous region, 
Armenia, especially the tract occupied by the Kurds, has seldom 
been visited ; and as late as the year 1831 the populous districts 
along the right bank of the Euphrates, namely, Gurun, Mala- 
tiyah, 'Ain-tab, Sis, and 'Ain-zarbah, which formed part of 
Armenia Minor, may be said to have been scarcely known. 

The Armenians, as we learn from Moses Choronensis, Antiquity of 
Michael Chamish, and others, trace their language, and the language, 
line of their kings back to the Deluge, and, the people having 
lived almost entirely apart from the pest of the world, within 
the deep recesses of the Taurus, it may be presumed that the 
former was long preserved among them in its original state. 
We are informed by one of the writers just mentioned that 
Xoah's family remained in Armenia Major some considerable 
time subsequent to the Deluge, where they intermarried ; ^ but 
at a later period there was a separation of the families, and the 
people may from that time be considered as divided into 
separate tribes. Shem, the eldest, by appointment, was the 
first to seek another country; and we are told that he pro- 
ceeded in a north-western direction, to the foot of a lofty 
mountain, bounded by an extensive plain, delightfully watered 
by a river passing through the middle of the tract. Here he 
remained for a short time, when, having given his name 
(Shem) to the mountain, and left Taron, one of his youngest 
sons, at the town that he had built, which afterwards bore the 
name of Tamberan, he proceeded thence towards the south- 
east, a course which, presuming he quitted the plain of Erz- 
Eiim, would carry him to the land of Shinar. 

Ham, now become the last by inheritance, appears to have Settlements 
continued near Mount Ararat, Japhet being already settled 
westward of that mountain *, so that the temporary locations of 

' History of Armenia, by Father Michael Chamish, translated from tlie 
original Armenian, by Johannes Avdall, Esq. Calcutta, 1827. 




and moral 

Noah's three sous were within reach of the moral and religious 
instruction of the Patriarch. Therefore it probably was in the 
fruitful valleys of Central Armenia that Xoah delivered the 
celebrated precepts which were intended to restore the purity 
of the Divine Law, and which have become an interesting 
link between the antediluvian and postdiluvian religions : — 

1. Not to follow strange worship^ or idolatry. 

2. Not to blaspheme the name of God. 

3. Not to commit murder. 

4. Not to commit incest. 

5. To abstain from theft and rapine. 

6. To appoint just judges and judicatures, &c. 

7. Not to eat flesh with the blood of it.* 

It will be seen that the first and second refer to man's duty 
towards his Creator, the former being manifestly intended to 
overcome that idolatrous worship which probably had ah'eady 
been given to the heavenly bodies instead of their great Creator 

The next four regulated man's duty towards his neighbour, 
and the last forbade cruelty to other creatures, though it per- 
mitted the use of flesh for food as well as for sacrifices. It is 
probable that the Cainites had not confined the latter to the 
fruits of the earth, or even to animals, for Lamech, the earliest 
polygamist, is supposed to have immolated a human being — 
his own son : — 

" Ye wives of Lamech, hearken to my speech, for I have 
slain a man to the wounding of myself, and a stripling to my 
own bruising."" 

The primeval religion and strict moral code, which were to 
be thus restored for the guidance of Noah's posterity, appear 
however to have undergone some modifications, one of which 
was introduced in order to commemorate the recent catas- 
trophe, and the signal deliverance of Noah and his family.^ 

' Bishop Patrick's Preface to the Book of Job. 

* Gen. IV., V. 23 ; and read p. 201 of Frederick von Schlegel's Philosophy 
of Hist., translated by James Brunton Kobinson, Esq. Bohn, London, 1847. 

^ In a recent work it has been ably shown, that the Arkite worship was 
at one time extensively in use throughout the greatest part of the world, 


That Noah's iirst altar, and well-known sacrifice, should The Arkite 
have had a direct reference to the vessel constructed by " 
Almighty command, and from which he had recently escaped, 
seems to be quite natural ; and it is equally probable that the 
continued use of this type was expressly enjoined to his 
descendants. The ark was the constant symbol used to repre- 
sent an altar, and this was in the shape of a crescent, probably 
from Luban or the ]\Ioon, one of the names of Mount Ararat: 
it is remarkable that in the ancient stone found near Dundalk, 
a ship's hull is plainly represented.^ It is believed that the 
Druids were in reality Arkites ;' also that Stonehenge and 
Avebury in Wilts, Manister Grange (near Limerick), the four- 
teen circles of large stones, in the neighbourhood of Sligo, called 
the Giant's Grave, and other similar structures at home and 
abroad, are the remains of structures ^which were sepulchral, 
and at the same time connected with a system of religious 
worship that once generally prevailed in Great Britain and^ 
throughout the ancient world ; but probably, like that which is 
exemplified in the Chinese temples dedicated to Kwan-Ya'n, 
or the Goddess of Mercy and of the Sea,^ more or less mixed 
with idolatry. 

Doubtless the primeval worship, as renewed by Noah imme- '"'ere added to 
diately after the Deluge, was free from this taint, which how- -worship. 
ever must have followed at a later period, since it was 
expressly forbidden by the first and second commandments;^ 

dating from the Descent itself. Doctrine of the Deluge, by the Rev. Vernon 
Harcourt. See also the Mythology and Eites of the British Druids, pp. 90, 
91, 107, 178, 180, 492, 493, 494, 495. J. Booth, London. 1809. 

^ Naoi is the Irish word for Ship, and hence Naiads or Shipmen. Har- 
court's Doctrine of the Deluge, vol. II. p. 23. ^ Ibid, vol. I., p 75. 

^ Arkite rites prevailed in many parts of Britain, and the rites of Bacchus 
or Noah were duly celebrated, pp. 184, 131. Davies' Mythology of the 
British Druids. Booth, London. 1809. 

* The Sea-God was Cannes, and the Fish-God of the Babylonians, Dagon. 
Ciironological Antiquities, &c., by John Jackson, vol. I., p, 209. London, 

^ Arkite theology embraced some memorials of the history of the Deluge, 
together M'ith an idolatrous commemoration of Noah, of his family, and of 
his Sacred Siiip ; and in many countries the worship of the host of heaven has 
existed in conjunction therewith. Ibid, to 492. 


and it appears elsewhere from Scripture that Sabaism was 
liable to judicial punishment in the time of Job.' But from 
the existence of a city (Sipparah) dedicated to the Sun, as 
well as from the first of Noah's precepts " forbidding strange 
worship," it would appear that this and other kinds of idolatry- 
must have existed previously. 

Sabaism Sanchoniatho attributes Sabaism to Genus and Genea (Cain 

and his wife), who stretched forth their hands towards the Sun, 
as the only Lord of Heaven, adding that the first men wor- 
shipped those things on which they themselves lived -^ it is also 
stated by Maimonides, from tradition, that in the time of Enos 
the children of Adam began to sin greatly. They built 
temples, and made images to represent the heavenly bodies 
which they worshipped, saying that God had created the stars 
to govern the world and had given them honour by setting 
them on high.^ Moreover it is presumed that idolatrous 
images of some kind were in use, even in Noah's family ; for in 
a modern version of the Book of Genesis we read that Ham, 
the father of Canaan, exposed the religious symbols of his 
father, which he declared to his brethren without ; that is, he 
strove to overturn the worship of God ; and for this purpose 
he endeavoured to place the unclean things, or idolatrous 
images, within the tabernacle of the true worship, as he had 
already done in the tabernacles of his son Canaan.^ It is 
added that when Noah had ended his wine-offering (for he 
knew that his younger son had offered for himself), he declared 
the divine command regarding Ham's posterity.* 

is renewed by Now, assuuiiug this to be the morc correct reading, it fol- 

Haai. . . . , 

lows that Ham's sin regarded the cherubim, and the religious 
ceremonies confided by Noah to Shem, who had been chosen 
high priest, to the exclusion of his ambitious brother. The 
latter, instead however of submitting, was induced to set up his 
own laws, and it is supposed that the previous or antediluvian 
idolatry on which they were based was in consequence renewed. 

' Cli. XXXI., V. 26, 27, 28. 

* Cory's Ancient Fragments, pp. 5, 6. 

* Vide llottinger, Smegma Orient., p. 322. 

* Gen., chap. IX., v. 22. Note by Bellamy. 
' Ibid., V. 24. Bellamy's Translation. 

CHAP. I.] noah's allotment. 1 7 

This, as will be presently seen, appears to have speedily taken 
a more settled form in Syria, from whence it was spread over 
Greece by the issue of Japhet, whilst it prevailed amongst the 
descendants of Sheni in Arabia, and likewise in Babylonia, 
where it is understood that Serucb (Serug) afterwards intro- 
duced the use of painting as part of the rites and ceremonies 
of idol-worship respecting persons who had been deified.' 

In addition to the religious precepts he inculcated, Noah 
made such a distribution of the earth as would enable his de- 
scendants to find space in different directions for their rapidly Trees and 
increasing members ; and the knowledge of the old world the flood, 
which he must have possessed would have enabled him to allot 
the most desirable tracts. Neither trees nor plants appear to 
have formed a part of what was preserved in the ark, and as 
we know that the olive and the vine s^urvived the Deluge, it 
may fairly be concluded that the surface of the earth did not 
experience anv great alteration, a circumstance which is in 
some degree established by geological examinations.' 

The position of Central Armenia greatly facilitated the im- 
mediate extension of the postdiluvian people. The opening 
between the Black and the Caspian Seas necessarily conducted 
one section towards the tracts lying in that direction. The Mankind 
Mediterranean Sea conducted another portion towards Arabia ^^^^^ 
and Africa, whilst the slopes of the Taurus would carry a 
third eastward, and a part also westward of Mount Ararat. 
The first region called Garbia, or the North, according to 
'Abu-1-Faraj, fell to Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, 
Meshech, Tiras,^ and other branches hereafter to be noticed. 

This in the sequel comprised Spain, France, and the 
countries of the Greeks, Sclavonians, Bulgarians, Turks, and 
Armenians ; so that it included the whole of Asia north of the into Europe, 
Taurus, and probably also the tracts extending through Europe 
to the Atlantic." To the children of the second son, as the 

' From Epiphaniiis, see p. 54 of Cory's Ancient Fragments. 

* Researches in Babylonia, Assyria, &c., by "NV. Francis Ainsworth, F.G.S., 
F.R.G.S., Geologist to the Euphrates Expedition. J. W. Parker, London, 
1838. ' Gen., chap. X., v. 2. 

* 'Abu-l-Faraj, Hist. Dynast., p. 8, compared with Bochart's Phaleg, 
chap. XIV., and Muller's Sammlung RiissischerGeschichte. II. Stuck, p. 3. 

VOL. n. C 


heir, was allotted what has been denominated the centre of the 
earth, namely, Armenia, Shinar, and the rest of Mesopotamia, 
with Assyria, Media, and Persia, as far as the Indus, likewise 

Asia, Palestine and Arabia. To the sons of Ham, the last by allot- 

ment, were given Cush and the region about the Persian Gulf, 
namely, Susiana, and the principal part of the territory lying 
in the second or western direction : Canaan having Palestine, 

Palestine, &c. &c. ; ISIizraim, Egypt and Lybia.^ But according to 'Abii-1- 
Faraj,^ Ham also had Teman or Idumea,^ as well as Ni- 
gritia, Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, Scindia, and India east and 
west of the river Indus. This allotment, though made by 
Divine appointment,^ w^as only partially followed by the sons 
of Noah w^hen they quitted the patriarch in Armenia. The 

Shem followers of Shem, it is true, occupied, in the first instance, a 

StoaT^ P^rt of the countries destined for them, for, having proceeded 
from Armenia, accompanied by a portion of the sons of Japhet, 
they took, as already mentioned, a south-easterly direction, 
and in all probability followed the course of the rivers Eu- 
phrates and Tigris to the plain country.^ In allusion to this 
change, Eusebius states, that the sons of Noah were the first 
who descended from the mountains, and having fixed their 
habitations in the plains, they persuaded others who, on account 
of the recent flood had been afraid to venture, to follow their 
example. The plain, it is added, which was thus occupied, is 
called Shinar, and God commanded them to send forth colonies 
to people the earth.^ 

and part of Being thus in possession of Mesopotamia as a centre, the 

Shemitic people appear to have gradually extended their limits 
westward, from the borders of Assyria to those of Syria and 
Samaria ;'' and we know that their high-priest Mclchizedek 
was at Salem, when Abraham came into the country, where he 
probably had been settled for some time. 

But the most powerful, and by far the most numerous, of 
these branches, was that of Ham, who appears to have con- 

' Hales' Cliron. Hist., vol. I., p. 354. * Hist. Dyn., p. 16. 

' Jeremiah, chap. XLIX., v. 7, 20. * Euseb. Chron., p. 10. 

' Euseb. according to Polyhistor, I., c. v., and Jos,, lib. I., cap. iv., s. i. 

" Wem. 7 'Abii-1-Faraj, Hist. Dyn., p. 16. 



tinued at no great distance from Mount Ararat; one of his Ham's 
grandsons, Havilah, occupying, it is supposed, part of the Asia Mnior. 
eastern side of Lesser Asia; and Ludim, another grandson, a 
tract lying to the westward of the river Halys. This branch 
appears to have occupied what afterwards became the territory 
of Lydia, for ^ve find them subsequently at Smyrna and 
Umbria taking the name of their leader, Tyrrhenus the son of 
Atys, who had conducted them thither.^ Three of Ham's 
sons, namely, Cush, Mizraim, and Phut, appear to have been They reign 
born in Persea," a name which was equally applied to the tract *" o^'^icia. 
beyond the Jordan, and the country on the other side of the 
Euphrates ; but the latter was first occupied after the flood. 
Subsequently to the allotment. Ham appears to have proceeded 
from Asia Minor^ to the more central position of Byblus,'* in 
Phoenicia,^ his sons being viceroys ovec the different countries 
of which they had originally obtained unlawful possession. 
Cush or Cutha was king of the territory called Kusdi Nimriid,'' Cush iu 


or Sinaar, which took the name of Babel after the dispersion. 
But or Put, the Chaldaic of Phut^ or Pha,^ was, it is pre- 
sumed, sovereign of the extensive regions lying eastward of 
Babylonia, which from Khous, son of Ham, were called 
Kusdi Khorasan.^ At Byblus, Ham appears to have renewed 
his idolatrous practices ; and Bishop Cumberland thinks it 
more than probable that Niemaus, who is mentioned by San- 
choniatho as being one of the wives of Chronus or Ham, 
was Naamah, the sister of Tubal Cain, for (he adds) it is not 

' Herod., lib. I., cap. Ixxiv. xciv. 

* P. 13 of Ancient Fragments, by Isaac Preston Cory, Esq., W. Pickering, 
1832; and Cumberland's Times of First Planting of Nations, p. 174, com- 
pared with Scaliger, pp. 116, 197. 

^ Manes, son of Jupiter, supposed to be Jupiter Hammon, or Ham, founded 
the Lydian Monarchy : Cumberland's Sanchoniatho, p. 472. 

* Once Gebel of the Amorites, and now Jubeil on the coast of Phoenicia : 
see above, vol, I., p. 453. 

^ Cumberland's Sanchoniatho, p. 11. 

* St. Martin, Memoires sur I'Armenie, tome II., pp. 72, 373. Euseb., 
Prsep. Evan., lib. IX; Syncel., Chron. 44. Euseb., Chron. 13. 

' Wise's Fabulous Ages, p. 9. 

* The Bhud of the East. Harcourt's Doctrine of the Deluge, vol. I., p. 91. 
' St. Martin, Memoires sur I'Armenie, tome II. p. 392, 393. 




likely that Moses would have noticed this woman only if she 
had not been a person of great fame in the world, as well as 
the last of Cain's line,' and therefore the last of the " daughters 
of men." 
Ham's The circumstance itself is of no trifling importance ; for if the 

Cainite ^ife. gyppogition .of a Cainite wife be correct, it would, in a great 
measure, explain the cause of Ham's apostacy. He had, we 
are told, studied the science of astrology before the flood, and, 
knowing that he could not introduce his books into the Ark, 
Early he engraved his sacrilegious inventions on metals and rocks, 

astrology, ^yj^j^^j^ \^q fouud again after the flood, and thus perpetuated the 
knowledge he had acquired.- This seems to be the means by 
which idolatry spread among the followers of Ham, who ele- 
vated their leader to the rank of Patriarch of the Deluge, to 
the exclusion of Noah himself. 
Worship of the Bel, who is generally called Saturnus,^ was considered as 
the primary object of worship ; and we are told that, when 
there were great droughts, the people of Phoenicia stretched 
forth their hands to heaven, and towards the sun, for him they 
supposed to be God, calling him Beelsamin. This, in the 
Phoenician dialect, signifies Lord of Heaven ;^ and Ham 
appears to have added the worship of the moon,^ dedicating 
moon, and their city to Baaltis,® or Ashtaroth, from Astarte,' one of his 
wives, and the Queen of Byblus and Melcander.^ The serpent, 
as an emblem of the sun, being also that of time and eternity, 
was in some way or other connected with those luminaries in 
Phoenicia, and its worship was subsequently adopted by Nimriid, 
and became general amongst the people of Chaldea.' Ham 

* Bishop Cumberland's Sanchoniatho, p. 108. 

* Cassianus, Collatio VIII. cap. xxi. 

' Euseb., Praep. Evan. IX. cap. xvii., xviii. 

* Whicli is equivalent to Zeus. See Sanciioniatho : Ancient Fragments by- 
Isaac Preston Cory, Esq., pp. 5, 6. TV. Pickering, London, 1832. 

* Bel the Sun, Belthis the Moon : Jackson's Antiquities, «&;c., vol. III., 
p. 24, note. 

' Mistress, from Ba'al;. Sanchoniatho, from Cory's Ancient Fragments, 
p. 15 ; and Abydenus, apud Euseb. Praep., lib. IX., c, xli., p. 456. 

^ Ibid., p. 14. 8 Plutarch, de Iside. 

" Compare Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. 17, with Lucian, de Diis Syris ; 
Syncel. I., c. iii., p. 49; and Euseb. Praep., lib. IX., chap. 17. 


or Chroims, whom the Phoenicians called II, was after his i^am assigned 
death deified, and assigned to the planet which bears his name, Saturn. 
Bel, Belus, or Saturnus ;^ and in later times the Chaldean 
creed became a part of Sabaism, which, according to Sancho- 
niatho, had been founded by Cain and his sister-wife.^ 

It appears that Canaan was born at Byblus,^ and, his elder The Canaan- 
brother Mizraim having already passed on to govern the region 
southward, he received the territory afterwards occupied by 
the descendants of his eleven sons, namely, the Hivites, the 
Avim,* Anakim, &c. : this tract took his name, its limits 
being Sidon to the north, and Gaza to the south.'^ Adjoining 
this tract, to the south-westward, were the Pathrusim and 
Casluhim, of whom came the Philistines and Caphthorim, 
both from the branch of Mizraim ; and the former were already 
a considerable people, under a king of their own, when Abraham 
came into the country.® From the preceding circumstances, it 
may safely be inferred that the migration of the children of Ham 
took place almost simultaneously with that of Shem ; and the 
fact of having made their way from Asia Minor into Syria, 
is indicated by the question propounded in the book of the 
prophet Amos, " Have I not brought the Philistines from Philistines. 
Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir ?" ^ 

In addition to the territory occupied by the Canaanites, &c., 
at the time that the children of Israel quitted Egypt, other 
sections of the giant race of Ham appear to have inhabited the 
country westward of the river Jordan and the Dead Sea. 
One branch of the Amalekites,* as well as the Amorites,^ 
occupied antecedently the tract near the present Wadi El 
Ghor, where they were at the period of Abraham's arrival in 
the country. In the tracts north-westward of these, at short 

' Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. 17 ; Euseb., Praep. Evangel., lib. IX., 
chap. 17. 

* Euseb., Prajp. Evang , lib. I., p. 34. 

^ Cumberland's Times of the First Planting of Nations, pp. 176, 177. 
London, 1724. 

* Deut, chap. II., v. 23. =* Gen., chap. X., v. 15-20. 
® Gen., chap. XX., v. 2. '' Amos, chap. IX., v. 7. 

" According to the Arabs, the father of the tribe was Amalek, a son of 
Ham. " Gen., chap. XIV., v. 7. 




The Emim, 

The Horites 




distances from one another, were the Emim,' the Zuzim,^ the 
Rephaim,^ and the gigantic Zamzummim ;* the Horims of 
Mount Seir being immediately southward of the last.^ 

As these sections of the line of Ham had been the earliest 
occupants of that tract of country which was in possession of 
the Ammonites, Moabites, and Horites, during the exodus of 
the children of Israel, it is not improbable that some of them, 
particularly the first and the last, may have constituted the 
lost tribe of Thamud. To this people belonged the exten- 
sive tract of pasture-land lying between Hijaz and the borders 
of Syria, which is known by the general name of El Hadjar:'' 
they lived in caverns excavated in the mountains, such as those 
of Wadi Petra and Wadi El Kari," in which they had wells ;^ 
but it is added® " they were destroyed by a storm from heaven," 
as a punishment for their obstinacy in not listening to a pro- 
phet sent from God, expressly to warn them and turn them 
from their impiety.'" 

Towards the interior of Arabia are traces of another portion 
of the ancient Amalekites, namely, Imlik, Amalek, or Ama- 
leka, whose giant size passed into a proverb to express anything 
great.'* The remains of this people, according to the Arabs, are 
between Bahrein and Iladramaiit, and also again towards Sana 
and Taif ; there are, besides, two sections along the shores of 
the Red Sea, where they dwell under the names of Obail and 
LafF, who are said to have formed part of the Amalekon ;'- and 
the situations indicated are in accordance with the gradual ex- 
tension of this great tribe to the southward, from the shores of 

• Deut., chap. II., v. 10, 1 1. « Gen., chap. XIV., v. 5. 
Ibid. •> Deut., chap. II., v. 20. 

* Gen., chap. XIV., v. 6; Deut., chap. II., v. 12. 

Edrisi, ed. .Jaubert, tome V. Eecueil de Voyages et Memoires, &c., par 
la Societe de Geog., Paris, 1836. 

^ Arabic MSS.,Nos. 7357 and 7505, in the British Museum, translated by 
Aloys Sprenger, M.D. 

' Numerous tanks and cisterns still exist. 

' Arabic MSS. as above. 

'" The locality, the warning, and the catastrophe, mentioned by the Arabian 
geographer, agree with the destruction of the cities of the plain. 

Arabic MSS., Nos. 7357 and 7505, in the British Museum, translated by 
Aloys Sprenger, M.D. >« ibid. 


Palestine. Some of the people occupied intermediate places 
between the present cities of Mekkah and Medina,' also towards 
San a, and others united with the Himyarites at Thifar ;^ the 
remainder passed into Assyria. 

The 'Adites, another branch of this people, seem either to The 'Adites. 
have taken a more southerly course in the outset, or else they 
migrated from Yemen towards the country between Bahrein and 
Hadramaiit,^ instead of passing into Africa with the bulk of the 
Arabian Cushites and the followers of Mizraim. Thus it will 
be seen that, during the first migrations, the latter branches, 
generally speaking, proceeded to the more distant countries, 
such as Yemen, Africa, &c., whilst the sons of Canaan remained 
in Syria and Phoenicia.'* 

We learn, however, from Berossus, that the principal branch Progress of the 
of the Hamites had taken quite another direction, and proceeded 
from Armenia towards Babylonia by a circuitous route.^ They 
followed a northerly course, probably keeping for a time near 
the banks of the Gihon or Araxes, till they approached the 
neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea where they turned southward 
and entered Susiana ; from which fine tract they afterwards 
moved westward® into the plain of Shinar. Having driven a 
portion of the sons of Shem from the latter towards Assyria, and 
the higher parts of Mesopotamia about O'rfah and Haran, they 
erected temples and built cities, so that the country was again intoBabyionia. 
inhabited ;' an expression which seems to imply that it had been 
occupied at the time of the Flood. 

Such is the Phoenician and Chaldean account of this period : 
it is derived from tradition, and possibly from some records 
which it is supposed had been preserved, such as the pretended 

' Arabic MSS., Nos. 7357 and 7505, in the British Museum, translated by- 
Aloys Sprenger, M.D. 

* Jihan Numa, p. 495. 

' According to Arabic MSS. 7357 and 7505, near the desert of Ahkaf. 

* Where we have Sidon, and Heth, and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and 
the Girgasite, and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the Arva- 
dite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite, Gen., chap. X., v. 15-18. 

* Berossus, from the Ancient Fragments, by I. P. Cory, Esq., p. 29. 

® And it came to pass as they journeyed from the east, that they found a 
plain in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there. Genesis, chap. XI., v. 2. 
^ Syncel., Chro. 31 ; Euseb., Chro. p. 8. 



[chap. I. 


builds or 

books of Adam,' and those of Seth, of Noah, Enoch, and Jasher,* 
the contemporary of Moses. These writings are now lost, with 
the exception of the two last, one of which is considered to be 
apochryphal f but, be this as it may, such a work must at one 
time have been extant in some way or other, since we are told 
that Enoch, who was the seventh from Adam, also prophesied, 
&C.'' Moses naturally derived his information from his own 
line, that of Shem ; but doubtless records of some kind had 
been preserved in the line of Ham also,^ and it will be recol- 
lected that Sanchoniatho, like Moses, gives the same number of 
generations from Adam to Ham. 

We learn that the acquisition of the plains of Dura by the 
children of the latter was followed by an increase of ter- 
ritory, which was at first made gradually by Cush,® but sub- 
sequently on a greater scale by his son Nimriid," who in 
the beginning caused to revive or make famous, all the prin- 
cipal places in his kingdom, as BabeV Erech,® Accad,'^ and 

' Part of one of the three sacred books of the Sabean Mandaites (now 
called the Christians of St. John), of which an account has been given in the 
Journal des Savans, Paris, 1819, by Sylvestre de Saci, has been published 
under the title of " Codex Nasaraeus, Liber Adami appellatus," 5 vols. 4to. 

^ Jasher appears to have been the son of Caleb and Azubah; compare 
1 Chron. chap. II., v. 18, with Joshua, chap. X., v. 13, and 2 Samuel, chap. 
I., v. 18. 

' The book of Enoch the prophet, supposed for ages to be lost, translated 
from an Ethiopic MS. by the Eev. Richard Lawrence, LL.D., Archbishop 
of Cashel. 

■* General Epistle of Jude, v, 14. 

* Josephus mentions (lib. L, cap, iii., sec. 8), Antediluvian Eecords. 
" Called an Ethiopian. — Euseb., Chron. Armen. I., p. 53. 

^ The giant warrior of the Syrian version; tlie Nebroth, Nebrod, and 
Nimrud, or terrible giant of the Arabs (Euseb., Chron. Armen, ed. in folio, 
pp. 37, 39) ; the Zohak, or Zohauk, of the Persians (see Bibl. Orient., Art. 
Dhohak) ; also the well-known Belus of the Greek writers, and the Nimrod 
of Gen., chap. X., v. 8, 9. 

' Gen., chap. X., v. 10, Bellamy's translation, 

• Now the mount of El 'Assayah.— See above, vol. I,, p. 116. It is supposed 
that the city and tower were built to commemorate the descent of the Ark, 
and that it represents the A'rcaa of the Hebrews, and the city of the Ark. 
Compare Ilarcourt's Doctrine of the Deluge, vol. I., p. 196, with Bryant's 
Ancient Mythology, vol. II., p. 524. 

'» Tiie celebrated mound of 'Akar Kuf— See above, vol. I., p. 117. 


Calneh/ all of which are within the limits, as now defined, f'e eight 
of the land of Shinaiv cities. 

Pursuing his conquests, we are told that Nimriid went forth 
to war against Assyria, and there he built Nineveh, and the 
city Rehoboth,^ and Calah,* and Kesen, between Nineveh the 
great city and Calah.^ On this occasion no doubt some of 
the sons of Asshur were expelled for the second time, the 
remainder being subjected ; the Pyramid at Nimriid or Pesen ® 
Avas probably constructed" as a step towards the establishment 
of the conqueror's secular and priestly authority : for, (as it has Nimrud aims 
been rendered) he (Nimrud) profaned to be mighty in the authority! 
earth; - concerning which thing it shall be said, like Nimriid 
the mighty destroyer in the presence of Jehovah.' This 
appears to allude to his determination to abolish the remains of 
the primeval patriarchal worship, of which no doubt the 
Cherubim was the type ; and to establish throughout his 
dominions the religion which had been adopted by his grand- 
father in Phoenicia. There was ah'eady a temple on the 
mount at Erech ^° dedicated to the moon,^^ and it is probable 
that at this time the patriarchal worship was much corrupted 
among the Shemitic people of Mesopotamia. 

' Or Chalanne, afterwards Carchemish, on the Mesopotamian Khabur. 
— See above, vol. I., p. 117. ^ Ibid. 

^ Below the Khabiir. — See above, pp. 52, 119. 

* Now Sar-piili Zoliab, on the slopes of the Zagros, and on the high road 
leading from Baghdad to Kirmdu-Shah, vol. IX., p. 36, of Royal Geog. 

* Gen., chap. X., v. 11, 12. See the Holy Bible, containing the 
authorized version of the Old and New Testaments, with 20,000 emend- 
ations. London, Longman, Brown, and Co., 1842. 

■^ See above, vol. I., pp. 21, 22. 

"^ The recent excavations, and the interesting Assyrian remains found 
beneath this structure, have determined this site. 

" Committed profanation by abolishing the true worship, and substituting 
idols, in order to become popular. — Note on Gen., chap. X., v. 8, Bellamy's 

' Gen., chap X., v. 9, Bellamy's translation. 

'" Irka, Irko, or 'Irkah. Compare Bryant's Mythology, vol. II., p. 524, 
and Harcourt's Doctrine of the Deluge, vol. I., p. 194. 

" The Babylonian Juno. — Jackson's Chronology of the most Ancient 
Kiijgflom-J, vol. III., p. 33. 



proposes to 
build a city 
and a tower. 

The tower 
intended to 
serve as a 

A temple 
with an 

With a view to the establishment of his religion, as well as 
the consolidation of his power, Nimriid is supposed to have 
said, "We will build for us a city and tower, with its head like 
heaven ; which we will make as a monument to render our 
name (D'^i^ Shaim,) famous; lest we should be scattered on the 
face of the whole earth." ^ A building was therefore meditated 
which should be superior to all other structures ; its dimen- 
sions were to be stupendous, that it might be visible through- 
out a large portion of Babylonia, and become a grand land- 
mark, as well as the centre of Nimriid's priestly and secular 
power. According to Eupolemus,^ the city existed previously, 
and the tower was erected not within its circumference, but in 
its vicinity ;^ Birs, or Baris, the name cf the tower, signifies 
high ; and the dome or top is supposed to have represented 
the heavens, and to have been ornamented with the zodiacal 
constellations,^ on which the Sabaism of the Chaldeans was 
afterwards partly based.' Like the later structures of the same 
description in Egypt, it was intended to serve as the tomb 
of the founder, Nimnid or Belus ;® and in the temple there 
was to have been an image holding a sword as a protection 
against men and demons.^ When Babylon was visited by 
Herodotus, the court, as well as the temple on the summit, 
were dedicated to Jupiter Belus f the ruins of which, as well 
as those of the observatory on the summit, still remained in 
the time of Diodorus Siculus.^ But whatever may have been 
the symbol of worship originally represented on Nimriid's 
temple, afterwards that of Bel, "^ the chief object of its construc- 

' Gen., chap. XI., v. 4, Bellamy's translation. 

* Euseb., Praep., lib. IX., cap. xiv., p. 416, and cap. xvii., p. 418, 
« Ibid. 

* Gen., chap. XI., v. 4, note by Bellamy; and Bryant's Mythology, 
vol. I., p. 477 ; Euseb., Praep. Evan., lib. I., pp. 41, 42. " 

* For an account of the Chaldeans, see the latter part of the next chapter. 
« Strabo, lib. XVI., p. 730, and Arrian, Exped. Alex., lib. VII., cap. 

17, compared with Pliny, lib. VI., cap. 26, and Diod. Siculus, lib. II., 
cap. 9. 

^ See the Jerusalem Targura. 

® Ilerod., lib. I., cap. clxxxi., clxxxii. 

" Diod, Sic, lib. II., cap. ix. 

"• Prideaux's Connexion of the Old and New Testament, vol. I., p. 96. 


tion, namely to prevent the dispersion of the people over the 
face of the earth, was frustrated ; and the ruins are, to this day, 
a monument of the failure of their presumptuous undertaking. 

The Shemites, as has been said, occupied Upper Meso- The Shemites 
potamia, with a part of Syria, and they continued to dwell Habei. 
in those regions the period in question ; the seat of their 
government being Salem, and their ruler the mysterious high- 
priest Melchizedek,^ who was of the line of Sheni, if not the 
patriarch himseh? In a late edition of the Bible it is stated, 
with reference to the passage relating to the destruction of 
Babel, that Melchizedek received a command from between 
the Cherubim to go down to Babel and confound the vain 
words of the people. Jehovah said, " Behold another people,^ 
all of them with vain lip : even at this time, they profane with 
their offerings ; and now shall nothing be restrained from them 
of all that they have imagined ; ■* come, we will descend,^ and 
then confound their doctrines, so that a man shall not hearken 
to the speech of his neighbour." 

This was done, that the true religion might not be destroyed Nimnid's 
by the new settlers from the East; and God having commu- f^^y^^t^^ 
nicated his will respecting the idolaters of Babel, the people of 
Sheni went thither to confound their purpose. Being a powerful 
people, they readily impeded the progress not only of the idola- 
try, but they also prevented the consolidation of a government 
which would soon have extended to Canaan, and thus caused 
what is called the Dispersion of Mankind : but this dispersion 
may, perhaps with some propriety, be considered as a reoccupa- 
tion of the regions inhabited before the Flood. The persons who 
quitted the land of Shinar, had, in all probability, some know- 
ledge of the regions to which they proceeded ; and it may be 
presumed that they were not by any means in a savage state, 
but that they carried with them a certain degree of civilization 

1 Gen., chap. XIV., v. 18. 

* Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible, Melchizedec. 

^ Ham's descendants, as worshippers of idols, were called another people. — 
Note by Bellamy on Gen., chap. XI., v. o. 

* Gen., chap. XI., v. 6, Bellamy's translation. 

^ Meaning the people of Salem were to descend, not the Almighty. — Note 
by Bellamy, Gen., chap. XI., v. 7. 


and some knowledge of the arts and sciences of that time, 
though their religion was already deformed by Sabaism. The 
influence which their civilization and their religion had on the 
countries to which they journeyed, and in the sequel on Europe, 
after the time of Alexander the Great, will be among the 
subjects of occasional notice in the succeeding chapters of this 

( 29 ) 





Limits of the Territories about to be occupied. — Directions taken Eastward 
and Westward. — Noah's Family commingle in Armenia. — The Shemitic 
People reoccupy Babylonia. — The mixed Tribes of this Territory called 
Chaldeans. — Spread of the Cushites from Babylonia to Media, Persia, and 
Central Asia. — Pluit, the supposed Leader of the Mongols. — Georgian 
and Tibetan character. — Similarity of Eastern and Western Architecture. 
— Western origin of the Cliinese. — Spread of the Cushites Northward 
and again Westward, along the Taurus. — Second commixture of the Sons 
of Japhet and Ham. — Descent of the Chasdim into Babylonia. — The 
Cushite Dominions centre in Babylonia. — Spread of the Sons of Togormah, 
Gomer, and other Descendants of Japhet. — Nimrud's Death. — Ninus or 
Belus II. invades Armenia. — Ha'ik and his Descendants govern Armenia. 
• — Tombs of Noah and his Wife. — Haikanians and Togormeans. — Aramais 
changes the name of Gihon to Araxes. — War of Aram with the Medians. 
— Derivations of the name of Armenia. — Settlements of Togormah. — 
Meshed and Askenaz. — Northern spread of the Sons of Japhet. — Ham's 
Posterity in Syria and Arabia. — The 'Adites and other lost Tribes of 
Arabia. — Traditional Account of the Curse of Ham and his Descendants 
in Africa. — Cusiia-dwipa, within and without. — Sanc'ha-dwipa. — Axumitic 
or Amharic character. — Countries of Habache or Ethiopia, Nubia, &c., 
first occupied, next Egj'pt. — Architecture carried into Greece. — The 
Chaldean Kingdom of U'r. — Kahtan and his followers occupy Arabia. — 
Possession of Jerah and Uzal. — The Cushites pass into Africa. — Chaldeans, 
their Language used in Mesopotamia. — Derivation of the name of Chal- 
dean. — The Chaldean Tribes. — The Chaldean Nation and Priests. — 
Chaldean Philosophy, &c. 

With the exception of the tracts mentioned in the preceding 
chapter, as having been partially occupied to the westward by 
the descendants of Mizraim, the possessions of the sons of Xoah 
had scarcely hitherto extended beyond the limits of Armenia 



[chap. II. 

Extension of 
Noah's sons. 

One section 
spreads to- 
wards Europe, 
and the other 
towards Cen- 
tral Asia. 

Three races 
of mankind. 

and Shinar. But it will be seen, that the countries into which 
these branches are about to be followed, embrace very extensive 
territories, which, although they were peopled by numerous 
ramifications from the original stocks, contained comparatively 
few nations. These territories formed a belt, which extended 
nearly round half the globe, and comprised the middle region 
of the world, within about 115° of longitude •, namely, from the 
western shores of Europe to the borders of Sinae,^ in the far 
east. Of this extensive tract, which may be considered the 
historical zone, Armenia occupies the centre ; and from hence 
the migrations necessarily extended westward and eastward. 
Those who took the former course, having almost in the outset 
the chain of the Hsemus (Balkan) on the one side, and the 
river Danube on the other, would, as they proceeded westward 
between the Alps and the Rhine, eventually reach the western 
shores of Europe; originating during their progress, the dif- 
ferent tribes or nations of this continent. The other section, by 
taking an opposite direction, would, whilst peopling Media and 
Persia, have as limits the two great chains' at the northern and 
southern borders of these kingdoms ; from whence again, the 
migratory band would eventually be conducted along the 
Caucasian chain and the slopes of the Himalaya, originating, as 
they spread towards China, the Hindu and Mongol nations ; 
whose ramifications, in the process of time, probably included 
the earliest tribes of America. 

At the period described near the close of the last Chapter, 
namely, about the 140th year of Faleg (Phaleg), when the 
abandonment of the great work which had been contemplated 
was attended by a separation of the people into seven different 
nations,^ the human race consisted of three great divisions under 
the sons of Noah : this arrangement will now be followed, 
although it is obvious that the divisions must have in some 
measure commingled in Armenia ; and the subsequent inter- 

' Cliina is called the Land of Sinim, Isaiah, chap. XLIX., v. 12. 

« Vol. I. pp. G4, 67, 73, 74, and 189. 

'•' These, according to 'Abu-1-Faraj, Hist. Dynast., p. 2-18, were the 
Persians, Chaldeans, Greeks, Egyptians, Turks (Tartars), Indians, and 


course in Babylonia must have tended to increase their amal- 

The Shemitic branch appears to have regained part of its The Shemitic 
original allotment, about the beginning of the dispersion. For, 
besides those who occupied a portion of Syria and Arabia, as 
far as Hadramaiit and 'Oman,' we find that the followers of 
Elam inhabited the country eastward of the river Tigris ; and 
those of his four brothers had possessions north-westward of 
Babel, where Nimriid appears to have remained f some being 
in Assyria, near Nineveh, others under Arphaxad settled at 
Haran, which he called after his son ;^ and the remainder in The 

•Kjr • 1 1 1 • Trt' 11 pNabatheans 

Mesopotamia, where they bore mdinerently the names oi supposed to 
Arameans, Mesopotamians, and the Syrians or Assyrians ; as the ^^™^ 
also the Kadhani, Kelani, or Chaldeans, who were, according Chaldeans, 
to some, the same people as the Nabatheans.^ The two first 
were interchangeable, and had been, as well as the other appel- 
lations, at one period, in common use for the people living 
between Babylon and the gulf of Issus. 

Moreover, it appears that the Suriani or Syrians, and the and Syrians 
Athuri or Assyrians, were identical with the last, being mixed ; °^ ssjnans. 
and Mas'iidi adds, that they inhabited 'Irak Arabi, where they 
Avere divided into several tribes, such as Yununni or Xinavi 
(Ninevites), the Gordyse or Gordyans, Aram or Arameans, and 
Nabt el 'Irak, the Nabatheans of Trak ; in short, all the 
dependencies of the Chaldean empire spoke a language ap- 
proaching the Syriac.^ The latter appears to have been 
derived from that of the Chaldeans, who, as a people, will be 
noticed more at large, after having followed the sections of the 
line of Ham, spreading westward as well as eastward. 

The earliest migrations of the postdiluvian people are stated 
in the book of Genesis, and have been particularly noticed by 

' Golden Meadows of Mas'udi, p. 9, Arabic MSS. in tiie British Museum. 

* Jackson's Antiquities, &c., vol. I., p. 229. 

^ 'Abu-1-Faraj, Hist, Dynast., p. 16, and Chron. Syr. p. 7. 

* Mas'iidi, Extraits des MSS. da Roi, tome YIII., p. 141, &c. par Sylvestre 
de Saci; also Golden Meadows of Mas'udi, Arabic MSS. in the British Museum. 

* Compare Strabo, lib. XVI., p. 756, with Herod., lib. VII. c. 63, and 
Mas'udi, Golden Meadows, chap. IV. ; also E.\ traits des MSS. du Roi, 
tome VIII., p. 141., par Svlvestre de Saci. 



[chap. II. 

Spread of the 
Cushites to 
Syria ; 

also into 



and Central 

the ancient writers Herodotus and Strabo : they have been 
described subsequently by Moses Choronensis, and in later 
times by De Guignes, Cumberland, Jackson, Hyde, Faber, 
&c. ; but the learned Bryant appears to have been the first 
who, in a satisfactory manner, traced the routes followed by 
the different branches of the human family. 

In describing the supposed site of Paradise, the countries 
occupied by the first Ethiopians have already been partially 
considered in connexion with the Asiatic Cush ; ^ and in the 
preceding chapter of this volume, it is shown that, up to the 
time of the dispersion, the line of Ham occupied the chief part 
of Syria, in addition to the countries along the shores of the 
Red Sea, and also a part of the mountainous districts lying 
north-westward of Babylon. The followers of Nimriid re- 
tained Babel, also part of the territory eastward of the Tigris. 
For it appears that the name of Kiish, the Chaldean Chuth, 
or Kushasdan, land of the Sun,- also that of the Cathai and , 
Cesi,^ or Cossoei, and the modern Khiizistan, was carried to the 
latter country." The Cushites, the reputed ancestors of the 
Huns, are described as having quitted the plains of Shinar in 
two great bands.' One of these, after occupying the Cosscean 
mountains, spread onward, and probably became the Budii of 
Media : ® they subsequently extended eastward of the latter 
territory ; for it appears that the whole of Persia had at one 
time the name of Kiish, and that the people were called Kush- 
anians ; which name, observes Saint Martin, comes to us, with 
accessories denoting a Syriac origin.'' The name of Kiish was 
likewise applied to the western side of India, at least ; ® the 
adjoining territory of I'ran being called Kusdi Khorasan or 
Kiish, westward of the Indus. This tract comprised Bactria, 
Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Hyrcania, and Parthia; and Khusru 
Nushirvan, one of the monarchs of I'ran, was styled King 

' See vol. I., chap. xii. ^ Vol. I., p. 281. 

^ Plin., lib. VI., cap. vii., xx., and xxvii. 

* See above, vol. I., pp. 202-205 and 281. 
* De Guifjnes, Hist, des Huns, vol I. p. 1. 

• Ritter, ErdkuiKie, vol. II., p. 89(3. 

' St. Martin, JMom. sur I'Arnit'nie, tome II., p. 392. 

' Kitab al Bolden, No. 617, in the library at the East India House. 


of the Ciishites, who, it may be observed, are expressly called 
the ancestors of the Persians and Indians.' The central 
situation of I'ran not only afforded an easy intercourse with 
India itself, but likewise with Tartary and China: and, that 
such connexion existed, may be gathered from the incidental 
notices of Diodorus Siculus and Herodotus. The tract west- India. 
ward of the Indus was the country of the straight-haired or 
Asiatic Ethiopians of Herodotus,^ as well as of Eusebius, 
who says, that beyond Carmania there is a country called 
Ethiopia looking towards India.^ This territory, with that 
of the Paracanians, formed the seventeenth Satrapy, and paid 
400 talents.* The Indi, who constituted one branch of the Origin of the 
eastern Ethiopians, are called the wisest of mankind,* and minT.'andT " 
it is understood, that from them were derived the Magi of ^"'^'^^'^^^• 
Central Asia, as well as the Brahmins,® and a still more 
numerous and influential class, the Buddhists. The Brahmins 
were at first seated on the borders of the Black Sea,'' and 
afterwards became powerful in India. The leader of the 
Buddhists, the Hermes of the East,*' and the well-known Budd, 
is supposed to have been Phut, the son of Ham,* whose worship 
was carried by the spread of mankind in this direction ; 
namely, through Central Asia to China, the Djenasdan of the 
Armenians, the Tchinistan of the Persians, the Sin of the 
Arabians,'" and land of Sinim." It may here be mentioned, 
in corroboration of what has been said, that the Kuzari, or 

' Kitab al Bolden, No. 617, in the library at the East India House, com- 
pared with vol. II., p. 373 of St. Martin. 
^ Herod., lib. VII., cap. Ixx. 

* Chronicon Pasch., p. 29, edition 1688. * Herod., lib. III., c. xciv. 

* Piiilostratus, Vit Apollon., lib. IV., p. 6. 

^ Maurice's Hist, of Hindustan, vol. II., p. 187. 
^ Cedrenus, tome I., p. 203, and Syncellus, p. 239. 

* Creuzer, Symbolik, tome I., p. 15. 

^ Bot in Arabia, Bod in Persia, Pout or Poutti in Siam ; in Tibet Pout, 
Pott, Pot, and Poti ; in Cochin China But ; in China Proper Fo or Fo-hi (De 
Guignes) ; in Japan Bo, in Celtic Bud, in India Buda, and in Egypt Phtha. 
See Sprengel ; Ehrman's Bibl. der Reisebeschreibungen, vol. XXXIII. , p. 
155, compared with Harcourt's Doctrine of the Deluge, vol. L, p. 405. 

'" St. Martin, Memoires sur L'Armenie, tome II., p. 15. 

" Isaiah, chap. XLIX., v. 12. 


Nail-headed ancient characters of Georgia, are nail-headed : these, with 
in Set!^^" one or two exceptions, are the ground of all the Tibetan letters, 
in which there is an upright line with a nail-headed top. Ac- 
cording to the Lamas themselves, the latter are derived from 
Sanscrit characters, the oldest of which, the De'vanagari, are 
manifestly compounded of nail-headed perpendicular strokes ; 
and these circumstances confirm the opinion that the Indians 
derived their astronomy and literature from Assyria.^ 

That this was the direction taken by one portion of the 
Cushites, may be inferred from the preceding, as well as other 
circumstances. Throughout those countries, the traveller cannot 
fail to notice the extensive bunds, canals, pyramids, rock-temples, 
and colossal statues, which have been executed ; and we are 
told (what these structures evidently bespeak), that they were 
erected by branches of the same family : the pyramids, in par- 
Cushite know- ticular, are similar to those of Assyria. It also appears that 
eastern Asia, the Cushitcs cxcellcd in the practice of medicine, the knowledge" 
of herbs, the cultivation of the vine, &c. ; and to the Egyptian, 
Indo, and Chinese Cushites, unquestionably belonged the arts 
of manufacturing silk and cotton, with that of dyeing. To 
these, in the instance of the latter people, may be added the 
knowledge of gunpowder and the mariner's compass, with sun 
and moon dials, calculated to suit different latitudes. The use 
of knotted cords,^ which were succeeded by decimal calculating 
boards called Swanpan,^ writing paper and wooden blocks for 
printing, which have long been known in China, likewise be- 
speak a considerable advance in the arts. Hence it is evident 
that the founders of this, as well as those of the adjoining 
The first empire of the Hindus, far from being in a savage state, must, 

Egyptiaus and ^ vii-n. • i 

Asiatics com- ou the Contrary, like the Egyptians, another branch from the 

^^^^ ' Assyrian root, have been well acquainted with the arts of social 

life. An isolated exclusive system of policy appears to have 

handed down these blessings in China, and to have preserved, 

' Dissert, on the Babylonian Inscriptions, by Joseph Hager,D.D., p. 41-43. 
In the most ancient ages, this simple contrivance enabled the Chinese to 
recall their own ideas, and communicate their thoughts to others. Martini, 
Hist, de la Ciiine, liv. I., p. 21. 

^ Corresponding to the Abax of the Greeks. 


at the same time, the most ancient form of government in the 
world — namely, the tribal or patriarchal form ; whilst the 
ancient knowledge of the inhabitants of the country watered by 
the Nile, is only known to us from the wonderful monuments 
whit'h remain there to this day. It may also be observed, in 
corroboration of what has been said regarding the nail-headed 
characters, that those engraven on the agate and other Baby- 
lonian cvlinders, closely resemble Chinese letters ; and a tra- P^ Chinese 

..",''. . from Baby- 

ditional belief generally prevails amongst the people of China, lonia. 
that their ancestors came from a distant part of the west, and 
that they looked up to the King of Babel.^ Even the names of 
Sem, Hoam, and Fohi,^ with a traditional account of the 
Deluge, have been preserved in that country. 

Reverting to the other section that quitted Shinar about the 
same period as the preceding branch, ])ut taking a different 
direction, it is stated, that, after proceeding northward into the 
mountain valleys of Media and Georgia, accompanied by some 
of the sons of Japhet, they separated from the latter in Central 
Armenia, and turned westward, along the slopes of the Cau- 
casus, into those tracts,^ which, at one time, had been occupied 
by some of this people ; and the name of Kusdi Kabgokh, or 
Chus of the Caucasus, was given in consequence to the whole 
tract lying between Khiizistan and the Caucasus.* On the 
slopes of the latter range, under the name of Chasas or C'hasyas, 
the Chasdim, or Cossais according to some, became a powerful ^^f Chasdim 

. . and 

tribe,^ which spread westward, gradually peopling the fertile 
valleys of Armenia, and some of those in Lesser Asia, through 
which tracts they may be traced. On the slopes of the Cau- 
casus, northward of the river Araxes, (the presumed Gihon,) 
is ancient Albania, once called Kusdi, "^ and at the western side 
of the range, the Djani or Chaldeans of Colchis," afterwards the 

* Called the King of Kings. Mas'udi, translated from the Arabic, by- 
Aloys Sprenger, M.D., pp. 309, 366. 

^ De Guignes, Hist, des Huns, vol. I., p. 45. ' Ibid., p. I. 

* St. Martin, Memoires de 1' Armenia, tome II., pp. 371, 392. 

* Lieut. Wilford on Egypt and other countries, from the ancient books of 
the Hindus. Asiatic Researches, vol. III. 

« St. Martin, Memoires de I'Armenie, tome II., p. 357 ; and tome III., 
p 197. ' Ibid. 

D 2 


Chamitoe. The other branches occupying the rest of the ter- 
ritory have already been followed westward/ as far as the 
Leuco-Syrians. country of the Leuco-Syrians or Cappadocians.^ The latter 
occupied a part of the territory now given to Havilah, that is, 
the country within the river Halys,^ and they appear to have 
been the earliest workers in brass and iron, as well as the in- 
ventors of steel ; ^ from which circumstance they derived the 
name of Chrysor.* 

As the Macrones and Mossynceci were Chusites,® and the 
Chalybes were not only linked -with the former, but also with 
the Sanni, the Tibareni, and some of the other branches in 
question, it seems clear that the whole belonged to the mixed 
race of Assyrians or Chaldeans,'' who were evidently the same 
people as the Chasdim ; * and who, at a period no doubt long 
TheChasdim anterior to the call of Abraham, being then a considerable 
Ionia. nation, descended from the north and conquered Babylonia 

from the sons of Shem. 

Doubtless, on this occasion, the Chasdim were conducted, as 
they probably had been in their preceding migrations, by a 
class of men possessing that influence which science confers 
throughout the east : this class assumed the authority of priests 
of Belus," and were astronomers,'" magicians, and soothsayers.^^ 
They were continually devoted to the study of philosophy'" 

' See above, vol. L, pp. 275, 276. ^ Plin., lib. VI., cap. iii. 

^ See chap. XII. 

* Amniian. Mar., lib. XXII ; Apol. Argon., II., v. 374. 

' Sanchoniatho, ed. Orel), pp. 17, 20, et seq. * Chronicon Pasch., p. 415. 
'' llerod., lib. VII., cap. Ixiii., also lib. I., cap. xxviii. ; and Strabo, lib. 
XII., p. 549. 
« Dion., V. 767 ; Apol. I. 2 ; and Pliny, lib. VI., cap. iv. 

* Herod., lib. I., cap. clxxxi. ; and Diod. Sic, lib. I., cap. xvi., also lib. 
II., c. ix. 

'" The Chaldeans, says Cicero, who came originally from the Cancasns, 
observed tlie celestial signs by following the motions of the planets, and were 
the priest-class of Babylonia. — De Divinatione, lib. I., cap. xix. 

" Magic and incantations are attributed to Chiis as the inventor, and 
were practised among his sons. — Euseb., Praep. Evan., lib I., cap. x. p. 35 ; 
Dan., chap, V. 

"= Clement of Alexandria, Stromat, lib. I. p. 359, and Strabo, lib. XVI. ; 
also Faber, vol. III., p. 435. 


and astronomy, and their attainments were transmitted in 
succession from father to son ; hence they became, in a great 
measure, the chief people of Babylonia.' 

The race to which the Chasdim belonged was very numerous. The descend- 
Moses mentions only fourteen descendants of the line of Japhet, sons of Noah, 
and twenty-six in that of Shem, whilst those of Ham numbered 
thirty-one ; and in other respects they were the most important 
of the three, having, as we have just seen, had in Babylonia the 
first regular government with an established religion,^ and no 
doubt also a system of laws. Elsewhere the Cushites were 
indifferently known by the designations of Auritoe, Scuthai, 
&c. f their territories, says 'Abii-l-Faraj, extended from Bhino- 
clura to Gadira ;■' and according to Strabo,^ they occupied the 
principal countries as far as India, and again quite to Mauri- 
tania in the opposite direction. One of .their seats, M'here they 
had a temple only second to that of Babylon itself, was Aiir, 
or Our, or U'r of the Chaldees,*' and the Orchoe of Ptolemy ;" 
the site of which, nearly twenty-five miles westward of Sheikh 
el Shuyukh, appears to have been successfully identified with 
the mound of Muiavah.^ There w^ere, however, two other Three places 

. . . called U'r 

places which also bore the name of U'r, viz., the cities of 
U'rfah and Kal'ah Skerkat; the latter of which is on the 
western bank of the Tigris between the greater and lesser Zab f 
and from its situation on the borders of Assyria, it was probably 
occupied when the followers of Asshur w^ere driven from Babel 
to Nineveh. Besides the derivation of the ^vord Ethiopia, 
which has been already given, '° another has been founded on 
the name of the object of worship, among the people of the 

' Diod. Sic, lib. II., cap. xxi. 

* Pausanius, Messen., p. 261, and Diod. Sic, lib. I. c xvi. 
^ Bryant's Ancient Mytliology, vol. III., p. 245. 

* 'Abu-l-Faraj, Chron. Syr., p. 7. 

* Lib. I., pp. 31, 35. 

* Bryant's Ancient Mythology,, vol. I., p. 13, and above, vol. I., p. 93. 
'' Lib. v., cap. xxiv. 

® See above, vol. L, pp. 93, 116, and Ainsworth's Assyria and Babylonia, 
pp. 179, 180. 

^ Royal Geographical Journal, vol. XL, p. 4-7, and Cumberland's Times 
of the First Planting of Nations, p. 232. 

" Vol. I., p. 281. 


region so designated; it is conceived to be formed by the 
monosyllable ops, ^yith the prefixes el, which signifies light, 
splendour, Almighty power, and majesty, and theos (God) ; 
thus it would signify either the eternity of heaven and earth, 
or eternal God over earth ; which would accord with the know- 
ledge allowed to be possessed by this people,^ one of whose 
designations was, the God-like Cushites; while another was, 
sons of light, or wise men, who divine secret things.^ 
Japhet's pos- From the eldest son of Noah came a portion of the Medes, 
Iberians, Sclavonians, and Babylonians ; also the followers of 
Ashkenaz and Riphath in Lesser Asia,^ who appear to have 
settled in Pontus, Bithynia, and Cappadocia. 

Regarding the descendants of Togormah, the son of Gomer,* 
we find from Armenian history that Haik or Haicus, the repre- 
sentative of the line of Japhet, and the undoubted father of the 
Armenians, collected his followers to the number of 300, and 
quitting Babylonia, apparently with the second Cushite branch, 
at the time of the confusion of language, he proceeded to the 
foot of Mount Ararat ; this event took place about the year 
B.C. 2107, or rather 2607 of the Julian period.^ 
Commixture On arriving, they were joined by a portion of the people who 
Japhet and had been settled in that part of the country, secluded from 
^^^™" civilized intercourse since the descent from the Ark. They 

probably had been without any regular form of government, 
but they spoke the primitive language of Noah. These were, 
it is presumed, a portion of the followers of Ham, who had 
continued in the neighbourhood, when the bulk of the tribe 
quitted that part of Armenia ; and if this view of the matter 
be well founded, the sons of Ham became a second time mixed 
with those of Japhet. 

' An explanation given by Mr. Colin jNIackenzie, who came to this conclu- 
sion, from the fact that Opism is a generic mode of worsliip or reverence 
among many nations ; such as Oropian, a worsliipper, or descendant of the sun 
and earth, from Or us, the Egyptian Apollo ; Oropus, a city of Macedonia, 
Oropus, a city of Boeotia, &c. 

* Arplia-chasd, M. Court de Gibelin, Monde primitif, pp. 8, 9. 
" 'Abii-l-Faraj. Hist. Dyn., pp. 8, 11. 

* Wells' Geography of the Old Testament, vol. L, p. 58. 

* Moses Choronensis, cap. IX. 



Having remained here a short time, Haik proceeded with Country of 
the principal part of his tribe in a westerly direction, leaving Haiu-^-sor. 
his grandson Cadmus near Ararat. After journeying for a 
few days, he reached an extensive plain, to which he gave the 
name of Hare (Fathers), in order that his posterity might be 
always thus reminded, that their founder and father was of the 
race of Togormah. 

Here he took possession of the fertile district, lying along 
the Murad-chai, probably a little to the north of Mush, and 
built a town which he called Haicashen,^ after his own name; 
here also he became fixed, and the people already there sub- 
mitted readily to his laws and government.^ The people in 
question, in all probability, were some of those lefl by Shem in 
the second stage of his progress towards Shinar ; and as Haik 
had already been joined by some of the, Cushites near Ararat, 
the commixture of the three races in Armenia at this early 
period seems evident. 

The country then occupied and called Hare, was the tract 
lying westward of Lake Van, and extending in the same 
direction from thence to Erz-Kiim ; the central part of which 
was afterwards known by the name of Haits-d-sor,^ or the 
valley of the Armenians. 

Reverting now to Babylonia, the country recently quitted 
by the Armenians, we find that, during the height of his power, 
Nimriid entrusted the government of the northern portion of 
his dominions to his son Ninus, w^ho was in consequence pro- Ninus reigns 
moted from the Assyrian city of Telane, which was probably ^ "^^^^ ' 
built by ^Nirariid under the name of Tunim,^ to the capital of 
the empire, Nineveh, a name signifying the habitation of a son, 
or a place to receive the descendants of Nimriid.^ Whilst 
governing this part of the empire as deputy, Ninus considerably 
enlarged the city which had been built by his father, and con- 
structed a wall around it 100 feet high, with 1500 towers;® 

' Michael Chamish, Hist. Armen., translated by J. Avdall, Esq., vol. I., 
p. 5. 

^ Ibid. ^ Or Haisudsor, Moses Choronensis, lib. I., cap. x., p. 29. 

* 'Abii-l-Faraj, Hist. Dynast., p. 15. 

* Bishop Cumberland's Times of Planting Nations, p. 165. 

* Diod. Sic, lib. II., cap. iv. 





and is killed 
by Haik. 

Place of 

and M'hen the decease of Nimriid opened to his enterprising 
spirit a wider field, he took the name of Belus the Second, and 
extended his power not only over the Babylonians, the Naba- 
thcei, the Chaulotoei (Havilah), and the AgroeiV but also over 
all the conquests of Nimrud, M'ith the exception of Armenia. 
Circumstances having now given him a pretext for the invasion 
of the latter country, he despatched a mission to Haik ; and on 
the latter refusing to return to his former allegiance, he pro- 
ceeded to invade the country on its weakest side, that of 
Ararat. This part of the territory was abandoned on his 
approach, and Cadmus, one of the princes of Armenia, sought 
the protection of his grandfather, who drew up all the forces he 
could muster, to make a stand on the shores of Lake Yan. The 
result of this battle was favourable to the Armenians, and Belus 
was killed by an arrow directed by Haik himself, which penetrated 
his brazen breast-plate." On returning in triumph to the city of 
Hare, the victor took upon himself the sovereignty of Armenia ; 
and thus commenced a second monarchial government, inde- 
pendent of that of Babylon, which continued without interruption 
in the family of Haik during the lengthened period of 1342 years. 
Owing to his success in overcoming the idolatrous Belus, 
Haik was considered the earliest champion of the true religion. 
He died about eighty years after the defeat of Belus, being then, 
as the Armenians state, 500 years old.^ His son Armenac, 
who next ascended the throne, quitted Hare soon after his 
accession, with a large portion of the people ; and having 
advanced a few days' journey towards the north-east, he settled 
in a plain delightfully situated at the foot of a mountain, along 
which ran a river of the purest water. Here he built a city 
which he called Aragaz, or Armenagaz, situated near Arnohwote, 
or the place of Descent, to which, as well as to Aporateeion in 
the same neighbourhood, allusion has already been made. In 
this city, as Josephus informs us, was the sepulchre of Noah.^ 
And in support of this assertion it may be observed, that 

' Strabo, lib. XVI,, p. 767. ^ Moses Clioronensis, lib. I., cap. x.. p. 29. 
^ MSS. of Armenian History, collected in 1831 by the Author; see also Clioronensis and Michael Charaish. 
* Lib. I., cap, iii. 


according to Armenian tradition Noyanzar, or Nemzar, Xoah'sTombof 
wife, was buried here by her sons ; it is certain that the place 
bore the name of Marant or Maranta,' up to the time of 
Tavernier." But to the mountain itself, Armenac gave the 
name of the " foot of Armenac," after himself, which it retains 
to this day in common with that of Ararat.^ 

Manavaz, the brother of Armenac, remained at Hare, where 
his followers took the name of Manavazerans ; and from Buz, 
another brother who had settled near the north-west shore of 
the sea of Akhthamar (Lake Van), came the name of a second The Togor- 
branch, the Buzonians ; but the most general name for the 
descendants of Haik, at this remote period, was that of Haika- 
nians ; although they were also known by the different appel- 
lations of Ascanazians, Japhetians, or Togormeans, fi-oin 
Togormah,* father of Haik, their capital Jpeing Hare. Accord- 
ing to jNIichael Chamish,^ Aramais, the son of Armenac, having 
succeeded to the sovereignty on the death of his father, built a 
city of hewn stones on a small eminence in the plain of Aragaz, River Oihon 
close to the river then called Gihon, which name he now Araxes! ^ 
changed to Arax,^ after his son Arast or Eraskh ;" but the new 
city, which now became the capital of his kingdom, he called 
Armavir, after himself^ The circumstance just mentioned 
may serve to strengthen the opinion, that the Gihon of Genesis 
is the same as the river Araxes. The plain of Aragaz lies 
beyond the left bank of the Araxes, to the north of Mount 
Ararat; and the site of Armavir itself was probably between 
Echmiyadzin and the river. 

Amassia, his son, succeeded Aramais, and having settled 
two of his sons in villages, bearing their names (Pharacote and 
Zolakert), close to the foot of Ararat, he gave to the latter the 

' "' The Mother is here." 

* Voy. de Tavernier, tome I., cap. ii., and Journal of Royal Asiatic 
Society, iS'o. 8, p. 340. 

^ Michael Chamish, vol. I., p. 12. * Ezekiel, chap. XXVII. , v. 14. 

* Vol. I., p. 12, translated by J. Avdall, Esq. 

® This river, instead of its original name of Gihon, took successively those 
of Armais, Arashe, Raski, Eris, Araksis, Arras, Araxes, &c. — See above, 
vol. I, p. 11. 

^ In Armenian, grandson of Armenac. ^ See vol. I., p. 16. 


name of the " foot of Masis," after himself; and the district at 
its base he called the country of Masis. 
Geiam-s Gelam, the son and successor of Amassia, having left a 

territories. ^^^y^ty i^ Amiavir, quitted that place with a large body of 
people, and proceeded to the north-eastward in order to extend 
his dominions by the establishment of colonies. On reaching 
the sea, or lake of Sevan, now called Goukcha also, he built a 
number of towns and villages along its shores, giving them as 
usual his own name. This sea therefore became known hence- 
forward as the sea of Gelam, ^ which name it still retains; and 
the whole of the lands on its borders were bestowed on the 
renowned Sisac, the most skilful archer, as well as the most 
eloquent man of those days. He covered the whole face of 
this tract with villages and hamlets, whose inhabitants were 
known by the name of Sisakans or Seunics, and dwelt chiefly 
in the country lying eastward of the lake Sevan.^ Gelam, 
however, still prosecuted his conquests, particularly towards the 
banks of the river Cur ; the inhabitants of the whole country 
eastward, as far as the shores of the Caspian, willingly sub- 
mitting to his sway, and taking the name of Aluans from^ one 
of his surnames. Gelam continued to reside in his newly- 
acquired territory, and was succeeded by his son Harina, who 
not only fortified Armavir, but embellished the surrounding 
country with pleasure-houses.'^ 

That branch of Noah's family which descended from Madai, 
third sou of Japhet, became now of sufficient importance to 
attract the attention of their neighbours, who were under the 
Aram succeeds dominion of Aram. This prince, who had recently succeeded 
™* his father Gelam, by his policy and the exercise of splendid 

talents, consolidated and greatly extended the dominions be- 
queathed to him. His firgt success was in repelling the sons of 
Madai, who were signally defeated when attempting to invade 
Armenia ; '' and another inroad made about the same period by 
Barsham, prince of the Babylonians, shared the same fate. 
Encouraged by these advantages, Aram now successfully in- 

' Michael Chaniish, History of Armenia, translated by J. Avdall, Esq , 
vol. I., p. 14. 

* Ibid., p. 15. " Ibid., p. 16. * Ibid., p. 18. 

CHAP. II.] japhet's descendants. 43 

vaded Cappadocia, where he left Meshak ^ as governor, who 
built a citv M'hich he called Meshok after himself. This was ?j*y ^'^ 

*. . . Mazaca. 

corrupted into Majak and Mazaca by the inhabitants, the 
Cappadocians ; and the name was subsequently changed into 
Ca}sarea or Gaysarey ; the country around this city being 
annexed by right of conquest to the paternal kingdom, which 
still bore the ancient name of Haik. Thus Cappadocia is styled 
the First Armenia, and the conquests northwards from thence, 
towards the Black Sea, the Second Armenia, whilst those 
which were made to the southward, being chiefly the present 
Pashalik of Mar'ash, constitute the Third Armenia ; and the First, second, 
whole of them together were called Armenia Minor, to dis- Armenia, 
tinguish this tract from the original country of Haik, which, in 
compliment to Aram and his followers, took the name of Ar- 
menia (afterwards Armenia Major) ; aad, from this time, the 
inhabitants became known by their present name.^ 

Besides the Medes, and the descendants of Togormah who 
occupied Cappadocia, part of that country was possessed by the 
posterity of Meshech. The descendants of Askenaz settled 
in Pontus, and those of Riphat adjoining them in Paplila- 
gonia ; ^ the sons of Ham being partially mixed with them.* 
The tract in question, Armenia Major, comprises the rich 
valleys of Georgia and great part of the supposed land of Eden, 
from whence Ham's descendants spread round the Caspian 
Sea into Media and Tartary ; whilst those of Japhet took, in 
the first instance, two directions. One portion spread along the 
northern shores of the Euxine into the tracts lying westward of 
this sea ; where they appear to have been joined by the other 
branch, which had crossed the Hellespont after moving west- 
ward along the southern shores of the Black Sea : and both, in Europe peo- 
their onward course, as already mentioned,^ peopled Europe soLo/japhet 
and the isles of the Gentiles. The remainder of this people 
continued in Asia Minor. 

' The Mosoch of the Greeks, and Mosocheni, Jos. Ant., lib. I., chap, vi., 
s. 1. 

* Michael Chamish, History of Armenia, vol, I., cliap. i., translated by 
J. Avdall, Esq. 

^ Jos. Ant., lib. I., c, vi., s. 1. 

* Cumberland's Sanchoniatho, p. 472. * See above, p. 30. 



[CH.^. II. 

The Shemites 

Concerning the subdivisions of this branch of Noah's family, 
Gomer is considered to be the progenitor of the Sarmatians, and 
the Gomerffi, or Galatians and Gauls ; ' Magog of the Scythians, 
BortherVparts Javan of the lonians and the Greeks, Tubal of the Tibarenians, 
of Asia. Meshech of the Muscovites, and Tiras of the Thracians; the 

whole territory occupied by them extending from Media west- 
ward to Gadira, including, consequently, the countries of the 
Franks and Spaniards : the northern part of Asia was also 
peopled by the posterity of Japhet ; and it is not improbable 
that they may likewise have spread into America." 

Having thus briefly described the early migrations of the 
human family towards the regions lying eastward and north- 
ward of Babylonia, those moving southward and south-eastward 
from the same part of the world, are now to be shown. 

The Shemitic people no doubt occupied the upper extremity 
of Mesopotamia, with some of the adjoining portions of Syria 
westward, and of Assyria eastward, more particularly the neigh- 
bouring province known as the territory of the Arapachites ; ^ 
the city of Haran * being their principal seat at this period. 
Owing to the weakened state of Babylonia, consequent on the 
dispersion of mankind, the descendants of Shem gained con- 
siderable power in that territory ; and that they obtained the 
chief authority soon afterwards, may be inferred from the 
colonies which they sent out from thence : these colonies long 
continued in some degree dependent upon that city. 

After the allotment of the earth to the sons of Noah, and 
previously to the dispersion of mankind, the sons of Ham 
possessed the greater part of Syria, in addition to the tract 
which extends from the shores of the Bed Sea into Arabia 
Felix and Hadramaiit; and of these sections, now denominated 
the lost tribes of Arabia, the 'Adites were one of the first, being 
probably derived from Nimriid himself, who was an 'Adite, 
or giant in power. The others, already enumerated,^ were the 

' Jos. Ant., lib. I., cap. vi., sec. 1. 

* Gen,, chap. IX. v. 27. Compare Hales' Chronological History, vol. I., 
p. 351, with Bar Ilebraeus, Chron. Syr., p. 7. 

^ Ptolemy, lib. VI., cap. i. 

* 'Abii-l-Faraj, Hist. Dynast., p. 11, ed. Poc. 1663. 

* See above, vol. I., p. 659. 

The Hamites 
part of Syria 
and Arabia 

CHAP. II.] ham's sons proceed TO AFRICA. 45 

Thamudites, the Amalckites, and the Obailites, in Arabia The lost tribes. 
Felix ; also the Tasini, and Beni Tasini, and Beni Jadis, tribes 
towards Bahrein, with the Beni 'Abd Dhakhan, and the 
Oniayyini or Oniaiin, who are said to have been the first to 
build houses, that is, to become fixed. Such are the names 
given to these branches,^ who were, it appears, worshippers of 
the moon, the Ba'alat of Hani.^ 

That the sons of Ham occupied the banks of the Nile at a 
very remote period is generally admitted ; and we learn from 
Eusebius, that JEgyptus, who is also called Mizraim, was 
born to Cham, the son of Noah. He was the first who went 
to Egypt in order to settle there when the dispersion of the 
people took place.^ Although the time cannot be fixed with 
very great precision, yet the circumstance of their migration, as 
well as their route thither, may be traced in the accounts which 
have been handed down to us by the people of India : these 
describe the curse of Ham in the spirit, although not quite in ^^'^ in<i»an 

^ , ^ . . account of 

the precise words, of the book of Genesis. Charma, it is Ham's sin, &<«. 
related, having laughed at his father Satyavrata, (who had 
by accident become intoxicated with a fermented liquor, ) 
was nicknamed Hasyasila, or the laugher. The royal pa- 
triarch, (Satyavrata,) was particularly fond of Jyapete, 
(Japhet,) but he cursed Charma. The children of the latter 
being obliged to quit their native country, called Cusha-dwipa 
(within), they commenced their journey after the building of 
Padmamandira, (Babel,) on the banks of Cumudvate, or 
Euphrates. How long they may have continued in Asia, 
cannot be precisely determined, although there is a strong 
reason to believe that some, or all, remained a considerable 
time in Yemen or Cusha-dwipa, before they crossed over and 
carried the same name into Africa.'' 

All tradition appears to coincide in placing the sons of Ham A^|,^<^^ °'^^^- 
in the valleys of Africa, as early as about the second century 
after the flood. As this portion of the globe -was occupied in 
conformity with the original allotment of their grandfather, and 

' Arabic MSS. 7357, British Museum, translated by Aloys Sprenger, M.D. 

* Ibid. ^ Chron. Arm., ed. in fol., tome I., p. 498. 

* Lieut. AVilford's Asiatic Researches, vol. III., pp. 313, 322. 


Mizraim and doubtless, also, with a knowledge from tradition of the fertility 

Thoth. ' ' , . ^ . . 1 p m 'r> 

of those regions, it is not surprising that the tollowers oi 
Mizraim and his son Thoth should have crossed the straits of 
Bab-el-Mandeb by means of boats or rafts, to the western 
shores of the Red Sea. After peopling this tract, which was 
at first regarded as part of Arabia,^ and spreading into the 
interior, they at length arrived on the banks of the Nile or 
Cali, giving the name of Sanc'ha-dwipa to the country. This 
was Cusha-dwfpa (without), and included Ethiopia and Abys- 
sinia: his (Charma's) descendants were called in the Sanscrit 
Hasyasilas, and in the spoken dialects, Hasyas and Habashi,^ 
The Sukkims, By those descendants of Charma, the African Negroes are 
ture. meant, and they are supposed to have been the first inhabitants 

of Abyssinia, or the Sukkims of Scripture,^ because after 
quitting Arabia, or Cusha-dwipa, to cross over, they dwelt as 
Troglodytes in sucas/ or dens on the opposite side : and it may 
be added, the Abyssinians say that they came from Arabia.* 
But, adds Lieutenant Wilford, it is probable that the posterity 
of Pingacsha (Phoenicians), or the Yellow Hindus, divided, 
and proceeded in two bodies, the one to Phoenicia, and the 
other along the Arabian shores.^ 

The region called Sanc'ha-dwipa, in a confined sense, 
meant the whole of the eastern shore ; whilst, in a more ex- 
tensive acceptation, it comprised all Africa, being the last 
place to which the name of Cusli has been applied : and the 
former, or Cusha-dwipa (within), extended from the shore of the 
Mediterranean and the mouth of the Nile, to the district of 
Sirhind, on the borders of Hindustan." 

It appears that the inhabitants of Arabia and of the eastern 
parts of Africa, were, in early times, intimately connected ; for 
the Homeritse and the Sabsei, according to Procopius, were 

' See Lieut. Wilford on Egj'pt and other Countries, from the Ancient 
Books of the Hindus : Asiatic Researches, vol. III. 

* Ibid., pp. 302, 313, 330. ' 2 Chron., chap. XII., v. 3. 

* It is probable that tlie word Sucas signified an arbour or booth, as well 
as a den, though it was originally taken in the sense of a cave, from Sancha. 
— Asiatic Researches, vol. II., p. 342. 

* Micliaelis, Spicilegium Hebrae, p. 147. 

® Asiatic Researches, p. 322. " Ibid., p. 301. 


one and the same people, being merely separated by the Red 
Sea ; ^ and Meroe itself once bore the name of Saba.^ 

One branch of the Saba^ans mider the name of Agaazi, Arabians and 
founded Axum, the capital of Habesh, where they were found the same 
at a later period still speaking the dialect of Geez, which is^*"'"^^* 
pure Arabic: they also claimed to descend from the Arabians,^ 
and used the Axumitic, or Amharic nail- headed characters/ 
Moreover, Ludolphus states, that their ancient language, which 
we call Ethiopic, approaches very nearly to the Arabic, 
without being so much like it as to denote a late transmigration. 
And the people themselves resemble the Arabs in complexion, 
as well as in following many of their customs.'^ It is remark- 
able that the name of Habashi, which is applied to the people 
in this part of Africa, is to be found in Sanscrit f and the cir- 
cumstance indicates an eastern or Assyrian origin. 

From Habesh, the tide of emigration was evidently north- 
ward, along the valley of the Nile ; for, according to tradition, Egypt peopled 
Osiris led a colony from Ethiopia, into Egypt, which country siuh. ^^' 
received from the parent state the practice of deifying kings, 
together with hieroglyphical writing, the usage of embalming, 
the forms of their sculptures, andthe whole sacred ritual.^ 

Pritchard, in his elaborate work,^ considers that Egypt was 
peopled from the regions towards the south, and this supposition 
has been followed subsequently by Heeren, as well as by Jahn,^ 
and a recent traveller, Mr. HoskynSo Heeren endeavours to 
show that it is deducible from monumental evidence, as well as 
from written testimony, that in Africa, Upper Egypt was the 
first seat of civilization, which was afterwards extended by 
means of colonies, sent out from thence towards the north ; 
also that in the same regions a priest-class was first established.^" 

^ Procopius, Gazaous in Comm, ad 3 Reg. X. I. to the Queen of Saba. 

* Jos., lib. I., cap. X. 

^ Mich,, Spicil. Geogr., lib. I., p. 47, from Dionysius and Syncel. Chro. 

* See Ludolph., Grammatica. Amharii, cap, I. 

* Ludolphus, Hist. Ethiop., 1. 

* Dissert, on the Babylonian Inscriptions, by Joseph Hager, D,D,, p. 41. 
'' Diod, Sic, lib. Ill,, cap, ii. 

« Pritchard's Physical History of Mankind, vol, I,, p. 384, London, 1812. 

® .Jahn's Hebrew Commonwealtli, p, 8, 

*" Heeren's African Researches, vol. I., p. 339, et seq. 


Architecture, That the first scttlers reached this part of Africa from the 
southern part of Arabia, instead of rounding the northern 
extremity of the Red Sea, may be inferred not only from the 
monuments themselves, which mark a less advanced state of 
the arts in Nubia than in the country lower down the Nile, but 
also from the difficulties that would have been encountered in 
passing through the long tract of desert country bordering upon 
the Red Sea. Whereas by the other route, the progress was 
comparatively easy into Arabia Felix ; and from thence sub- 
sequently along the western shore of the Red Sea to the valley 
of the Nile, where papyri found with the mummies, and other 
specimens discovered elsewhere, show that the written character 
goes back almost to the time of the earliest settlements, whilst 
the stupendous pyramids and many other works of art, still 
remain to attest the civilization which was then attained by 
those who had come thither from Assyria. From the models 
derived from of aucicut art yet existing in Egypt, the Greeks probably 
ssyna. derived that architecture, which they afterwards brought to 
such perfection ; and it has been supposed that in this way the 
European nations obtained the first principles of the arts and 
sciences from Babylonia, through the medium of the Phoenician 
and Egyptian Cushites.^ 

About this period the territory of Western Arabia was des- 
tined to become almost the exclusive possession of the tribes 
belonging to one of the two great Shemitic branches, which 
quitted Babylonia, soon after the dispersion, under Kahtan ; for 
the persons who subsequently accompanied Abraham and Lot, 
only peopled Palestine and the borders of Arabia, with a 
portion of the interior of the latter country. 
Kingdoms of The principal seat of the descendants of Sheni was, however, 
Zobah. the upper extremity of jMesopotamia, especially the Chaldean 

kingdom of U'r, in which, as will subsequently be seen, the 
patriarch Job flourished, and which at a later period comprised 
the separate kingdoms of Haran and Zobah (Nisibis). 

Referring to the former migration, the sons of Kahtan, 

' Josephus, Ant., lib. I., cap. viii., s. 2, says, that astronomy was carried 
from Chaldea to Egypt, and from thence to tlie Greeks; and Zonares, lib. I., 
cap. i., p. 22, says tlie same thing of the arts in general. 


says one of the earliest Jewish historians, findins; that they had Defendants 

'' . . PI of Joktau. 

not any particular allotment, m consequence of the second 
division of the world, about the time of the death of Phaleg, 
selected as leaders, Sheba, Asir or Ophir, and Gjawilah or 
Havilah,' under whose guidance they quitted Babylonia, and 
proceeded to make conquests and settlements in another part 
of the world. Joktan, the descendant of Eber, had thirteen 
sons, who are mentioned as being leaders or heads of nations;^ 
and their dwelling was from Mesha, " as thou goest unto Sephar, 
a mount of the east.^" The resemblance of the former name to Supposed to 
Mekkah, appears to indicate that one extremity of their ter- Mekkah and 
ritory was in the neighbourhood of that city, while Ras Seger, ^ ^^'^^' 
a bold cape rising to about 3000 feet at the south-eastern coast 
of Arabia, would seem to represent the mountain at the other 
extremity. The identity of the latter seems to be established 
by various circumstances connected with its position. The fine 
plain of piiafar or Zhafar, stretches eastward from this head- 
land to the town of Morbat or Mirbat, situated at the foot of 
another high range, which still produces gum and incense, as in 
the time of Edrisi.^ The latter, called Jebel Subhan, seems to 
be connected with Ras Seger, by a range of mountains from 
3000 feet to 4000 feet high, which encloses the luxuriant tract 
alluded to, with the extensive ruins of El Balad and several 
towns, as El Hafar, Sallalah, Diriz, El Robat, &c. The Exports of 
remains of an export trade in myrrh, frankincense, and gum- • • ™ ** ' 
arabic, from these places, as well as from that of Morbat, in 
connexion with Hadramaiit, in addition to the preservation of 
the ancient language by the neighbouring tribe of Beni Mahrah, 
or Mehreh, near Morbat,^ appear to show that this must have 

' Bar Hebrseus, Chro. Syr., p. 8. 

^ Howard's History of the "World, vol. II., p. 63, and Gen., chap. X., 
V. 26 to 29. ' Gen., chap. X., v. 30. 

■* P. 54, Edrisi, ed. .Jaubert, tome Cinquieme, Recueil de Voyages et 
Memoires, &c., par La Societe de Geographie, &c., Paris, 1834, compared 
with Niebuhr, Desc. de I'Arabie, p. 248. 

^ Edrisi, ibid., pp. 150. 151, compared with Abu-1-Feda, translated by De 
la Roque, p. 328, and Haines' Memoir on the South-East Coast of Arabia, 
p. 11()-1 19, vol. XV. of Royal Geographical Journal, also Captain Saunders' 
Survey of the Coast of Arabia, vol. XVI., pp. 174, 175, 187, 194, &c. 



[chap. II. 

Seat of fhe 

of Ham in 

been a part of the Himyaritic Thafar.' As will presently be 
seen, the territory lying between the latter tract and Mekkah 
was more particularly the seat of the Himyarites and the 
Kahtanites. It comprised the southern part of Nedjd, and 
nearly the whole of Yemen, or the greatest portion of the 
country denominated Happy Arabia ; whose most extended 
limits included, as has been seen, not only Hadramaiit, but also 
the tract stretching eastward from thence to the Persian Gulf.'-^ 
The bulk of the descendants of Ham, the followers of Mizraim 
and Thoth, appear to have crossed from the western side of 
Arabia Felix into Africa,^ but some traces of those who re- 
mained are still supposed to be found in certain parts of 
Arabia. Saba or INIareb,^ the Mariaba of Pliny and Strabo, 
and once the capital of the Sabeans, possibly took its name 
from Seba, son of Gush ; ^ and the district of Khaalan, or 
Kaulan, (south of Asir,) may have derived its appellation from 
Havilah,*^ the second son of that patriarch. Sabtah," Ramah,^ 
and Sheba,' are also places whose names are presumed to have 
been given by the posterity of Cush. There are, likewise, the 
Beni Kusi,^° Beit el Khusi," and Beni 'A'd,^' whose language, 
says Edrisi, is still spoken by the people of Khuryan Muryan, 

' There is also a town in Yemen, near Jerim, called Dhafar or SafFar. — 
!Niebuhr, Descr. de I'Arabie, tome III., pp. 206, 251. 

* See above, vol. I., pp. 656, 657. * Ibid., p. 659. 

* Mareb, once Saba, at which place, adds Edrisi, is the Dike. — P. 53, tome 
Cinquieme, Eecueil de Voyages et Memoires, &c., ed. Jaubert, Paris, 1836; 
also 'Abu-l-Fedti, p. 323, translated by M. De la Roque, Amsterdam, 1718. 

* Compare vol. I., pp. 624, 625, with Pliny, lib. VI., cap. xxviii., and 
Strabo, lib. XVI., pp. 586, 777 ; also Niebuhr, vol. III., p. 252, Descr. de 
I'Arabie, &c. 

' Niebuhr, Descr. de I'Arabie, vol. I., pp. 234, 25.3. 

^ See Appendix to vol. I., p. 722, Sabliah. 

" Appendix to vol. I., p. 716, Raniah, and also a village near San'a, 
Niebuhr, p. 203. 

" Appendix to vol. I., Table 2, p. 705, and Table 3, p. 707 ; also Niebuhr, 
Descr. de I'Arabie, tome III., p. 224. 

'» Dwelling in a district of the country of Rema. — Niebuhr, vol. III., pp. 
216, 253. " Ibid.— Niebuhr, pp. 228, 253. 

'* 'Abu-1-Feda, p. 316, on the hills north of Dhafar, translated by De la 
Roqne, Amsterdam, 1718, and also on the borders of El Hajar, vol. I., p. 630, 
and Haines' Memoir on the South-Eust Coast of Arabia, vol. XV., p. 112, 
of the Royal Geographical Journal. 


or Khartaii and Martan ; ' though unknown to the other Arabs Remains of 

of the present day. Except a knowledge of the former existence [^ ""' 

of these tribes, and some traditions handed down of the idolatry 

of the last,^ also some remains of the Amalekites in 'Oman and 

Bahrein,^ no traces remain of the Cushite settlers in Arabia; 

and the gradual intermixture of these with the posterity of 

Kahtan, will probably account for the almost total extinction 

of the people of 'A'd, and those of Thamiid, Tasim, Jadis, 

the Imlik or Amah;k, and other sections faintly known to us 

as the lost tribes.* Doubtless the people of Kahtan, who are Yemen and 

designated pure Arabs by their descendants/ had their principal 

seat in Yemen, wbere they lived under Ya'rab ben Kahtan, 

probably Jerah ; '^ his brother Jurham or Hadoram being ruler 

of the Hijciz : ' and both names are still preserved by the Beni 

Jurham, or Beni Jerah, near Mekkah.* East\vard of JMekkah 

we still find the large tribe of Beni Kahtan ; and on the eastern 

side of the province of xAsir, is the district of Kahtan or Xed- 

jeran, and a tribe bearing the former name ; likewise an ancient 

site, Beit-el-Kahtan, or dwelling of Kahtan,' and again in 

Hadramaut is the tomb of the patriarch, and that of his father 

Heber or Houd;'*' also, a town called Kohhtan,'- which was no 

doubt connected with the former name. 

Southward of Sana is the small district of Khaulan or Sau'a, once 
Havilah, probably from the twelfth son of Joktan, and the ^^^^ ""' ^'^^^ 
ancient name of the capital itself, once Esal or Osal,'^ appears 
to have been derived from Uzal, his sixth son. 

' The Curia Muria Isles. — See Edrisi, ed. Janbert, pp. 48, 49, tome 
Cinquieme, Recueil et Memoires, Paris, 1836; and Haines' Memoir, vol. XV., 
p. 121 of the Roj-al Geographical Journal. 

* Among tiie people of Mahri. — See vol I., p. 639. 

^ Add. Arabic MS. 7357 in the British Museum, translated by Aloys 
Sprenger, M.D. 

* Aiabic MSS. 7505 and 7496 in the British Museum, and Lane's Koran, p. 12. 
' See Table 2, vol. I., Appendix. « Gen., chap. X., v. 26. 

'' Arabic MS. 7357 in the British Museum, translated by Aloys Sprenger, 
M.D. ' Appendix, vol. I., pp. 705, 711. 

" Niebuhr, Descr. de 1 'Arable, tome III., pp. 238, 252. 

'* See above, vol. I., p. 638 ; and Edrisi, p. 54, ed. .Jaubert, tome Cin- 
quieme, Recueil et Memoires, &c., Paris, 1836. 

" ^'iebuhr, tome III., pp. 249, 252. 

»' Vol. I., p. 623, and Gen., chap. X., v. 27. 

E 2 

52 shem's descendants in araeia. [chap. II. 

Besides the preceding, we have the Beni Sheba/ probably 

the descendants of the tenth son, also the Beni Jobab - from 

the thirteenth ; and it has been remarked by the great Arabian 

Hazarmaveth traveller, that Hadramaiit itself, may have been the territory of 

or Hadramaut. • * i ^i t i i ^ •^ 

the third son Hazarmaveth.-* it thus appears, that, whilst 
traces of some of the earlier descendants of Ham are fomid in 
Arabia, the names and indications of those of Shem are still 
more immerous, particularly in Yemen, which became the 
seat of the Tobbai and of the Himvarites. 

'Abd-el Shems, the slave or worshipper of the sun, and the 

descendant of Kahtan, succeeded Ya'rab in the sovereignty of 

this territory, and from Kaklan, his successor, descended the 

Beni Lakhim, Ghassan, and, also, the celebrated dynasty just 

Sons of mentioned, which was founded by Himyar/ the fourth de- 

Himjar. sccudaiit of Pclcg, and almost the cotemporary of Abraham, 

who was the fifth in another line.^ The posterity of the former 

patriarch is no doubt represented by the Beni Himyar.® The 

recovery already noticed of Babylonia by the Shemitic people, 

previously to their occupation of Yemen, agrees with the 

account given by Arabian historians, and likewise with those 

of Ptolemy and Strabo. The former calls the Babylonians a 

colony from Arabia Deserta,'' and the latter particularly notices 

the resemblance in character, frame of body, language, and 

mode of life, between the Syrians, Armenians, and Arabs.® 

Syrians, Elscwhere he identifies the Babylonians M'ith the Chaldeans of 

Chaldeans. Gcrrha.^ It appears from Mas'iidi that the Chaldeans spoke 

the same language as the Arabians, and were the same people 

as the Syrians or Assyrians, who inhabited 'Irak Arabi.'° This 

author also distinguishes the northern Cushites, who entered 

' Appendix to vol. I., Tables 2 and 3, pp. 705, 707. 

* Beni Djoudob, vol. I., Appendix, Table 2, p. 705. 
^ Descr. de I'Arabie, tome III., p. 252. 

* Or El 'Arenjej, also El ' A rfej.— Arabic MSS. Nos. 7353 and 7357 in 
the British Museum, translated by Aloys Sprenger, M.D. 

' Ibid. — Arabic MS. 7357. 

* Eastward of Damascus. — Kiebuhr, Descr. de I'Arabie, vol. III., p. 341. 
'' Lib. v., cap. 20. » Lib. XVL, p. 784, and lib. I., p. 41. 

* Lib. XVL, p. 254. 

" Extraits des MSS. du Roi, tome VIII., p. 141, par Sylvestre de Saci. 


Babylonia, from the Nabatheans/ with whom they amalga- 
mated. These circumstances appear to have given rise to the chaidea™'*^*^ 
opinion of an eminent historian of the day, who, in speaking 
of the steppes of Mesopotamia, observes, " It cannot be 
" doubted, that at some remote period, antecedent to the 
" commencement of historical records, one mighty race pos- 
" sessed these vast plains, varying in character according to 
" the nature of the country which they inhabited ; in the 
" deserts of Arabia pursuing a nomad life ; in Syria apply- 
" ing themselves to agriculture ; and taking up settled abodes 
" in Babylonia," &c.^ We are likewise informed that this 
extensive race spoke the same language as the ancient Baby- 
lonians ' or Chaldeans. 

The question concerning the origin of the Chaldeans, and 
whether they were a distinct nation, or * merely the particular 
section of a people, has given rise to many different opinions ; 
it is therefore here intended to give some account of them, 
and of the state of knowledge which prevailed among them ; 
endeavouring, at the same time, to distinguish the Sabean 
followers of Cush from the descendants of Shem/ who were 
equally designated Chaldeans. 

This appellation was not, as has been supposed, derived The name 
either from Arphaxad or Chesed, but rather from Arfkesed, Arfkesed. 
the compound of the Arabic Orf and Chasd ; which, instead 
of an individual, evidently designates a people.^ 

It was not, however, always applied under the same circum- 
stances, or even to the same race, being found at various places, 
and with different significations, between the Ganges and the 
Nile ; moreover, the difficulty of the subject is increased by Different ap- 
finding, both in sacred and profane history, that the name is atthe^name.° 
one time given to a nation, at another to a tribe, and again to 
a priest-class, whether the descendants of Shem or Ham. 
Michaelis supposed that the Chaldeans came from the north, 

' Arabic MS. in the British Museum, translated by Aloys Sprenger, M.D. 

* Heeren's Historical Researches concerning the Asiatic Nations, &c., 
vol. I., p. 46, Bohn, London, 1846, compared with Mas'udi, Arabic MSS. 

^ Heeren, ibid., p. 407. * See above, vol. I., p. 92. 

* Michaelis, Spicilegium Geogr., II., p. 76, and Schlotzer's Universal 
Hist., XXXI., p. 235. 


and were of Sclavonian extraction, while Diodorus Siculus 
pronounces them to have been Egyptians •, Gesenius embraces 
this last opinion, on the ground that Nimrdd, the chief of 
Babylonia descended from Cush, and that this circumstance 
may have been the foundation of the fable of Berossus, that 
Babylonia was peopled by a sea monster. 
TheChaideans In one part (and probablv the most ancient) of the Scrip- 

as tribes . . * . 

tures, it is said that the Chaldeans, doubtless alluding to a 
tribe, made three bands and fell upon the camels.' Elsewhere, 
and also alluding to the tribal state, " bands of the Chaldeans, 
" bands of Assyrians, and bands of the Moabites " are men- 
tioned.^ There are likewise the Chaldeans of Mizpah ; ^ and 
elsewhere the C'hasas of the east,* or the Cesi of Pliny,^ also 
the Chasdim on the slopes of the Graucasus or Coh-cas (Cau- 
casus).*^ Moreover, Ptolemy speaks of a tribe of Chaldeans in 
Lower Mesopotamia,' where there were other branches of 
Chaldeans, particularly the Orcheni and Borsippa^ans.^ 
as a priest- Again, the Chaldeans are mentioned as a priest-class by 

class, aud as " ' _ >■ -z 

Herodotus^ and by Ammianus Marcellinus. They are also 
named by Arrian,'" and in several places by Diodorus Siculus ;'' 
and more particularly by Strabo, who says, that in Babylonia a 
place is specially allotted to the native scientific men, who 
occupy themselves with philosophy, and are called Chaldeans.'^ 
They appear as a separate class in the book of Daniel, viz., 
the Astrologers, Sorcerers, Chaldeans, and Soothsayers.'^ The 
Chaldeans appear under a third denomination, that of a nation, 
being mentioned as coming with Nebuchadnezzar from the 
north, with horsemen and companies and much people.'* Again, 
they are more clearly designated as such in the book of Isaiah, 
where it is stated, that the land of the Chaldeans was founded 

* Job, cliap. I., V. 17. '2 Kings, chap. XXIV., v. 2. 
^ Jer., chap.. XL., v. 10. 

* The C'hasapa, between the Indus and the Jumna. 

» Lib. VI., cap. 20. « Ibid., cap. 17. ' Lib. V., cap. 20. 

« Strabo, lib. XVI., p. 701. " Lib. L, cap. clxxxi., p. 145. 

'" Exp., lib. III., cap xvi ; lib. VII., cap. xvi., xvii., xxii. 

" Tom. 1, lib. II., cap xxi., pp. 173, 273, 27o, 280. 

'^ Lib. XVI., pp. 701, 739. '» Chap. IL, v. 2, 4, 10. 

'* Ezekiel, chap. XXVI., v. 7. 

a nation. 


by the Assyrian, lor tlieni that dwelt in the wilderness ; or, as 
it has been more correctly translated, " Behold the country 
" of this nation, which had not been till Ashur allotted it to 
" the inhabitants of the desert." ^ The appellation is in many 
other places given to them as a nation, as in the 2nd Chro- 
nicles, where mention is made of the " King; of the Chaldees ;"" ?''TA'u !'!^ 

' _ ^ ^ ' first Chaldean 

and again, the " Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation ; " ^ ^^ing- 
we find, also, "Nebuchadnezzar, King of the Chaldeans;"* 
and again, " Darius, King over the realm of the Chaldeans ; " ^ 
and these, it may be observed, correspond with profane history, 
Evechius, or Nimriid the Cushite, being the first of the line of 
Chaldean kings.** 

The Cushites were no doubt the earliest Chasdim, for the The Chasdim 

11 • 1-11 -1 11 p -r» came from the 

whole territory which they occupied near the shores oi rontus north, 
was called Chaldea (Chasdim).' As has t^een noticed already, 
the latter name was carried from thence into Babylonia, where 
the Chasdim, and another people, the Kazd, Kadhani, or 
Kelani from the south, appear to have amalgamated. The 
name in question therefore equally belonged to the races of 
Ham and Shem ; Nimriid and his successors belonged to the 
former race; and, to the latter, Arphaxad, Chesed, Seriig, 
Terah, and many others. Abraham, especially, was greatly The Shemitic 
distinguished for his knowledge of the celestial sciences ; ^ Araiia.^"^ ^"^ 
and according to Arabian historians, the Shemitic Chaldeans 
are represented by the great tribe of Beni Khaled ; ' dif- 
ferent branches of which, as the Beni Rabiah, &c., (equally 
Chaldees.) are still found at different places in the Arabian 

It will be seen, from the preceding statements, that the 

1 Isaiah, chap. XXIII., v. 13. - Chap. XXXVI., v. 17. 

^ Habb., chap. I., v. 6. * Ezra, chap. Y., v. 12. 

* Daniel, chap. IX., v. 1. 

* Preface, p. xix., and pp. 67, 68 of Ancient Fragments, by Isaac Preston 
Cory, Esq. ; Pickering, London, 1 832. 

" Eustathius, ap. Dionysii Periegetes, 769. 

® Eu5eb., Praep. Evan., lib. VII., cap. viii. 

" Arabic MS. in the British Museum, translated by Aloys Sprenger, M.D.; 
also Kiebuhr, tome III., p. 333, UJrecht, 1774, compared with Burckhardt, 
Notes on the Bedouins and Wahabis, p. 215. 

'" See above, Appendix, vol. L, pp. 716, 722, 723. 


expression Chaldeans was indifferently applied to a tribe, to a 
The priest- nation, and to a particular caste ; the last signification, how- 
'^^^^^' ever, was the most general, being, in a great measure, esta- 

blished by custom. Alluding to the priest-class, we are told 
by an ancient writer, who may be called their historian,^ that 
the Chaldeans, whom he styles the most ancient Babylonians, 
were in the habit of turning days into years in order to support 
their claim to antiquity.^ Their manner of life, he adds, is 
similar to that of the Egyptian priests ; secular employment 
being forbidden, as in the case of the latter, in order that they 
might devote themselves exclusively to philosophy, and more 
especially to the knowledge of astronomy. Instruction com- 
menced in this science with infancy ; and the precepts incul- 
cated descended from father to son, with an authority which 
checked the desire of seeking anything new.^ 
their phiio- The State of knowledge, which had in consequence become, 

sop yan ^g ij. ^^rQYQ^ hereditary among this people, is thus described 
by the historian. The Chaldeans believed the world to be 
eternal, and the fabric of the universe to be ordered and sup- 
ported by Divine providence, by which, and not by chance, they 
considered the motions of the heavenly bodies to be regulated.^ 
In some matters, however, the Chaldean tenets were crude ; 
for instance, they believed the earth to be hollow, and they had 
the most incorrect ideas of the relative distances of the planets, 
whose different times of revolution were attributed to the dif- 
ferent rates of their motions, rather than to the various extents 
of space which they traverse. On the other hand, the canals 
constructed and the vast structures raised by the same people, 
bespeak architectural and mechanical skill ; and that some 
knowledge of mathematics must have been included in their 
acquirements is evident, from their being acquainted with the 
use of the gnomon and clepsydra ; as well as from the fact 
that they had determined, with some degree of precision, the 
revolutions of the planets. They were also aware that the 

* Histoire Universelle de Diod. Sic, traduite par M. L'Abbe Terasson, 
Paris, 1737, tome I., liv. ii,, cliap. 21. 

" Diod. Sic, lib. II., cap. xxi., p. 275. =• Ibid., p. 274. 

* Ibid., p. 275. 


moon has a borrowed light; and the cause of her being occa- knowledge of 
sionally eclipsed was likewise understood.' Moreover, the ^^'™"°°'>- 
Chaldeans were the first to divide the day into twelve parts,^ 
and they were acquainted with different cycles, as the Saros, 
Neros, &;c., and the lengths of the lunar and solar years ; the 
former they made to serve for ordinary, and the latter for 
astronomical purposes.^ 

Ptolemy details some of the eclipses which had been regis- 
tered in Babylonia. These, however, only go back as far as 
720 B.C., and the times are expressed merely in hours. 

It may safely be inferred, that the knowledge of the celestial 
motions, derived by that people from a long series of obser- 
vations, had, in the first instance, become subservient to ancient 
Sabaism, and, at a later period, to judicial astrology, its off- Astronomy 
spring. By the influence which this knowledge gave them, the subservient 

' *' . . , . ^o Sabaism. 

Chaldean priesthood established the belief that they could with 

certainty foretel events affecting the most powerful nations, as 

well as ordinary individuals.^ The system of worship based on 

astronomy by the Babylonians, as well as that which was in use 

among the people of Haran and the Magi, so closely resembled 

the religions of Egypt and Canaan, where they Morshipped the 

host of heaven on the housetops,^ that J'amblichus considers 

them all to be identical.'' This opinion was doubtless founded Sabaism gene- 

on the general prevalence of the particular branch of worship [he world. °^^ 

under consideration, for whether merely including the sun and 

moon, as in the modified Arkite form,'' or the whole of the 

heavenly bodies, which was more general, it is evident that, 

antecedently to the Christian dispensation, no part of the world 

was free from the taint of Sabaism. 

The alternations of day and night, with those of the seasons 
and the productions of the earth, from their connection with the 

' Diod. Sic, lib. II,, cap. xxi. * Herod., lib. II., cap. cix. 

* Hales' Anal, of Chron., vol. I., p. 41. * Diod. Sic, lib. II., cap. xxi. 

* Zeph., chap. I., v. 5 ; and 2 Kings, chap. XXIII., v. 5, " The idolatrous 
priests who burnt incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to tiie moon, and to the 
planets, and to all the host of heaven." 

^ Hebenstreit, Diss, de Jamblichi, Philosophi Syri Doctrina Christianae 
Religioni, &c, Leipz., 1704. 

^ See preceding chap., pp 15, 16. 



[chap. II. 

ology based 

on the five 

and comets. 

periodical revolutions of the heavenly bodies, appear to have 
given rise to the belief, that each of those bodies was a celestial 
spirit, to whom, agreeably to the confused idea which prevailed 
among mankind that some kind of atonement for sin was 
necessary, a high mediatorial office was ascribed. 

It has been supposed with great probability, that this belief 
led to the first departure li-om the purer light of the primeval 
religion, which was transmitted, though dimly, through Noah's 
immediate descendants. To the celestial bodies, as divine 
intelligences, were ascribed an intermediate place between the 
earth and that Almighty Being, who had thus been partly 
forgotten, or, according to the Chaldean creed, was by far too 
exalted to take cognizance of what is passing in the terrestrial 

The planets occupied the most prominent places in the 
astro-meteorological system, and amongst these, the Chronus of 
the Greeks, or Saturn,^ also the Babylonian Venus, and the 
Zohak of the Arabs, ^ were supposed to exercise particular in- 
fluences ; but the sun,^ as having the greatest power of all the 
celestial bodies, was believed to have most weight in the pro- 
duction of important events. 

The Chaldeans, like the Greeks at a later period, distin- 
guished all the visible planets by particular names, as Merodach 
(Mars), Meni (Venus), Nebo (Mercury), and Bel (Jupiter) ; 
and the whole five were styled interpreters, as being supposed 
to mark by their risings, settings, and colour, the events to 
which individuals are to be subjected. The phenomena of 
nature, such as the appearance of a comet, the occurrence 
of an earthquake, and eclipses, were supposed to indicate the 
approach of events connected with nations and their sovereigns, 
as well as private individuals.* 

Subordinate to the five planets were thirty stars called 
counsellors, one half destined to observe what passes below, or 

' Also ca'led II, as well as Saturn. — Eustb,, Prsep. Evan., lib. I., cap. 10. 

* A temple was dedicated to this deity at Mekkah. — See Lane's Koran, 
p. 29, Maddc^n and Co., London, 1848. 

* Tiie Assyrians gave the name of Bel to the Sun as well as toSaturnus. — 
Piocopius, Conun. in Esai, cap. xlvi. 

* Died. Sic, lib. IL, cap. xxi. 


the actions of men, and the remainder what is passing in Messenger 
heaven ; mutual intercourse being maintained by means of 
messenger stars traversing, once in ten days, the space which 
separates the celestial and terrestrial worlds. 

To each of the twelve principal of these counsellors was Supposed in- 
allotted a month of the year, and one of the twelve signs of the cSeiLtfous.* 
Zodiac ; ' through which latter, the motions of the sun, moon, 
&c., appear to have been determined with considerable pre- 
cision. The Chaldean system of astrology appears also to have 
included twenty-four constellations beyond the Zodiac, one- 
half in the northern portion of the heavens, and the other in 
the southern. The latter was supposed to have reference to 
individuals who are deceased, and those of the former, which 
are visible, to the actions of the living, and these were consi- 
dered to influence the whole train of good and evil to mankind : 
to these were added, as an additional means of predicting what 
is to happen, the art of divination by the flight of birds, the 
entrails of .victims, and the interpretation of dreams." 

The divine mediatorial power at'aiouttd to the planets, &c., 
appears to have been followed by a lower kiiid of idolatry, 
namely, the use of images; which being made under certain 
aspects of those bodies, and consecrated by magical rites, were 
believed to continue under their influence. It is sufficiently „ , , 

•' Consecrated 

clear, that images of this kind, whether small or great, were images. 
connected with Babylonian worship,'' and doubtless, they were 
similar to the Teraphim mentioned in Scripture : * but it may 
here be observed, that as the names of these images are She- 
mitic, and correspond with those of the heavenly bodies,^ it 
has been inferred that they were purely astrological. 

' Compare Diod, Sic, lib. II., cap. xxi., with Ideler, Ueber der Ursprung' 
des Thierkreises. Letronne, while questioning the derivation of the Zodiac 
from the Chaldeans, admits that the Dodecatemaries came from that people 
to the Greeks. — See his Review on Ideler's work, Journal des Savans for 
1839, pp 493, 528. 

^ Diod, Sic, lib. II., cap. xxi. ^ Dan , chap. III,, v, 6, 7, 11, 15, &c, 

* Judges, chap. XVII., v, 5, chap, XVIII., v. 4 and 20 ; Genesis, chap. 
XXXI., V. 19, 34, chap. XXXV., v. 2, 4, 

* Ba'al, Nebo, Merodach, Succoth, Benoth, &c., note by Aloys Sprenger, 


Such is the account which has been transmitted to us of the 
Chaldeans and their leaders, at the period when the knowledge 
and influence of the priest caste probably were greatest, namely, 
between the departure of Kahtan and that of the other Shemitic 
branch from Babylonia towards Canaan ; the settlement of this 
branch in the latter territory will be noticed more fully in the 
succeeding Chapter. 

( 61 ) 



Abraham quits U'r of the Chaldees. — The Patriarch proceeds from Haran 
to Damascus, Palestine, and Egypt. — Settlement of Abraham and Lot. — 
Invasion and Discomfiture of the Assyrian Kings. — March of the latter 
through the Desert. — Destruction of Sodom from natural and supernatural 
causes. — The Alliance of Lot's Daughters with the people of the country, 
originates the Moabites and Ammonites. — Birth of Ishmael and Isaac. — 
Expulsion of the former. — Territory of Ishmael's Descendants. — The 
Sons of Keturah and the Midianites. — State of Egypt from the time of 
Abraham to that of Joseph. — Historical interest of Egypt. — Invasion of 
the Hyk-sos, part coming through Abyssinia. — Their Dominion in Egypt, 
and Period of their Expulsion. — The Sons of Esau occupy Mount Seir. — 
Mingled People of Arabia. — Amalekites, Edomites, Saracens, &c. — The 
Horites. Eliphaz the Temanite. — Position of the Land of Uz. — Period 
of Job's Trial. — The Localities about O'rfah correspond with the circum- 
stances in the book of Job. — State of Knowledge in Arabia in the time of 
Job. — The Tobbai of Yemen. — Expedition of the Hiniyarilesinto Central 
Asia. — Samarcand founded. — Language and written Character of the 
Himyarites. — Inscriptions found in Yemen, also at Hisn Ghorab, Kakb- 
el-Hajar, &c., and others near San'a. — Ard-es-Saba, or Land of Saba. — 
Hirayari Inscription found near 'Aden. — Traces of that People in 
distant countries. — The Hebrew Language, its Cognates and written 

The settlement of the principal branch of the Sheraitic people ,, , , 
in the central and southern parts of Arabia, as detailed in the departure an 
preceding Chapter, was at no distant period followed by the e™odi.^° 
occupation of the north-western extremity of the peninsula by 
another section of the same race. The possession of Palestine 
afterwards took place ; and this event had in the sequel, the 
greatest influence upon the state of the neighbouring nations, 
more particularly on the empires of Egypt and Assyria. 

The departure of Abraham for the promised land, became 

62 Abraham's departure from u'r. [chap. hi. 

one of the most interesting events recorded in the Old Testa- 
Abraham ment ; but the previous removal of the patriarch from Lower to 
LXT/to ^°^ Upper Mesopotamia, has not been distinguished with sufficient 
pSami^^^'' clearness, from the subsequent journey which he made by Divine 

command from Haran. 
Causes of Alluding to the former, Josephus gives as the cause of this 

change of change of residence, that the patriarch Terah hated Chaldea, 
resideDce. ^^^ accouut of the loss of his SOU Haran ; ^ who died in the 
presence of Terah his father, in the land of his nativity, in U'r 
of the Chaldees.' But elsewhere he alludes to another and a 
more powerful reason, viz., an opposition excited by the 
Chasdim of Mesopotamia. This took place at U'r, the birth- 
place of Abraham,^ who is thus particularly described by 
Berossus, without being actually named : " After the Deluge, 
in the tenth generation, there was a certain man among the 
Chaldeans, renowned for his justice and great exploits, and 
for his skill in the celestial sciences." ■* The latter cir- 
cumstance apparently gave umbrage to the hierarchy of 
Babylonia, which was no doubt increased by the opposition 
of the patriarch to their doctrines ; for he not only in- 
His kno^iiedge culcatcd the gTcat truth that there is but one God, the Creator 

exciU'S the . *-" 

enmity of the of the uuiversc, and taught that if other gods contribute in 
any way to the happiness of mankind, it is by His appointment, 
and not by their own power;* but according to another authority, 
he proceeded to set fire to the temple of the idols in U'r of the 
Chaldees, and Haran, his brother, having gone in to extinguish 
the fire, was there consunied.® 

It is also stated by Miihammedan writers, that Abraham 
refused to continue his former vocation of selling images for 
Azar or Terah, his father ;' and elsewhere it appears that he 
opposed the astrology of the day ; maintaining that the hea- 

' Jos., Ant., lib. T., cap. vi. 
' Gen., chap. XI., v. 28, Bellamy's translation. 
' Euseb., Praep. Evan., lib, IX., cap. iv., from Eupolemus. 
* Ibid., lib. IX., cap. xvii. 

' Jos., Ant., lib. I., cap. vii., compared witli Zonares, Annales, tome 1, 
p. 22, Paris, 1686. 

« 'Abii-1-Faraj, Hist. Dynast., p. II. Brans and Kirch, Leipsic, 1788. 
' Bibliotheque Orientale, Arts. Azar, and Muhammed fijs de Mdlik-shah 


venly bodies were subservient to Him who commands them ; Abraham 
to whom alone men ought to offer honour and thanksgiving.' Sabaism. 

Abraham having been converted by a special revelation to 
the true faith," from which his familv had departed, in the way 
so particularly described by Epiphanius ;^ or (as it is elsewhere 
expressed), "delivered from the fire of the Chaldeans,"^ and 
the patriarch and his kindred being determined to abandon 
idolatry, and no longer "to follow the gods of their fathers,"^ 
they removed to another part of the country ; or, as it is more 
clearly expressed in Scriptnre, " they (Terah and Abraham, 
&:c.) went forth from U'r of the Chaldees, to go to the land of 
Canaan ; so they came to Haran, and dwelt there." ^ 

According to the chronology given by Josephus, this event Epoch of his 
took place 420 years after the Deluge, and 1020 years anterior from Mesopo- 
to the building of Solomon's temple.^ Commentators differ ™'^' 
very little regarding the latter period ; and adopting that of 
Crossthwaite,® the departure of Abraham from Mesopotamia in 
the year 2031 b.c, will become a cardinal point to determine 
the subsequent dates, which will be chiefly taken from those of 
the valuable historian of the Jews. 

Being now settled at such a distance as Haran, Abraham and 
his family could freely follow the purer light which had been 
handed down through Shem ; and the preservation of that 
light was thenceforth specially entrusted to them. 

The change of residence is distinctly mentioned as having 
taken place in the sixtieth year of the patriarch, and as he was 
seventy-five when he quitted his father's house, it follows that B.C. 201 6., 

' Jos., Ant., lib, I., cap. vii., also Zonares, Annales, tome I., p. 22. 

« Acts, cliap. VII., V. 2. 

^ " And from the times of Tharra, the father of Abraham, they introduced 
images and all the errors of idolatry, honouring their forefathers and their 
departed predecessors with effigies which tliey fashioned after tlieir likeness. 
They first made these effigies of earthenware, but afterwards they sculptured 
them in stone, and cast tliem in silver and gold, and wrought them in wood 
and other kinds of materials," — Anc. Fragments, by I, Preston Cory, Esq., 
p. 55. 

* 2 Esdras, chap. IX,, v. 7. * Judith, chap. Y,, v. 6, 7. 
« Gen., chap. XL, v. 31. 

' Ant., lib. VIIL, cap. iii., sec. 1. 

* Crossthwaite's Synchronology, &c. Parker, London, 1839. 



Abraham ^g li^d remained above fourteen years at that city^ before he 
by'^aTmrnerous departed thence to perform the higher duties which had been 
'"''^' commanded.' Taking, therefore, Sarai his wife,' and Lot his 

brother's son, with all their substance, and the souls they had 
gotten in Haran, Abraham now went forth to go into the land 
of Canaan.* This portion of sacred history mentions the fact 
very briefly ; but from later circumstances it is evident that, in 
quitting Haran, Abraham was accompanied by a considerable 
body of people, such as would form a large tribe in the present 
day, which is an important circumstance in connexion with the 
increase of the Hebrew people. 
He is said to It is expressly stated that Abraham came with an army from 
a? DamScus. the region situated above Babylon, that of the Chaldees, and 
reigned as a stranger or foreigner in Damascus, where, even 
now, his name is celebrated, and a part of the town shown 
which is called the dwelling of Abraham. It is added, that not 
long afterwards he removed with his people to the region then 
called Khananea, but now Judea.^ From this city, which is 
said to have been founded by a sovereign called Marsuphus, or 
El Murephus, about twenty years before the patriarch was 
born,^ Abraham took as his steward an inhabitant named 
Eleazer;' but shortly after his arrival, in consequence of a 
grievous famine, the party proceeded from Judea into Egypt. 

Being highly esteemed for his wisdom, Abraham, as we are 
informed, greatly ingratiated himself with the people, by com- 
municating to them a knowledge of the arts, particularly of 
?mpaMed"to™'^ arithmetic and astronomy, which were thus brought from the 
the Egyptians. Chaldeans into Egypt, and from thence carried into Greece." 

* 'Abu-l-Faraj, Hist. Dynast., p. 13, compared with Philo Judaeus, 16, 
Migrath. Abrah. p. 415. 

* ♦' Now Jehovah had said to Abraham, go forth from thy land, also from 
thy kindred, and from tlie houseliold of thy fathers, to the land which I will 
show thee." This consequently refers to a time anterior to his removal 
from U'r. — Gen., chap. XII., v 4, Bellamy's translation. 

' Gen., chap. XII. * Ibid., v. 5. 

* Nicolaus Damascenus, lib. IV., Ilistoriarum. 

« 'Abu-l-Faraj, Hist. Dynast., p. 13. ^ Gen., cliap. XV., v. 2. 

" Annales, .lohaiiiiis Zoiiares, tome I., p. 22, Paris, 1686, compared with 
Jos., Ant., lib. I., cap. viii. ; Euseb., PrEep., lib. IX., cap xvi ; St. Augustin, 
lib. XVIII., cap. xxxvii., de Civit. Dei. 

B.C. 2014. 


CHAP. III.] Abraham's return to jubea. G5 

From this incidental circumstance it is evident, that the state of 
knowledge on the banks of the Nile was at this time inferior to 
that of the Chaldeans ; or, in other words, that the Babylonians 
had made considerable progress during the interval between the 
departure of the first settlers towards Eg}q)t and that of 

After continuing about five years imparting this knowledge 
to the Egyptians, Abraham and Lot, taking all their substance, 
retraced their steps into Judea ; where an amicable separation e.c. 2009. 
speedily took place. Finding their flocks much too great for 
the country, Lot chose in consequence the fertile pasture-ground jS^^and 
Iving eastward of the river Jordan, and Abraham settled more reparation 

w ~ ' _ from Lot. 

to the westward, in the promised land ; namely in the plains of 
Marare, near Hebron. Shortly after the establishment of the 
former patriarch amongst the descendaiitS|.of Ham, a circum- 
stance occurred which has a particular historical interest, since 
it not only shows that a constant intercourse was maintained 
between this part of the country and Babylonia, but also that 
the Assyrian dominion, founded by Nimriid, extended to the 
borders of Syria and Palestine, and most likely included those 
countries also. 

Previous to the settlement of Lot, and whilst Abraham, then 
in his seventy-first year, w^as still at Haran, the w^ar of Chedor- 
laomer commenced,^ and the Assyrians having made a hostile 
inroad, imposed a tribute on this part of the country, as weW as 
the adjoining territory of S}Tia. This appears to have been 
regularly paid during the succeeding twelve years ; ^ but a 
rebellion in the thirteenth year caused a fresh invasion, and s^Tia^'"" " 
Tidal or Thadel, bearing the high-sounding Assyrian title of 
King of Xations, marched at the head of the chief prnices ofo-c-socs, 
his territories — namely, Chedorlaomer, king of the Elamites ; 
Amraphael, king of Shinar ; and Arioch,^ king of Ellasar, in 
Assyria ; and smote the Rephaims in Ashteroth Karnaim, and 
the Zuzims in Ham, the Emims in the valley of Kiriathaim, 
the people of Jebel Jelad, and the Horeeans or Horites of 

' 'Abii-l-Faraj, Hist, Dynast., p. 11. * Jos., Antiq., lib. I. cap. ix. 
^ Major Eawlinson, vol. IX.. p. 47, of Royal Geographical Journal, and 
Juditli, chap. I., v. 6. 

VOL. n. F 


Mount Seir ; and having pushed their conquests along the 
northern side of Wadi El 'Arabah as far as the wilderness of 
Paran, and towards the shores of the Mediterranean, smiting as 
they returned by Enmishpat (Kadesh) all the country of the 
Amalekites, likewise that of the Amorites in Hazezon-tamar, 
and subseqent thev finally entered what was then called the vale of Siddim, 
Assynaus, or the woodland valley. Here they encountered and vanquished 
the assembled forces of the kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, 
Zeboim, and Bela or Zoar, taking all their substance ; and 
amongst other captives was Lot, the ally of these kings.^ 

On receiving intelligence of this successful invasion, Abraham 
hastily armed his followers, and being supported by the forces 
brought by Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner, he overtook the Assy- 
rians on the fifth night at Dan, near one of the sources of the 
Jordan, and before they had even time to arm, he put them to 
the route, and continued a close pursuit till they were again 
overtaken on the second day at Hobah, on the left hand, or north 
of Damascus. Here, as the fruits of a complete victory, 
Abraham and his allies, in addition to the spoil, rescued his 
Rescue of Lot relative as well as the captive Sodomites ; and it was in return- 
wUh Mel- ° i"& ii'i triumph that the patriarch was welcomed by Melchi- 
chizedt^k. zedek, the king of Solyma (now called Jerusalem), a most 
ancient city.- It may here be observed, that as the death of 
Shem occurred about 502 years after the Flood, it is quite 
possible, as already hinted (p. 27), that the king of Salem may 
have been that patriarch himself; to whom, as the high-priest 
of God,^ the expulsion of the people of Ham must have been 
peculiarly acceptable. 

It has been inferred from the limited number of men stateci 
to be with him (318), that Abraham repelled a mere foray, or, 
at most, a partial inroad of the Assyrians ; but if these were 
the men regularly armed and trained, and if an estimate be 
formed on the moderate scale of four unarmed persons to each 
of these, his followers would number about 1600. Moreover, it 

' Josephus, lib, T., cap. ix., compared witli Gen., cliap. XIV., v. 1 to 14, 
aiul Zonare.^, Annalc.>j, tome I., pp. 21, 22. 
* Zonares, Annales, tome I., p. 21. 
I Jos., lib. T., cap. x., and Gen., cliap. XIV., v. 18, 19. 



must be remembered, that the patriarch's means were not con- Abraham's 

. , ■, . lollowers and 

fined to the number of his own followers, but included the allies. 
Amoritcs, led by the confederate chiefs already mentioned, who 
probably brought a considerable force into the field. It is not, 
therefore, difl[icult to imagine that a retreating horde, encum- 
bered with captives, spoil, &c., and necessarily covering an 
extensive space, might be completely routed by the sudden and 
judicious attack made at Dan by night, when eastern people are 
seldom prepared to resist an enemy. This success was followed 
by a close pursuit, and a second victory at Hobah. The route 
taken on this occasion by the retreating Assyrians was evidently 
difi*erent from that by which they had advanced against the 
kings of Sodom. For the Cushite tribes on the borders having 
made common cause with the latter, the Assyrians, instead of Advance and 
passing through the cultivated tract in the" line of Hobah and Assyrians. 
Dan, which would have afforded to the invaded time to 
assemble their forces, chose the shorter and more direct route 
of the Desert ; then, as has just been mentioned, by skirting 
the borders of the wilderness, the Rephaims, Zuzims, and the 
five kings of the territory now occupied by Lake Asphaltites, 
being overcome in succession, the invaders followed the valley 
of the Jordan to Dan, and thence along the western side of 
Damascus to Hobah, where their final destruction took place. 

About three years after the skilful rescue of Lot, Ishmaeln. 0,2005. 
was born, in the encampment between Kadesh and Bered ;^ and 
thirteen years subsequently the fair portion of territory occupied 
by Lot, was the scene of the most awful catastrophe hitherto The catas- 
recorded, the Deluge alone excepted ; for according to the Vaie of 
Scripture'"^ account, as well as that given by Strabo,^ thirteen ' ™ 
cities of the plain were, from the joint effects of natural and 
supernatural agencies, overwhelmed by an inundation of burning 
sulphur. The vale of Siddim, being full of slime, or bitu- 
minous pits, at the time of the battle of the kings, and these pits 
having been ignited by fire sent do^vn from heaven,* the 
asphaltum also burning freely, the materials were gradually 
consumed, and the conflagration at length produced the basin 

' Gen., chap. XVI., v. 14. - Gen., chap. XIX., v. 24, 25. 

' Lib. XVI., pp. 760, 763. * Verse 24. 

F 2 



now occupied by the Lake of Sodom and Gomorrah ; which 
has been ascertained to be in one part about 1200 yards deep. 

produces the The peculiar salt and bitter taste of the waters of the Dead 

ScKiom? Sea, and the quantity of bitumen collected on its surface, in the 

manner described by Diodorus Siculus/ with its powerful 
exhalations, which are perceptible at the distance of many 
miles,^ are so many circumstances in accordance with the brief 
account of the destruction of this tract of country given in the 
book of Genesis, as well as with that of profane historians/ and 
the traditions of the Arabs. The latter state, that in this 
locality the Thamudite giants* (in whom may be recognised the 
people of Sodom) were destroyed. 

Lot's flight to It was during the awful conflagration in question that Lot 
fled to Bela, a small city which had been spared for his sake ; 
and from thence he speedily removed to a cave in the vicinity. 
According to the version given by Onkelos of the portion of 
Scripture contained in the fourteenth verse of the nineteenth 
chapter of Genesis, namely, " sons-in-law, who were to marry 
his daughters,"^ it Avould appear that the latter had only been 
aflBanced according to eastern custom ; an explanation w^hich, 
though different from that hitherto given, appears to be borne 
out by two incidental circumstances connected with this part of 
the narrative. The first is suggested by the particular words 
used by Lot himself regarding his daughters, at the beginning of 
the eighth verse ; and the second, by the fact that no reference 
is made to any other daughters but those who escaped with 
their father. 

There is likewise a different version given of another circum- 

andcircum- staucc couuectcd w4th Lot's postcritv, which is approached with 

st;inces c<ia- , . . , , 

nected^ much diffidence. This version, if correct, would make the 
origin of the Moabites and Ammonites much less objectionable 
than that which has been hitherto ascribed to them. 

' Lib. II., cap. xxix. ; also Tacitus, lib. V. 

- Il)id.. pp. 310, 311 ; and above, vol. I , pp. 402, 403,404. 

' Ibiil., lib. II., cap. xxix. ; Strabo, lib. XVI., pp. 760,763, 764 ; Pliny, 
lib. v., cap. xvi., p. 504. 

■* Arabic MS8., No. 7357, in the British Museum, translated by Aloys 
Sprenger, M.D. 

^ Gen., chap. XIX., v. 14. 



According to a recent translation, the sense of the passage is Marriages of 

o 11 r^y^ i i p T i i i • i i • Lot's daugh 

as loUows: — Ihe elder oi Lots daughters said to her sister, ters, 
" Our father is old, and there is not a man to come to us, asB. c. loai. 
is the custom of all the land, therefore we will drink wine with 
our father, then we will abide from him ; thus we shall procure 
posterity after our father. So they drank wine with their 
father that same night, when the first-born abode from her 
father, but he knew not where she abode, neither when she 
married."' " Now it was in after time that the first-born said 
to the younger, Behold, I abode in time past from my father : 
we will drink wine also this night, then go and abide from him ; 
thus we shall procure posterity after our father. Then they 
drank wine also that night with their father, and the younger 
married and abode from him ; but he knew not where she 
abode, neither when she married. Thus .both the daughters of 
Lot conceived unknown to their father. Then the first-born 
bare a son who was called Moab, and the younger also bare a 
son, and she called his name Ben Ammi."" 

The disobedience and deception practised by Lot's daughters 
on these occasions, were sufficient to bring a curse upon the off- 
spring, which was thus derived from the guilty people of the 
land, and they continued in consequence distinct nations. The 
former, or the Moabites, occupied the city of Ar, and the rest Tiie MoaVites 
of the country on the banks of the river Arnon, from whence ites continue 
they expelled the giant Emims of the race of Ham :^ the capital ^^^^'"^ 
of the latter was Rabbah of Amnion, the city of waters,^ from 
whence they expelled the Zamzummims.^ The Moabites and Am- 
monites being under these circumstances chiefly Cushite, conti- 
nued, as might be expected, in consequence separate branches. 

About the period of the destruction of Sodom, the name of 
the Hebrew patriarch was changed from Ab-ram (high father) 
to Abraham, the intended father of a multitude of nations ; 
and a few years aflerwards the promised heir was born in his b.c. i987. 
tent near Beersheba ; on which occasion, at the instance of 

' Gen., chap. XIX., v. 31 to 33, Bellamy's translation. 

^ Gen., chap. XIX., v. 34 to 38, Eellaniy's translation. 

•■• Deut., chap. II., v. 10, 11. ^2 Sam., cliap. XII., v. 2fi, 27. 

* Deut., chap. II., v. 20. 


ISHMAEl's territory in ARABIA. [cHAP. III. 

Iscah or Sarah, Ishmael was sent forth to enjoy an inheritance 
elsewhere. But even if this fact did not appear in the sequel, 
it can scarcely be doubted that in the richly-figurative language 
of the East, the bread and water provided for Hagar and her 
son, denoted that an ample provision had been made for the 
fugitive. Indeed, it can scarcely be imagined that a wealthy 
prince could have banished his youthful son as a helpless wan- 
derer, instead of bestowing upon the future Arabian prince 
some part of his ample flocks, and even a proportion of his 
numerous followers to tend them. Ishmael, and those who 
accompanied him, may therefore be considered as constituting 
a new tribe in the valleys of Arabia Petrsea, and by no means 
an unimportant one, since the chief was of suflScient consequence 
to form an alliance with the Cushites of Egypt ;^ and subse- 
quently, a marriage with the daughter of Mozauz or Modhaudh, 
the chief of the powerful tribe of Jorham, ( Jurham) ; and, with 
the twelve princes, his sons, commenced the grafted race, or 
El Arab Mostearibe.^ Their territory must have been con- 
siderable, for we are told that it extended from Havilah unto 
Shur,^ as thou goest towards Assyria, or, as it is clearly implied 
in another part of the same verse, from the confines of Egypt 
to Havilah on the higher Euphrates ; so that, in fact, it included 
the whole of the upper or western part of Arabia Deserta. 
No doubt Ishmael's descendants had intermixed with the earlier 
inhabitants, as he himself had done ; and it is evident that they 
gained the ascendancy to some extent, for the name is preserved, 
sometimes separately, at other times in conjunction with that of 
the Hagarenes, who, it is asserted by a Hebrew commentator 
(Kimchi), were descended from Hagar by an Arab husband. 

The death of Sarah, about 1944 B.C., and the alliance of 
Abraham with a Canaanitish woman, Keturah or Tour,* gave 
rise to other inhabitants of Arabia. Subsequently to the death 
of Abraham, some, or perhaps all of these sons, appear to have 
settled near the Elanctic Gulf; in a tract of country which 

* Gen., chap. XXI., v. 21. 

* See Appendix to vol. I., Table III. 
" Gen., chap. XXV., v. 18. 

* Price's Essay towards the History of Arabia, p. 80. 


probably took its iiaine from Midian, and became afterwards so 
remarkable for its wealth and civilization. 

Ilevertiiiff now to the Hebrew tribes, the principal branch ^''^ Hebrews 

. . ■'..■'• were iiuiul'- 

descended from the heir of promise, and considering that the rous from the 
chief part of Abraham's numerous followers, who accompanied Abr^aham. 
him into Canaan, belonged to this race, it is evident that they 
must have been a considerable people at the time they w^ent 
down into Egypt. In pursuance of the Divine purpose of 
preserving the chief line of the Patriarch's posterity/ during 
the coming years of famine, Jacob's favourite son was conveyed 
as a slave to a neighbouring empire, whose important position 
among the nations of the world, became from henceforth better 
known in consequence of this new link. 

A concentrated territory, like the Valley of the Nile, the First govem- 
upper portion especially, w^as admirably a/lapted for the pro-"^^'^''* ^^^ 
gressive improvement of a fixed government. This govern- 
ment appears to have been commenced on the establishment 
of the followers of Mizraim in the country, towards the middle 
of the second century after the Deluge :^ and as the new settle- 
ment was not liable to be weakened by extension and sub- 
division, as in the case of tribes spreading into wider regions, 
its advancement would necessarily be rapid. Accordingly it 
will be remembered, that only 321 years after the commence- 
ment of this kingdom, Abraham found it an established mo- 
narchy, with those gradations in rank and office on w^hich its 
successful maintenance depends at home ; and from the know- 
ledge which the Patriarch had of the country previous to going 
down to Egypt, it may be inferred that the necessary com- 
mercial and political relations already existed, for drawing 
wealth and prosperity from abroad. 

The state of the country at this period is very briefly and 
generally noticed ; but at the time now under consideration, 
namely, about 201 years later, Joseph found there a learned b.c. isis. 
caste, consisting of priests, physicians or embalmers, called social state of 
Healers ; also distinct classes of husbandmen, watermen, and ^^^P^ 

* Gen., chap. XLV., v. 7. 

* Manes began to reign, says Shuckforth, p.t>. 116, or, according' to 
Galterer, ]o3 p.d. 


shepherds. In fact, everything denoted the existence of a 

well-regulated and extensive kingdom, which, in addition to its 

various products at home, already enjoyed those of distant 

regions by means of caravan commerce. 

Probability At this period, the country was under the sway of the 

ilSonSed'Memphian Pharaoh; and that some knowledge of a purer 

in^Egypt. religion had been preserved by the people of E^jipt, is evident, 

from the impression made on the monarch by his dream, as 

well as from the conduct of one of his predecessors in restoring 

Sarah to her husband.^ 

GoTernment jj; appears that when Jacob came thither, about 215 years 

?he coming^f after Abraham's visit, the monarch was attended by courtiers, 

''^''''^' and high officers of state, and that his court was regulated by 

a strict ceremonial. There was a state prison under the charge 

of a captain of life-guards; and no doubt there was then a 

regular army : at a rather later period this numbered 600,000 


The early civilization and science of Egypt were such as to 
render it improbable that the whole should be due to the 
gradual improvements made on the creation of an infant colony, 
and it may rather be ascribed to the progressive extension of 
the attainments already possessed by the first persons who 
migrated towards that part of the old world. 

Egypt recalls to our minds a train of historical associations 
which command a high degree of interest : and the monuments 
of art with which the country abounds, appear to justify the 
opinion that she originated the architecture which, in Greece, 
was afterwards carried to such perfection. 

With regard to one period of her early history, the establish- 
ment of the shepherd race on the banks of the Nile is thus 
described by an ancient historian : — 
Coming of tie " It came to pass during the reign of Timaus, that God was 
Hyksos, displeased with us, and there came up from the East, in a 

strange manner, men of an ignoble race, who had the confidence 
to invade our country, and easily subdued it by their power, 
without a battle. Having demolished the temples of the gods, 

■ Goii., rliap. XTT., v. 15-20. 


and inflicted every kind of barbarity upon the inhabitants, they 
at length made one of their number king, whose name was 
Sahitis. The seat of his government was Memphis ; and Lower 
Egypt (called the Arabian nomey being now tributary, he 
stationed garrisons in suitable places, and directed his attention 
chiefly to the eastern frontier as a protection against the Assy- 
rians, foreseeing that they would one' day undertake an invasion ^^^ their con- 

,.,,,. J *'„., -^ ^ quest of Egypt. 

01 the kingdom. " 

From the term " ignoble," it may be inferred that the con- 
querors were not, like Manetho himself, derived from a pure 
Cushite stock, but had been part of the Shemitic people who, 
at a later period, had followed the sons of Mizraim into Arabia, 
and again into Africa ; and the successive inroads into the latter 
country, with other circumstances, make it probable that some 
were Cushites, and others branches of the • Himyarites. It is 
stated that the latter and the Sabaei were one and the same 
people, only divided by the Red Sea ; and from the similarity of 
the Ethiopian language to the Arabic in its most ancient state, 
as well as the practice of circumcision, it would appear that 
they had come from thence at a very early period.^ Accord- a CusLite 
lug to tradition, preserved from time immemorial among Abyssinia. 
the Abyssinians, another Cushite colony came into that country 
soon after the flood, and settled in a ridge of mountains on 
the confines of Atbara. Here they excavated dwellings, and 
spread industry and arts eastward and westward from thence ; 
Axiim and Meroe being the earliest cities which they founded.* 
Another section, called Shepherds or Berbers, occupied the 
tract extending along the African coast, southward and north- 
ward of the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. These were considered 
the ordinary class, who, being partly nomadic, moved with their 
numerous flocks from place to place ; having their principal 
seat in the country now called Beja. The former branch, 

' Jos., Cont. Apion., lib. I., s. 14. 

* From Manetho. — See Ancient Fragments, pp. 169, 170, by Isaac 
Preston Cory, Esq. W. Pickering, 1832. 

^ Ludolphus, Hist, ^thiop. I., and Comment, ad suam Hist, ^thiop., 
lib. XVI., p. 60, compared with Hudson, Geog. Min., tome I., p. 46. 

* Bruce's Travels to discover the Source of the Nile, vol. II., pp. 12, 13, 
14, 18, Dublin, 1791 ; Jos., Ant., lib. II., cap x. 


however, being the warrior and dominant class, were more 
particularly considered the Hyksos.' 
The name of From the preceding circumstances it would appear that the 
baWy givXto name of Shepherd, at least, was equally applied to the two 
two races. y^qq^, who peopled Africa at distant intervals; such as the 
Cushites in the first instance,^ and subsequently the Sukkims,^ 
and other Shemitic branches. But that a numerous people de- 
nominated Pastors descended along the Nile, is manifest from 
the remains of troglodyte dwellings at Axum as well as Meroe, 
and likewise from the circumstance of their first stronghold 
having been in the Theban district ; to which it will be recol- 
lected, they afterwards added Lower Egypt. Here, on account 
of their vocation, which was an abomination to the Egj'ptians, 
they continued to live almost as a separate people till the time of 
their expulsion, when agreeably to the terms of the capitulation 
they quitted Egypt, and the main body retired into Palestine. 
Joseph seems to have been alive at that time, and it is probable 
that the Israelites lived amongst them previously to their de- 
parture, since Jacob and his followers, who were of the same 
race, and followed a similar calling, obtained permission from 
Pharaoh, who was a shepherd king, to settle in the land of Goshen. 
The shepherds, as might be expected, were opposed to the 
Egyptians, not only in the use of cattle for food, but also in 
Sabaism of the the worship of images ; they adored the heavenly bodies ; and 
^^ ^^ ' a remarkable proof that they were conversant with the motions 
of these is given by Syncellus, who states, "* that Assis or Asith, 
their sixth king, added five intercalary days to the year, which 
previously consisted of 360 days. The calf was deified as 
Apis during the reign of that monarch.^ 

The inroad of the Hyk-sos,^ or Shepherd Kings of Arabia, 
one of the most remarkable events connected with the history 
of Egypt, has been placed as late as 1176 b. c, and their ex- 

' Bruce 's Travels to discover the Source of the Nile, vol. II., pp. 20, 21, 23, 
Dublin, 1791. - See vol. I., p. 281. * See preceding Chapter, p. 33. 

* P. 123. * Ancient Fragments, by I. Preston Cor)', Esq., p. 141. 

' Hyk denotes a king, in the sacred dialect, and 80s, in the vulgar lan- 
guage, signifies a shepherd, and hence shepherd king. — From Manetiio, 
p. 171 of Ancient Fragments of Isaac Preston Cory, Esq. W. Pickering, 
Loudon, 1832. 


pulsion in the year 10/0 ;' but both the inroad and the expul- Coming of the 

111,11 , . • I Shepherds and 

sion probably took place at a more remote period. 

In the second chapter of the second book, Manetho states 
that the shepherds quitted Es^ypt durins< the reign of Tuthraosis, their expul- 

1 IT- £• 1 • 1 11 1 1 • . sion from 

the seventh king or the eighteenth dynasty," whose exploits in Egypt. 
delivering the country are made prominent on the walls of the 
Memnonium. The date of their departure is placed 393 years 
before the flight of Danaus to Argos ;^ that is, soon after 
Joseph's death, between 1620 b. c. and 1630 b. c. or, according 
to Josephus, 1623 b. c. The latter period, "* with the addition of 
259 years and 10 months for the reign of the first six shepherd 
kings,^ and 100 for their successors up to the close of the 
war, in the 9th year of Thummosis,^ would place the arrival 
of the shepherds 1982 b. c. 

It may, however, be observed that Manetho elsewhere men- 
tions that the Hyk-sos and their descendants, retained possession 
of the country during a period of 511 years,' which would 
carry back their first invasion to about 2134 b. c. As this was 
about two centuries after the time of the settlement of Mizraim's 
followers in Egypt, and is anterior to the departure of Kahtan 
from Mesopotamia, it would in this case show that the earliest 
shepherds were Cushites. 

Josephus evidently confounded the exodus of the Israelites 
with the departure of the shepherds, which mistake may pos- Mistake of 

•111- 1 • 1 1 1 1 1 • 1 • n Josephus. 

sibly be in some measure explained, by the latter being chieiiy 
composed of his own, that is, the Shemitic race. 

* Synchronology, &c., by the Rev. Ch. Crossthwaite, pp. 116, 117, 240, 
241. Parker, London, 1839. 

* Ancient Fragments, by Isaac Preston Cory, Esq., p. 116, from Manetho. 
" Ancient Fragments, p. 138, by Isaac Preston Cory, Fisq. 

* Cont. Apion., lib. I., s. 16, and II., s. 2, in speaking of the departure of 
the shepherds, on the authority of Manetho, 393 years before the flight of 
Danaus, he places that event 612 years previous to the building of the 
temple: 1011 +612 = 1623. 

■^ Salatis, Baeon, Ajjachnes, Apophis, Sethos or lanias, and Assis, making 
259 years 10 months. — Ancient Fragments, pp. 140 and 170, by Isaac Preston 
Cory, Esq. 

^ Amosis, Chebron, Amenophis, Memphres or Mephres, Mispharmuthosis, 
and Tuthmosis (or Thummosis), 100 years. — Ibid., pp. 141, 142. 

' Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. 171, from Manetho. 


Esau removes -pjjg q^-Jj^^ Israelitish stock, namely the five sons of Esau bv 

to Mount Seir. i i *• i • • i 

liis two Canaanitish wives/ and his second marriage with 
Bashemath, Ishmael's daughter, had proceeded in another 
direction, and became part of the inhabitants of the Arabian 
peninsula; having removed with their father, after Isaac's 
B. c. 1801. funeral, to Mount Seir.- These w^ere the latest additions to 
the Arab race, and with the preceding offsets from the stocks of 
Abraham and Lot, they gradually formed the part of the 
inhabitants expressively called the mingled people of Arabia. 
The intermixture, however, took place chiefly with the Ama- 
lekites, Amorites, and other Cushite tribes on the borders of 
Palestine ; without materially changing the state of the pure 
or ancient Arabs in the interior of the peninsula. The 
distinctive appellations of Edomites, Midianites, Ishmaelites, 
Moabites, and Hagarenes,^ appear to have been the longest 
preserved in north-western Arabia ; to these, the designation 
Tiie Naha- of Nabathcans succeeded, and was applied in a general way, 
renes^Sara-^' ^Y Diodorus Siculus and other writers, to the whole of the 
ceiis, &c. nomad races of the upper part of the peninsula. At a later 
period, however, it was replaced by that of Sharkeyn, or 
Eastern people, afterwards Saracens, which was adopted almost 
universally by European writers ; its partial use by orientals 
being probably derived, as already noticed, from Zaraka,^ a 
town, rather than from Sarah, the wife of Abraham ; whose 
descendants were confined to two branches, namely, the He- 
brews and the sons of Edom. 

The latter on coming into Arabia, appear to have found the 
sons of Esau enjoying a patriarchal government under the 
Horite kings, which in all probability differed but little from 
that of the Sheikhs of the present day. These princes 
were succeeded by the dukes of Edom, for it is remarkable 
that this title had not been in use whilst the sons of Esau w^re 
in Canaan. Nor was it adopted till some little time after they 
Eiiphazthe Settled ill Mount Seir; for Eliphaz, son of Adah, was at first 

Teinanite, aud 

time of Job. _ 

' Gen., chap. XXXVI., v. 2. 

^ Ibkl., V. 6, 8, and cliap. XIV., v. 6. 

'•' Psalm LXXXIII., v. 6, 9. 

* See above, vol. T., p. 631. 


styled the Tenianite, from that portion of tlic new territory 
which fell to his lot.' 

The distinction thus incidentally made may be of some im- 
portance ; for if this individual were in reality the oldest of Job's 
friends, the circumstance may assist in determining the period 
to which one of the most interesting, and one of the oldest 
portions of Scripture belongs. "^ 

Several particulars, which will presently be noticed, go far 
to show, that the residence of Job could not have been in 
Idumea, nor even, as has been supposed by Dr. Lee, in the 
tract between Damascus and the river Euphrates ; but in all 
])robability it was in the vicinity of O'rfah, where a tank and aUpperMeso- 

n 1 1 T^- ' -r> 1 • 1 1 1 T • potamia, the 

w^ell on the road to JJiyar ±>ekr, with other localities, are con- land of Uz. 
nected with the name of the great Patriarch. 

It will be remembered that the district^in question was one 
of the seats, and possibly the principal one, of the Shemitic 
people ; it w^as also the land of Buz, son of Nahor,^ and probably 
also that of the eldest son of Aram,^ to whom the foundation 
of Damascus has been attributed,* "with the more probability, 
since this place might have been occupied by this branch of the 
sons of Xoah, as they spread westward. 

As a constant political intercourse appears to have been The Shemites 
maintained between the central government of Assyria on the Jamia and" 
one hand, and the dependent provinces about the borders of ^J'J'^^j^ '^"°" 
Syria on the other, it can scarcely be doubted that tribal, and 
still more strongly kindred ties, would be equally maintained 
between the descendants of Shem living in Mesopotamia, and 
those who occupied the borders of Syria and Arabia. And it 
may be observed that, agreeably to the prevailing customs of 
the east, such a journey as that from Idumea to the supposed 
rendezvous at O'rfah, would only be an ordinary circumstance, 
willingly undertaken in order to mourn with and comfort the 
distinguished chief of their tribe : some distance is certainly 
implied by the necessity of making an express appointment. 

' From Teman, a city of Edom. — Jer., chap. XLIX., v. 7, 20 ; Ezek., 
chap. XXV., V. 13 ; Amos, chap. I., v. 12. 

-' Gen., chap. XXII., v. 20, 21. =» Gen., chap. X., v. 23. 

^ Bochart, Geo. Sacr., lib. II., cap. viii. 



[chap. hi. 

The time of J^ow, Since the establishment of Teman as head of a family 

Job s trial. ' •' 

would, ill patriarchal times, probably take place when the man 
was about the age of fifty, it may be presumed that the visit of 
Eliphaz, and the trial of Job, took place nearly at the time of 
Jacob's departure for Egypt; and as Job had then ten sons 
and daughters, some settled in life, the patriarch himself could 
scarcely be less than about fifty years of age, which would 
carry his birth back to 1851 B.C., and the seventy-ninth year 
of Jacob. 
Nature and With reference to the localities connected with this history, 

climate of the . . x i t i • n - • i • i • 

country where it IS evident that JoD livcd HI a manuiacturing city, situated in 

Job resided. i , • . i • t • i m p 

a productive country, having corn and wine and oil presses ;"* 
with silver, iron, and brass mines ^ in the neighbourhood. The 
tract in question, we are told, was wet with the showers of the • 
mountains,* and it enjoyed the fertilizing effects of the small 
and great rain, having at other times its waters bound in thick 
clouds.^ Proximity to high mountains would cause the pre- 
ceding changes ; and that the country was likewise exposed to 
an extreme climate, is manifest from repeated allusions to the 
severity of winter, viz., snow and treasures of hail ;® cold from 
the north, snow on the earth, "and ice straitening the breadth of 
the waters f and again, being hid as with a stone, and the face 
of the deep frozen.^ In consequence of lying at the foot of 
Taurus, ancient Osroene is subject to all the preceding changes ; 
and it appears to correspond likewise with the other circum- 
stances incidentally mentioned in the book of Job. Here, in 
North Lat. 37° 9' 44", the twilight '° is lengthened, and the 
clusters or constellations designated the Pleiades, Orion, Mazza- 
roth, and Arcturus, would be constantly in view.^^ The idola- 
ters of the day,'^ the Sabeans of Haran too, were at hand to fall 
upon the oxen ploughing,'^ nor were the Chasdim, whether 

' Weaver's shuttle ; .Job, chap. VII., v. 6. « Job, chap. VI., v. 11. 

■' Chap. XXVIII., V. 1-3. * Chap. XXIV. v. 8. 

* Chap. XXVI., V. 8. « Chap. XXXVIII., v. 22. 

7 Chap. XXXVII., V. 6, 9. " Ibid., v. 10. 

» Chap. XXXVIII., V. 30. '» Chap. III., v. 9. 

" Ibid., V. 31, 32. '■-• Chap. XXXI , v. 26, 27. 

•^ Chap. I., V. 14, 15. 


those of the Taurus, or, more probably, another branch of the 
same people from the adjoining plains of Dura, too distant to 
carry off the camels from the neighbouring desert.' The topaz 
of Asiatic Cush^ would likewise come within Job's knowledge ; 
moreover, he had extensive mines of native steel and iron near 
Mar'ash, on one side, and of copper, silver, and gold on the 
other, both at Kebban Ma'den, and near Diyar Bekr. 

The presence of Elihu seems to offer an additional reason in Eiihu's reia- 

p n ^ • PI TT 111 ti^es, and pre- 

lavour 01 this part oi the country. He was, we are told, the vailing cus- 
son of Barachiel the Buzite, of the kindred of Eam or Aram ; ?™^' 
therefore, in all probability, he was part of the family of Buz, 
son of Nahor ; in which case he belonged to the same tribe, 
and lived in the same neigbourhood as Job. He was evidently 
a bystander, and not being one of the visiters, he was, as 
youngest of the party, according to Arab usage, the last to 
speak ; and, in fact, he only ventured to give an opinion when 
the subject of discussion was almost exhausted ; nor is he again 
mentioned at the close of this interesting dialogue, as is the 
case with the other speakers. 

The state of astronomical knowledge, as well as that of the 
arts in general which prevailed in Arabia at this time, as 
deduced from the discussions with Job, have already been 
noticed f but one portion, namely, the monumental inscrip- 
tions, claims some further observation in connexion with the 
advanced state of civilization which appears to have prevailed 
in the districts about Yemen^ as well as in those of Idumea and 

At the period in question, the influence of the Israelites, as The Israel- 
regards the people of Arabia, was almost in abeyance, owing to Egypt" ^^ 
their settlement in Egypt, whilst that of the older Shemitic branch 
was quite in the ascendant. At the termination of Job's life, as 
here presumed about 1651 b.c, or in his 200th year, Yemen had 
already been for a lengthened period under the Tobbai.^ It 

' Job, chap. I., V. IT. ^ Job, chap. XXVIII., v. 19. 

^ Vol. I., p. 666. 

■* From the Arabic Tabbaiah, which had a general signification, like that 
of Emperor, Khan, Pharaoh, Caesar, &c. — Bibliotheque Orientale, D'Herbelot, 
article Tobba. 


has been seen that Himyar, also called 'ArenjejV or, according 
to another authority, El 'Arfej,^ succeeded his father, Saba ; 
and with him commenced the Himyaritic dynasty. He was 
the first who wore a diadem, and, being an enlightened prince, 
he consolidated the government which had originated with his 
ancestor Ya'rab. 
ijimyar and Himvar was successivelv followed by Wathel, Sessac, Yaafar, 

liis successors • j •/ •z 

' Deryeth, Nu'man, Asmah, and Shedad. The last is supposed 
to have commenced his reign about 1578 B.C. He was inva- 
. riably called Shedad-ben- Ad ; who, according to Arab tra- 
dition, built some of the Pyramids as trophies of his extensive 
victories in Africa.^ One great and distant expedition under 
the Himyarite sovereign Hareth-al-Raish, had recently pro- 
ceeded towards India ; from whence much booty was brought.* 
The latter But Abrahah, the son and successor of Hareth-al-Raish, 

isvS.^ ^°'*' turned his arms towards Africa, and having penetrated far into 
Nigritia, he obtained the surname of Dhulmenar, or the Man 
of the Spires or Pharos, in consequence of having built these 
towers, which were said to have been intended to guide his 
retreat ; but it is more probable that they were stations and 
posts to protect his military operations and contain the neces- 
sary supplies. 
Invasion of Dhuhncuar was succeeded by Afrikus, who undertook a 

Abyssinia. . . it~»i / i o k ^ • • \ tt 

great expedition against the lierbers (south oi Abyssinia). He 
built a town which was called after his own name, and he car- 
ried his arms to the most distant part of the habitable world, 
or, according to Hamadun, as far as Tangier.^ 

Afrikus was succeeded by his son, Alfeidar, or Dhalghanatir ; 
meaning, in Himyari, the man of many fingers. Afterwards 
he turned his arms eastward, but died in 'Irak during his 
expedition. He was succeeded by Scharbabil, and the latter 
by El Hodad. 

' Arabic MSS., No. 7353, in the British Museum, traushited by Ahiys 
Sprenger, M.D. * Ibid., 7357. 

'•' Makrizi, translated by Ahiys Sprenger, M.D., from MSS. in the British 

■• Schultens, according to Hamza, p. 23. 

* Nowa'iri, in Schultens' Hist. Joctaindarum, p. 25. 


About this period a remarkable expedition appears to have 
proceeded under Abil Kurrub, the Himyarite, who, after having 
invaded India and Bactria, founded an empire in the latter 
territory, the capital of which was Samarcand. This city w as 
so called after one of the Arabian princes named Shamar ; and, 
it is added, one inscription was placed over the gate of Merv, 
and ai^other over the gate of China.' The kingdoms of Ghassan 
and Hirah were afterwards added to their preceding territories ; 
so that, when at its height, the Himyaritic power extended from Extent of the 
Bactria and India to Abyssinia, and again from the extremity power, 
of Yemen to the shores of S}Tia ; thus comprising almost the 
whole of the dominions, which were at one period subject to the 
Cushites." By some, however, even the name of this widely- 
spread race has been considered apocryphal ; but it should be 
recollected that the existence of the Tobbai, in Arabia at least, 
does not depend entirely upon tradition ; for there are proofs 
that a civilized people existed at a very remote period, bearing 
this appellation, and speaking a language exclusively their 
own — a dialect of which is still in use amongst the people of 
Mahrah.^ It is no longer doubtful that they also had a peculiar 
written character of great antiquity called Suri or Syrian,^ and 
many specimens have been found in different places, but more 
especially in Yemen. Niebuhr was aware of the existence of Himyan 

.... -^s'li 1 inscriptions 

inscriptions m an unknown character, at ban a and other places ; found in 
but, as his usually persevering researches were frustrated by ^'^'°" 
illness, it remained for Seetzen, the celebrated discoverer of 
Dj crash, to set this part of the question at rest, by finding them 
at Dhafar, one of the places w^hich had been formerly enume- 
rated ;^ and not far fi'om the town of Jerim, Seetzen discovered 

' P. 363 of El-Mas'iidf's Historical Encyclopaedia, translated by Aloys 
Sprenger, M.D. Allen and Co., Leadenhall Street, 1841. 

* See above, p. 18. 

' " Les Arabes de Mehret sont de race non raelangee. Le langage 
des habitans est tellement corrompu qu'on a de la peine a les comprendre, 
c'est I'ancien Himyarite." — Geog. DEdrisi, ed. .Jaubert, tome I., p. 150; 
Recueil de Voyage et Meraoires, &c., Paris, 1836. 

* Dissertation on the Newly-discovered Babylonian Inscriptions, by Joseph 
Hager, D.D., p. 14. 

* The Sheikh described a particular stone, to Niebuhr, as liaving an 
inscription on it, which neither the .Jews nor Muhammedans could read. 



Also at three such inscriptions : one he purchased, and a second was 

an. a. an ^^^p-^^ . but the third was SO deeply embedded in a wall, that 
he failed in the attempt to copy it. Again at Mankat, one 
hour from Dhafar, this lamented traveller met with five other 
Himyari inscriptions, on different stones, which were built into 
the wall of a mosque. Of these, only two were copied, the 
others being too high to admit of being deciphered. Four out 
of the five were on white marble, in relief ; and it is remark- 
able that, in the case of the largest, which in point of art and 
execution equals any Greek inscription, the lines are attached 
to strokes, like the well-known and most ancient Devanagari 
Sanscrit character.' 

In 1834 and 1835, the officers of the Honourable Com- 
pany's ship " Palinurus," under Captain S. B. Haines, of the 
Indian Navy, discovered, near the southern coast of Arabia, 
several Himyari inscriptions, the situations of which are 
marked on the survey of the coast made by this officer/ 

on the namely, at Wadi Sheikhavi, in 51 E.L., also near Kas Bag- 

ofVrabia^-*'^^ hashii, in 50" O' 30" E.L., and at Hisn Ghorab, about seventy 
miles to the westward of Makallah ; another, again, at some 
little distance in the interior near the ruins of Nakb-el Hajar f 
which are situated in Wadi Meifah, some miles north of Jebel 
Hamari. The third and fourth were separately copied by two 
of the officers. Lieutenants Wellsted * and Cruttenden,^ and 
published by the former. 

likewise San'a. Subsequently Lieutenant Cruttenden had the good fortune 
to bring before the world two others, which were obtained at 
San'a, during his visit to that city in 1836. One of these 
was brought from a spot only a short distance from the house 

" May it not be Himyaritic," adds the illustrious Dane, " since this was the 
site of Idaphar, which, according to ancient historians, was a royal residence 
of the Himyaritic kings?" — Niebuhr, vol. III., p. 83. Amsterdam, 1774. 

' Seetzen's Letter to Von Hammer, Fundgruben des Orients, tome II., 
p. 275. 

* See vol. IX., part i. of the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society. 

=• 14" 4' 30 ' N. lat., and 47' 4' 30" E. long.— Ibid. 

■* See Lieut. J. R. Wellsted's Travels in 'Oman and Arabia, vol. II., 
pp. 421, 426. 

' The copies made by Lieut. Cruttenden are deposited in the East India 


that had been occupied by the famous Niebuhr himself. It is Ji^^el'^"'^ "^'^ 
therefore very possible that other such inscriptions may still be 
found in that country, and it is even said that there were some 
amongst the ruins of the bund near Mareb. This celebrated 
structure was, we are informed, built of cut stone, secured by 
iron cramps, forming a prodigious mass of masonry, 300 cubits 
broad, and about two miles long, being the distance across the 
mountain valley, where, as is the case with similar works on the 
north-west side of India, particularly at Oedipore, an immense 
body of water was collected from the different Wadis. Whilst 
perfect, an ample supply of Mater was at command, not only for 
irrigation, but for ordinary purposes also ; and upon the dyke 
itself there were, according to the Arabs, inscriptions in the 
Musnad character.^ On some of the stones, which have been 
brought from that place in preference to preparing others at 
San a, Himyaritic characters have been found ; with which may 
be coupled the interesting fact, that the locality in question is 
called Ard-es-Saba,^ which goes far to prove that this was the Mareb, the 
ancient Saba.^ Three of the inscriptions copied by Lieutenant ^^"^^^"^ 
Cruttenden, I.N., are in relief, and the fourth deeply cut into 
marble : the letters are about two inches and a half long, and 
are exactly in the same character as that which was used at 
Nakb-el Hajar. 

Another was found near the Himyaritic sea-port of 'Aden in 
1842. It is on a circular slab of pure white marble, having a 
raised rim round it ; and, being less carefully executed, it pro- 
bably belongs to a later period than those already noticed.^ 

Monumental traces of the Himyarites are not, however, by 
any means confined to their original seat in Western Arabia ; 
they are also found in distant countries, both eastward and Himj-an 
westward. Beyond the opposite shores of the Red Sea, forAfSauT''* 

' Antiquities of Yemen, from an Arabic MS. in the British Museum, 
translated by Aloys Sprenger, M.D., No. 1496. 

* The land of Sheba. — Journal of the Royal Geograpliical Society, vol. 
VIII., p. 268. 

^ Mareb was the capital of the country of Saba. — See Golius in Alphergan, 
p. 86. 

* Captain Haines' Letter to J. P. Willoughby, Esq., Secretary to the 
Government of Bombay. 

G 2 



Antiquity of 

Cuneatic and 



origin of the 

instance ; in the latter direction, Jasasin 'Ibn Amru, the Him- 
yarite, conducted an expedition into Africa, as far as the valley 
of Sand, and even further, when the advanced body under his 
generals, perished. To commemorate this event, Jasasin 
ordered a metal statue to be placed on a stone, with an inscrip- 
tion in the Himyari character.^ The affinity of the Devana- 
gari Sanscrit to the Himyari, as well as the existence of an 
inscription at Samarcand, have been already noticed. The 
characters on the Bactrian coins, also appear to have a striking 
resemblance to those in question. And it is still more extra- 
ordinary that almost at the very antipodes of Samarcand, cha- 
racters have been found, whose similarity bespeaks a common 
origin.^ So far as success has attended the efforts of the learned 
in deciphering them, the Himyaritic inscriptions are of very 
remote antiquity, and possibly it may be found that the inscrip- 
tions in question, are more ancient than the Assyrian letters of 
Pliny f consequently, that they were in use previously to the 
Cuneatic letters. In this case, the language connected with 
the former may have been the parent of many tongues belong- 
ing to the various races, which are, as it were, so many recog- 
nised branches spreading from the parent stem, and showing in 
almost every instance an affinity to the root itself. 

The most numerous are the simple or monosyllabic branches, 
which prevail throughout the north-eastern parts of Asia and 
the greatest part of America and Africa. 

The second are, for the most part, dissyllabic, combining at 
the same time some grammatical construction ; and to these 
belong the Persian, the Grecian, the Latin, and the Teutonic 
tongues, &c. 

The third, or trisyllabic roots, appertain to the race now 
more particularly under consideration, namely, the Shemitic 
family, to which belong the Sanscrit, Chaldee, Arabic, Syriac, 
Phoenician,'' Canaanitish,^ Pehlavi, the Ethiopic of Habashi, or 

* Schultens, p. 25, according to Hamza. 

* Mr. AValdeck's new '.vork on Yacuta. =* Lib. VII., pp. 236, 238. 

* Both of these languages are derived from Babylonia. — Dissertation on 
the Newly-discovered Babylonian Inscription, by Joseph Hager, D.D., 
p. 14. 


Abyssinia, with the Cufic ; and especially the mixed language 
and square character of the children of Heber. The last 
appears to have been the result of an intercourse between the 
Shemites and Cushites of Syria and Palestine, after the arrival 
of Abraham. 

This patriarch no doubt preserved his own language whilst Derivation of 
he remained in Babylonia, as well as subsequently in Haran ; from Chaidee 
but that a change took place after his departure from the latter ^^ 
city, is almost capable of demonstration. We find Laban, 
during the journey in pursuit of his relatives, used the pure 
Chaidee, " Jegar Sahadutha," for the heap of stones which 
had been raised; whilst Jacob calls it by the Hebrew word 
Galeed.' It may be inferred from the former circumstance, 
that the Chaidee was the language of Abraham up to the time 
of his departure, and that the change took* place in Canaan. 
This, it is supposed, occurred in consequence of mixing Chaidee 
with the existing language of the country, and also with that of 
Hagar, who was a Cushite. In this way, therefore, the Chaidee 
Arabic dialect, together w^th its cognates, Syriac, Samaritan, 
Phoenician, Ethiopic, &c., is presumed to have been derived 
from the ancient Arabic of the Canaanites, &c., which was 
spoken by Abraham and his family with a Chaldean pronun- 
ciation : moreover, there is no doubt that the present Hebrew 
characters are of Chaidee origin.^ 

At the period more particularly alluded to, namely, between Epoch of the 
the departure of Jacob, or rather the trial of Job, 1801 B.C., zation in 
and that of the supposed time of the death of the latter, be- ^^ '*' 
tween 1651 and 1640 B.C., the principal provinces of Arabia 
appear to have been in their most advanced state of civilization ; 
this was probably derived from two races of people, namely, 
from the followers of Kahtan, who settled in Yemen, &c., and 
at a subsequent period from those of Abraham and Lot. The 
written character of each branch has been preserved ; and that 
still in use, namely the Hebrew, seems to have been connected 
with the older and more remote or Himyaritic branch, which is 
now almost extinct. 

' Or Galgnedh. — Gen., chap. XXXI., v. 47, 48 ; Jennings' Jewish 
Antiq., vol. II., p. 331. ^ Explanation by Mr. Rassam. 



The -eastern 
and western 
dialects had 
one common 

Besides a sufficient affinity both in the roots and verbs of 
eastern and western languages to indicate that they had one 
common origin, it also appears, from the high authority of Sir 
William Jones, that the square Chaldaic letters in which most 
Hebrew books are copied, were originally the same, or derived 
from the same protot}^pe, as the Indian and Arabian characters ; 
and there can be little doubt that the Phoenician had a similar 


Another well-known philologer, in his learned researches, 
speaking of one of the oldest tongues extant, observes, that the 
Sanscrit draws its origin, and that some steps of its progress 
may be traced, from a primitive language which was gradually 
refined in various climates, and became Sanscrit in India, 
Pehlavi in Persia, and Greek on the shores of the Mediter- 


^ Asiatic Researches, vol. I., p. 423. 

* H. T. Colebrooke, Esq., vol. I., p. 201 of Asiatic Researches. 

( 87 ) 


HISTORIES, FROM B.C. 1623 TO B.C. 1322. 

Successive Colonies proceed from Arabia into Eg-ypt. — Commerce of the 
Eg-yptians maintained principally by Land. — The Sepulchres furnish a 
Pictorial Plistory of the Country. — Cotton, Linen, Porcelain, and other 
Manufactures. — Alphabetical Writing in use antecedently to the construc- 
tion of the Pyramids. —Costumes of the various People. — Rich Hangings 
and Carpets manufactured. — Dyeing in use ; also Metals, Chariots, and 
Household Utensils. — System of Cultivation pictorially represented. — 
Use of the Himyaritic character by the Arabs in the time of Joseph. — 
Agricultural Products, and Caravan Trade to distant Countries. — Pro- 
ducts and Caravan Trade of the Phoenicians. — Position of their Territory. 
■ — Settlements of the Phoenicians previously to the coming of the Shepherds. 
—Commencement of Sea Navigation and rise of Tyre. — Colonies planted 
in the Mediterranean and Atlantic, &c. — Rapid rise of the Egyptians after 
the expulsion of the Shepherds. — The Egyptians become Jealous of the 
Hebrews. — Forced Servitude of the latter. — Commencement of their 
flight from the Land of Goshen. — Pursued by Pharaoh. — Passage of the 
Red Sea, near Suez. — Advanced state of the Edomites and Midianites. — 
Jethro visits Moses. — Arab Polity made tiie basis of Moses' Government. 
— Moses conducts the People to Mount Sinai. — Promulgation of the Moral 
Law. — Guided by Hobab, the Israelites advance to Kadesh-Barnea, and 
the southern borders of Canaan. — Retreat from thence after being de- 
feated by the Amalekites. — Destruction of Korah and his Companions. — 
Journey to Ezion Geber and Mount Hor ; and eventually to the foot of 
Mount Pisgah. — Limited extent of the country traversed during the 
Exodus. — Passage of the Jordan. — Some of the ancient Inhabitants are 
driven into Egypt, others settle in Armenia. — War between Armenia 
and Assyria. — Progress of the Egyptian Kingdom. — Sesostris and his 

A STATE of civilization approaching that mentioned in the Successive 
preceding chapter as belonging to the Himyarites, had long Arabia V°™ 
prevailed in the neighbouring country of Egypt ; to which ^^^^ 
kingdom the tide of emigration had been constantly flowing 



from Arabia and Syria: and Egypt being a source of parti- 
cular attraction to the people of the former country, it appears 
that, down to a comparatively late period, a succession of colo- 
nies were continually entering it by the Straits of Bab-el- 
Mandeb ; — while the colonies, which quitted this country and 
Phcenicia during the period now to be noticed, were the means 
of spreading knowledge to countries more remote. 

The settlement of the bulk of the fugitive shepherds amongst 
the Phoenicians naturally gave a fresh impulse to the com- 
merce of the latter people, by the necessity of finding employ- 
ment and additional outlets for the new comers ; and at this 
time, circumstances were peculiarly favom-able for emigration. 
Land com- The deficiency of timber suitable for the construction of 

"y'the^"''"^'^ vessels, and the aversion of the Egyptians to undertake long 
^rSenceto "^'oyag^s, greatly limited the Jiavigation of that people; but so 
that of the sea. advautagcous was the situation, and so vast the resources of the 
country, that it maintained commercial intercourse, chiefly by 
land, with nearly all the known parts of the world ; for which 
its agricultural and other products furnished ample means. 

The compartments of the Pyramids and Temples of Egypt 
exhibit, in colouring still vivid, the history and occupations of 
the inhabitants of the valley of the Xile, with a fidelity which 
leaves little to desire regarding their architecture, sculpture, 
painting, and hieroglyphics, as well as their social state. 

The fine linen, dyed cottons, and stuffs enveloping the 
mummies, together with the finished specimens of porcelain, 
the golden ornaments, and the rolls of papyri, which are occa- 
sionally found in the sarcophagi, establish the fact that the 
corresponding manufactures and arts, alphabetical writing 
included,^ must have been in use amongst the inhabitants of 
this kingdom antecedently to the construction of the great 

' Three different characters were used by the ancient Egyptians ; viz., the 
hieroglyphic or monumental, the hieratic, and enchorial. The second, which 
was more particularly that of the priests, appears to have been taken from 
the hieroglyphic, and it dates from a very remote era ; but the use of the 
enchorial, which is derived from the hieratic, does not appear to go further 
back than the accession of the Ptolemies. — Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, 
vol. II., p. 13. 

paintiug, &c. 


In some of the cemeteries, and with colours ahnost as fresh ^y^^> *="^" , 

tumes, carpets, 

as when first applied, are shown the various costumes of the &c., of the 
priests, husbandmen, artisans, and other classes of people. In Egyptians, 
others are depicted rich hangings and bright carpets, with 
coloured thread and golden wire interwoven,^ such as may 
have served as models to the Israelites, when preparing the 
costly materials for the tabernacle." 

In addition to weaving and various other manufactures, the 
art of dyeing was far advanced, the materials for this purpose 
being, in all probability, brought from distant parts of the 
world ; and, in the pictorial history of the country, one of the 
kings is represented attired in magnificent robes, offering gold 
and silver to the gods. These metals are said to have been 
drawn annually fron\ the mines to the value of thirty-two 
millions f and so abundant were they, that' they were used by 
Osiris in the formation of implements of husbandry.'' 

Other metals, including iron,^ w^ere used for architecture and Their warlike 
for warlike implements. The chariots, particularly from their and household 
light construction, seem to have been of brass.^ utensils. 

These, as well as the ordinary articles of household furniture, 
such as couches, vases, tripods, baskets, glass, and vessels of 
earthenware, all betoken a state of refinement in the arts which 

' Goguet, Origin of Laws, &c., vol. II., p. 86. Carpets were in use in 
Egypt, and a small rug has been brought to England : it was found at 
Thebes, and is in the collection of Mr. Hay. — Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, 
vol. II., p. 190, and vol. III., p. 141. 

* Exodus, chap. V. Those who have not had an opportunity of examin- 
ing the monuments of Egypt, will have the means of judging of these repre- 
sentations by inspecting the great work of Denon, or that of Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson, on tlie Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, which is 
equally interesting and faithful. 

^ Diod. Sic, lib. II., cap. v. compared withWilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, 
&c., vol. I., pp. 232, 233. 

* Ibid., lib. I., cap. viii. 

* Colonel Howard Vyse discovered a piece of iron in the midst of the 
masonry of the Great Pyramid, which he thinks could only have been placed 
there when that monument was erected. 

® This metal was largely used by the Israelites in the construction of the 
altar of sacrifice, &c., and was probably brouglit from Egypt by them 
amongst the spoil. Exod., chap. XXV., v. 3, and chap. XXVII. 



[chap. IV. 

Himyari in- 
scription dis- 
covered in 

has scarcely been surpassed in modern times. Such articles 
are said to have been introduced by Menes.^ 
Agriculture Paintings in relief represent the busy occupations of lading 
occupations of and Unlading the boats employed in the traffic along the Nile ; 
the Egyptians, ^jjgy ^]gQ g^QW the nature of the products, as well as the 
various employments of the husbandmen, from simple irriga- 
tion to the completion of the process of cultivation, whether of 
cotton, flax, barley, rye, or wheat.^ In the days of Joseph 
supplies of corn were drawn from Egypt to appease the 
famine which prevailed in Judea,^ and about the same time, 
in the southern parts of Arabia \ where, according to an inscrip- 
tion stated to have been found in Yemen, the agricultural 
products of Egypt were sought at any price. 

During the viceroyalty of Abderahmen, who governed 
Yemen in the reign of Moawiyah, the first of the Ommiadan 
Caliphs, between the fortieth and fiftieth year of the Hijrah, 
a torrent laid bare a sepulchre, containing the body of a female, 
who had been interred with regal splendour. A seven-stringed 
necklace of the richest pearls adorned her bosom. Her arms 
and legs were ornamented with bracelets, armlets, and anklets, 
seven of each ; on each finger was a ring, also set with a valuable 
gem. A casket filled with treasure was placed at her head, and 
also a tablet containing the following singular inscription : — 

"In thy name, O God, the God of Himyar, I Tajah, 
daughter of Dhu Shefar, sent my purveyor to Egypt ; but he 
delaying his return, I sent my handmaid with a bushel of silver 
to bring me back a bushel of flour. I next sent a measure of 
gold, and again a measure of pearls ; but receiving nothing for 
support, I am shut up here. Let those who hear my story 
learn to commiserate my fate ; and should any woman covet 
and use one of my ornaments, may she die the same death by 
which I have perished." 

The preceding account claims a particular interest in con- 
sequence of the approximative date which has been ascertained 
from it. It is clear that the Himyari character was in use 

' Diod. Sic, lib. I., cap. iv. 

* Exod., chap. IX., V. 31, 32 ; Plin., lib. XIX., cap. i. 

" Gen., chap. XLL, v. 57; XLIL, v. 1, 2, 5; and XLIV., v. 1. 


among the Arabs, at least as far back as the time of Joseph ; ' Ancient 
also that a mercantile intercourse was maintained with Egypt Arabia.*" 
at that period, probably through the port of Philoteras on the 
Red Sea, near Kosseir, as well as by land. The supposed 
exchange of a measure of silver, gold, or pearls, for a similar 
quantity of flour, expresses in powerful though figurative language 
the misery of Arabia during the famine of that period. 

' The original Arabic of Ibn Heshani Firanzabidius, which was copied for 
the author by Mr. Hormuzd Rassam, is here given from Albert Schul tens' 
Monumenta Yetustiora Arabiae, p. 67, and note. Leyden, in Batavorum apud 
Johannem Luzac. MDCCXL: — 

X[ji Ai \^,i j^\ ]j^ Duuc ''-'j^.. %rf* ^V^ 

V ^aib^] tjl Ju: LooU Ijl IjoJAJi liyb ^^J ^J^ U) ^^juj 
&^^' ^ ^J;:^*i (J U^ UUii ♦^Ij C^l^ lJCjU ^^yj 

V ^ As-L c\A*j ^^ «u]l*« UjUj lIj ^^1 ^ [^ 

'i-jsJ^ Ij J' j-UaJ 1 ^jj^ Ij (»- ^Jil I jJLc 


Abundance of corn had, in fact, made Egypt the principal 
granary of the adjacent kingdoms, and this branch of trade, as 
well as that arising from the manufactures of the country, was 
carried on by means of several great routes, which diverged 
from that kingdom to every part of the world then known ; 
thus facilitating commercial intercourse among the remotest 

Caravan trade Xhe products brought by caravans from the western and 

Egypt. southern parts of Afi'ica, together with those conveyed along 

the Nile from the tracts about its sources, found a central 
point on the lower part of this river, from whence they were 
transported by other caravans into Arabia, Syria, and Phoe- 
nicia ; thus embracing, particularly through the latter territory, 
a trade in gold, spices, and slaves with the eastern part of the 
old world. 

It has been seen that the first Cushites had already spread 
from Asia Minor towards the Peloponnesus,^ also to Syria, 
Arabia, and Egypt, and again eastward and northward from 
Mesopotamia. Colonies from the same race being thus spread 
over the greatest part of the world, naturally caused the inter- 
course which prevailed in the time of Job and the Himyarites, 

"^iiespread of and prepared the way for the commerce carried on by the 

prepares Cauaauitish branch of this people 

Phoenicia possessed manufactories of glass, golden orna- 
ments, linen and woollen stuffs ; but it was celebrated above all 
for its matchless dyes. These formed the basis of an enriching 
trade, which was carried by the enterprising people of that 
country into many regions ; amongst which Egypt seems to 
have held the first place, since the Phosnicians had a com- 
mercial depot in the capital itself — one entire quarter of 
Memphis, called the Camp, having been occupied by the 

the way for Besides the traffic through Egypt to the interior of Africa, 

commerce. o oj r ^ i 

also to Yemen and Hadramaut, there were two principal lines 
which may have been almost coeval with the dispersion of 

' See above, vol. I., p. 344 ; also Herod., lib. T., cap. xciv., and lib. VII., 
c. viii. xi. * Herod., lib. II., cap. cxii. 



mankind : one of these took a northern direction through Different 


Asia Minor towards the foot of the Caucasus, from whence it routes, 
penetrated into Central Asia/ The second, which seems to 
have been the most ancient, sought the rich products of Baby- 
lonia and those of the shores of the Persian Gulf," which 
doubtless included, in the latter case, other eastern countries 
also ; since by this route the silks, spices, and other valuable 
merchandize of India, found their way to the shores of the 
Mediterranean, through the emporiums of Tadmor and Ba'albek, 
which afterwards sprang up to facilitate the transport of mer- 
chandize. The pre-eminence of Phosnicia in commerce and 
civilization was, however, as much owing to the enterprise of Situation of 
its people as to its geographical position; since the tract in 
question consists merely of a narrow strip of land, with the 
elevated range of Lebanon on one side and^ the Mediterranean 
Sea on the other, ^ without any particular advantages in respect 
of harbours. 

The island colony of Aradus was situated towards the 
northern extremity of Phoenicia, and to this succeeded, nearly 
at equal intervals in following the coast southward, Tripolis, 
Byblus, with the earlier capital Sidon, which was called after 
the first-born son of Canaan ; finally, at the southern extremity. Separate 
the daughter of Sidon, the celebrated city of Tyre. With the g^'tfso™^^" 
exception of some commercial connexion, these settlements P^os'^cia. 
were at first separate kingdoms or states; consisting, in each 
case, of a particular city with a certain tract of territory 
attached; but all, in the sequel, became in some measure 
dependent on Tyre, and were united in one common worship, 
that of the Tyrian Hercules. The latter city, Paloe-Tyrus, 
appears to have been built on the mainland,* but it is stated 
that a castle had been founded about 2740 b.c.^ 

This structure, as well as the Temple of Hercules, was Castie of 
no doubt situated on the island to which in this, as in other ^^^^' 

' Ezekiel, chap. XXVII. 

* The Phoenicians were descended from the Erytlireans. Dionvsius, 
Perieg., V., 305. 

^ See above, vol. I., p. 539. 

* Vol. I., p. 481. ' Herod., lib. II., cap. xliv. 


He continued his expedition by the invasion of Spain, and 

having overcome Chrysaor, the father of Geryon, he carried 

off as booty the oxen of the latter, which are made to represent 

Hercnies the gold of the country, and then returned towards Phoenicia 

iaS°^ ^ by way of Gaul, ^ Italy, and the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. 

Notwithstanding the obscurity of Phoenician history, and 

the mystery in which that people enveloped their earliest 

enterprises, there is little doubt that the principal events have 

been preserved in the preceding mythological version. 

The more distant enterprises were not undertaken till the 
dominion of the Phoenicians was firmly established over the 
eastern islands of the Mediterranean; yet from incidental cir- 
cumstances it would appear that Cadiz in Spain, Utica, Leptis, 
and some other settlements in the northern shores of Africa, 
were founded about three centuries anterior to Carthage.^ 

It will elsewhere be seen that on accomit of the mines, Tar- 
tessus and the rest of the southern part of Iberia became one 
of the most important of the Phoenician settlements, and Cadiz 
became one of the ports from which distant voyages were 
undertaken. These, as regards the circumnavigation of Africa, 
and also the Ophirian voyages, were probably based upon the 
extensive caravan lines, by w^hich sufficient geographical know- 
Trade by land ledge must have been obtained to prepare the way for the 
voyages of the daring expeditions of the Phoenicians by sea. 
Phoeuicians. Although the advancement of the Egyptians must have 
been seriously retarded by the protracted contests, which ter- 
minated in the expulsion of the shepherds, it will be seen that, 
subsequently to this event, the progress of that people became 
very rapid. 
B.C. 1672. About 137 years after the period when Joseph had been 

all-powerful in Egypt, the increasing numbers of the Hebrews 

' From a recent translation made by Mons. S. Munk, of the Plianician 
inscription at Marseilles, it appears that it contained various regulations, de- 
scribing with much detail the manner of conducting the sacrifices in a temple 
of Ba'al, which a Phoenician or Carthaginian population at one time possessed 
in that city. Journal Asiatique, pour Novembre et Decembre, 1847, pp. 

* Compare Bocliart, Geog. Sacra, V., p. 373, with Velleius Paterculus, I., 
p. 2, and Aristotle, de Mirabil., c. cxlvi. ; also Diod. Sic, lib. V., cap. XV. 


had awakened the jealousy and even the alarm of the people ; Jealousy of 
or, as it is expressed, "there arose a king who knew not^ *^ gyptians. 
Joseph;'" and Amosis or Chebran, the reigning Pharaoh, as 
the surest means of guarding against danger, determined to 
reduce them to a state of servitude, instead of considering them, Tasks and 

mi 1 1 p T 1 boudageofthe 

as heretofore, his guests, ihe descendants oi Jacob now Israelites. 
became the working population of the country: oppressive 
tasks were allotted to them, the fulfilment of which was 
rigorously exacted. 

The people continued in this state about eighty-eight years, 
during which time of real bondage their patriarchal form of 
government does not appear to have been altered ; the tasks, 
weighty enough doubtless, were distributed by their own 
officers;- and the superintendance was left to the Hebrew 1^'^^^*^'^ V^*^^"* 

' r ^ ^ _ the superm- 

Shoterim, under the general direction of Egyptian overseers, tendence of 
That the daily provisions were ample, is suflSciently evident officers. . 
from the subsequent recollections of Egypt, and the reproach 
addressed by the people to their leader, that "they had eaten 
bread to the full " when in Egypt.^ 

The mighty signs and wonders performed through the 
agency of Moses, in the region of Zoan * or Tanis, having at 
length convinced Pharaoh that the children of Israel were B.C. i584. 
under the special protection of an omnipotent Power they 
were permitted to depart ; therefore, taking their flocks and 
all that was theirs, they journeyed from Rameses to Succoth.^ 

The traveller who is acquainted with these localities can Position of 
scarcely feel any difficulty in identifying the tract lying along Goshen, 
the eastern branch of the Nile with the land of Goshen, or 
Geshen, meaning the pasture country, which from the foray 
made by Zabad and others against the cattle of the men of 
Gath,^ was evidently the nearest part of Egypt to Palestine, 
for it is clear that the foray took place before the Hebrews 
quitted the country, and whilst they still retained their 
pastoral character. 

On account of its numerous branch canals, Esh Shurke'yeh, now Esh 

*' Shurkeyeh. 

' Exod., chap. I., v. 8. * Exod., chap. V., v. 14. 

' Exod., chap. XVI., V. 3. * Psalm LXXVJII., v. 12, 43. 

' Exod., chap. XII., v. 37, 38. « 1 Chroii., chap. VII., v. 21. 


the supposed representative of the pasture country, is one of 
the richest portions of the Delta: such also it must have been 
in former times, when watered by the Pelusiac branch of the 
Nile ; and the position of this tract coincides much better with 
the circumstances attending the Exodus than any locality 
higher up the Nile. 

Ancient Hieropolis, or Eameses, is nearly in the centre of 
the supposed pasture country, and, making a trifling circuit, it 
is about fifty miles from thence to the sea of Suez. The first 
stage was Succoth, which, as the name seems to indicate, was 
Flight of the most likely an encampment of booths; and the second was at 
srae ites, Etham, ou the borders of the wilderness, both places being 
apparently within the limits of Goshen ; for it was only when 
the Israelites were about to pass the borders, that Pharaoh 
hastened after the fugitives, either from Zoan or Memphis, 
but probably from the former. The desert (called Shur),^ 
which the Hebrews had now reached, evidently commenced 
on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez, whose waters pro- 
bably extended farther at that time than at present, in the line 
now partly occupied by the bitter lakes. Etham may, there- 
fore, have been at the extremit)^ of the ancient inlet, perhaps 
only a few miles to the north-west of its present termination, 
near Suez ; so that, in following the direct line towards Pales- 
tine, the Hebrews, after touching the sea at the place in 
question, would have passed at once into the wilderness. 
and pursuit by Pharaoh haviiig been apprized that the three days' journey 
Pharao , ^^.^^ about to be exceeded, rapidly followed with his chariots, 
when the Hebrews turned, as commanded, and encamped 
before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against 
Ba'al Zephon ; a position so enclosed that it led Pharaoh to 
say, *' they are entangled in the land."" In turning from the 
direct line, the fugitives would equally move along the western 
side of the inlet, whether in its present or its supposed state ; and 
they must in one short march have had an almost inaccessible 
mountain on their right, the sea of Suez on their left and in 
B.C. 1584. their front ; whilst their pursuers occupied a position in their 

' Exod., chap. XV., v. 22 ; Numb., chap. XXXIII., v. 6, 7, 8. 
* Exod., chap. XIV., v. 3. 


rear, which effectually covered the whole space between the 
right side of the Red Sea and Jebel Adaggi, or the Mountain towards the 
of Deliverance ; thus, in fact, leaving them only the prospect of 
death or captivity. 

But the moment of their deliverance was at hand, and amidst 
nmrmurings and hopeless despair, a strong east wind became 
the immediate instrument of the Almighty. 

The waters of the Red Sea form a shallow bay below Suez, Position of the 
and a narrow inlet north-westward of the town, which, as before 
observed, once extended much farther. The peculiar position 
of this inlet, and the exceeding violence of the winds which 
occasionally prevail, in the upper part of the Red Sea especially, 
seem to bear out the explanation which has been frequently 
given respecting this providential interposition.^ A violent 
wind coming from the east, or rather north-east, would, owing 
to the nature of these localities, have the effect of separating 
the waters at the spot where a small bend takes place, just above • 
the town of Suez ; and by continuing to drive the lower portion 
of the waters outwards during the whole night, the Israelites 
would have the necessary time to effect their passage between 
the waters thus separated. Their escape being discovered at Escape of the 
daylight, and a pursuit commenced, a sudden cessation of the destrucUoifof 
wind, by allowing the separated waters to rush inwards and *^^ Egyptians, 
outwards at the same instant, would be sufficient to complete 
the miracle by overwhelming the host of the Egyptians. 

Independently of the argument from the position of the 
inlet of Suez, there is evidence that this was the route taken, 
from the names Jebel Adaggi and Wadi Faroun^ being pre- 
served on its western side, also those of 'Ain Marah and 'Ain 
Musa, with others, on the way from its eastern shore towards 
Mounts Horeb and Sina'i. 

With regard to the passage of the Israelites, it is very Traditional 
remarkable that Diodorus relates a tradition, that on one Dk)d!"sicf 
occasion the sea suddenly retired, and after leaving its bed dry 
for a time, returned as suddenly.^ 

' Compare chap. VIII. of Supplement to Shaw's Travels with p. 245, 
vol. I., of Bruce's Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile. Dublin, 1791 . 
^ Map of the Red Sea, by Captain R. Moresby, Indian Navy. 
' Lib. III., cap. XX. 



State of the 

As the Hebrews had long Hved under the Egyptians, they 
could scarcely have been interior to them in their knowledge of 
the arts of life, when their 600,000 families ^ departed to assume 
an important position amongst the nations of the world ; yet it 
appears that their civilization and wealth were less than those of 
some of the tribes existing at that time in Arabia. 

At the commencement of the Exodus, the eighth king of 
■ Edom resided at the capital, Dmhaba ; and under him were 
eleven dependent princes, who governed as many cities, as 
Bozrah, Avith, Masrekah, E-ehoboth, Pau, &c.^ That the 
surrounding country was well cultivated, is evident from the 
existence of wells, fields, and vineyards ; and what is called a 
" king's highway " passed through the country.^ 

The allies of this people, whose territories were situated near 
and Midianites the Elanitic gulf, werc Still more advanced, for the Midianites 
are said to have possessed many cities and goodly castles ; and 
being at the same time manufacturers, they had a great store 
of articles made of goat's hair and wool.^ Moreover, it 
appears that they had amassed chains, bracelets, ear-rings, 
and tablets to the value of 16,750 shekels of gold. Nor 
were their nomadic riches less considerable; since amongst 
the spoil afterwards taken by the Israelites, are enumerated^ 
675,000 sheep, 72,000 beeves, and 61,000 asses. But 
from an incidental circumstance, it would appear that the 
Midianites were more distinguished for their civil polity than 
even for their wealth. When the Israelites reached their 
halting-place, near Rephidim, after the memorable destruction 
of the Amalekites,® Jethro the priest of Midian quitted his 
residence on the opposite shores of the Elanitic gulf, and came 

at the time of 
the Exodus. 

Jethro visits 

' This number has been considered much t6o great for a period of 430 
years, but as Abraham's servants, &c. consisted of 316 persons shortly after 
liis arrival in Judea, the Israelites must necessarily have been a large body of 
people, at the time of their going down to Egypt ; of which, the sons of 
Jacob may be considered so many Sheikhs or Chiefs. 

* Gen., chap. XXXVI., v. 33, &c. 

' Numb., chap. XX., v. 17; Deut., chap. II., v. 27. 

* Numb., chap. XXXI., v. 20. 
' Ibid., V. 36. 

" Exod., chap. XVII., v. 11, 12. 


with his daughter Zipporah, and his two grandsons, Gersham 
and Eliezer, to congratulate Moses, and offer a sacrifice and 
burnt-offering for the great deliverance of his son-in-law and the 
Israelites from the thraldom of Pharaoh. This visit throws 
great light on the state of the Arabs at that period ; for it was 
on the following dny that Jethro instructed Moses in their 
principles of government, which would appear to have been 
the most perfect then known. 

On perceiving that Moses was attempting to carry out a 
crude system, which could not be put in practice without wearing 
out the prince as well as the people, Jethro proceeded to make and instructs 
known to him a method which had borne the test of experience devils of Arab 
amongst the Midianites and other Arabs, and which was at once P"^'^^* 
simple and efficient; it consisted in appointing men of truth, 
and hating covetousness, to be rulers over Hens, and fifties, and 
hundreds, and thousands. These individuals were to share the 
burden with Moses, to whom only the difficult cases M^re to be 
referred, by judging the people at all seasons agreeably to 
established laws, no doubt similar to those already in use 
amongst the Midianites. 

Afler delivering these instructions, Jethro returned to his 
own people; and we are expressly told that Moses "hearkened 
to his voice," and did all that he had said, " by choosing able 
men out of all Israel, whom he made heads over the people." 

The jurisprudence thus borrowed from the Midianitish Arabs, 
was evidently based on the patriarchal authority, by Avhich the 
head of a family regulates absolutely, the concerns of his 
children, his servants, and other inmates of his household ; in 
the way still exemplified by the Anize'h, the Shamar, and the 
other great tribes of Arabia. 

In the patriarchal system, a family represents the unit in the 
scale of government ; and the union of two such families, 
under the older of the parents, gives the head of ten ; the 
political union of ten such families, probably also connected by 
blood, and acknowledging as chief, or elder, one whose age and 
other qualities might command a preference, necessarily gives Details of the 
the chief or judge over fifty ; whilst an alliance of about double fjrttTb°' 
the number would form a higher tribunal, that of one hundred, ^^"^es. 


which corresponds to the tribe of an inferior Sheikh of the 
present day. A larger body, such as might be composed of 
ten of the latter, or about 1000 males, was, among the Hebrews," 
a " House of Fathers." 

In the case of the Arabs, the office of chief was at first derived 
from birth and age, but it afterwards became elective, through 
the heads of families. Such is the case in China, where the social 
links are carried from the peasant upwards to the sovereign 

The head of a house of fathers, like a Sheikh of Arabia, was 
responsible to the great Sheikh or Emir, and as a matter of 
course there must have been twelve such to represent the sons 
of Jacob ; each having the assistance of a chief genealogist or 
scribe to aid in deciding the ordinary questions of internal 
government, the greatest and most momentous cases alone 
being reserved for the judgment of Moses. 

In this respect, and indeed in many other particulars, the 

This was positiou of the Hebrew prince differed little from that of a 

oSArabs^* Sreat Emir of the present day. Thus Sheikh I'sa of the 

of the present Montcfik sat dispensing justice from his diwan in his square 

mat enclosure at the town of Al Kiit, when, as will be noticed 

in its proper place, he was to receive the commander and 

officers of the Euphrates Expedition. 

On the departure of Jethro, who refused the tempting 
advantages offered by his son-in-law, Moses, agreeably to the 
command then given, " that the people should serve God on 
this mountain '' (Sinai), led his charge to the pasture-ground, 
where he formerly tended the flocks of his father-in-law. 

From the summit of Sinai was now promulgated, with cir- 
cumstances of awful grandeur, a brief summary of moral and 
religious duties, which was afterwards engraven on tables of 
stone, as a perpetual memorial of the obligations of the Hebrews 
towards their invisible king. But in order that they might be 
Promulgation neither forgotten nor misunderstood, an extensive code was 
kw*^^ "^'^'^^^ added, containing numerous ordinances for their civil and 
religious government. These laws were made known, in detail, 
B. c. 1583, f^QiYi time to time, by the powerful voice of Aaron, from the 
top of Horeb ; a spot which, owing to its moderate height and 


the facility of approaching it on all sides, was admirably suited 
for oral communication with an immense multitude. 

The priesthood being sanctified and set apart, and the taber- 
nacle, or moveable temple, being completed, the Israelites were and construc- 
told that they had dwelt long enough on the mount;' and the tabernacle, 
cloud being removed to signify that all was ready, the whole 
body proceeded towards the wilderness of Paran. As this 
occurred on the 20th day of the second month of the second 
year,^ and as they had reached Mount Sinai precisely at the 
completion of the third month after their departure from 
Egypt,^ the time occupied in receiving these laws was eleven 
months and twenty days. 

Moses, however, instead of trusting to his own topographical Journey of the 
knowledge in a case of such importance as that of the intended 
route, and above all of obtaining water for -so vast a multitude, 
appealed to the Midianites ; and after some difficulty, his relative 
Hobab, the son of Raguel or Jethro, no doubt by the desire of 
his father, consented to be their guide, or, as it is expressed, 
" to be instead of eyes."^ In consequence of this arrangement, 
it fell to the lot of the Midianitish prince to decide on the conducted by 
places of encampment, as well as to be otherwise useful to the 
Israelites, particularly on commencing a nomadic life ; which 
although before unknown to the Hebrews, was generally that 
of the Midianites and other tribes of Arabia. 

This circumstance therefore sufficiently explains why Hobab 
w^as offered a share in the expected benefits of the Israelites, pro- 
vided he continued to guide them ;^ and being accustomed to 
lead his people and their flocks to the different wadis where 
pasture was abundant, he found little difficulty in performing 
his task. 

In moving from the camp at Horeb, the standard of the 
children of Judah led the way ; it was followed by those of 
Issachar, Zebulun, &c.,^ all taking the direct route by slow 
marches towards Kadesh-Barnea, w^hich is eleven days' journey 
by the way of Mount Seir, ' no doubt moving by short stages and making 

short stages, 

' Deut., chap. I., v. 6. * Numb., chap. X , v. 11, 12. 

* Exod,, chap. XIX., v. 1. * Numb., cliap. X., v. 31. 

* Ibid., V. 32. « Ibid., v. 13, 14, 15, &c. 
' Deut , chap. I., v. 2. 



[chap. IV. 

they reach the 
borders of 

Defeat and 
retreat along 


el 'Arabah to 


from spot to spot, like the great nomadic tribes of the present 
day •,^ and it may be observed that towards the latter part of 
the pilgrimage the grand Mekkah caravan passes over a con- 
siderable portion of the tracts trodden by the Israelites during 
the Exodus. 

From the wilderness of Sin, the Hebrews took a north- 
westerly direction to the southern borders of Canaan, where 
they remained forty days/ when the twelve spies returned with 
such alarming accounts of their enemies, that a panic ensued. 
The consequence was, that they not only abandoned the intended 
conquest, but a dangerous insurrection broke out against Moses 
and Aaron ; and notwithstanding the advice given by Joshua 
and Caleb, who narrowly escaped being stoned to death for 
endeavouring to restore order, preparations were commenced 
for returning to Egypt under another captain.^ A feeble 
attempt was made to push their way, but this failed ; and, as a 
punishment for their want of confidence in the first instance, 
and presumption in the second, the Israelites of that genera- 
tion were interdicted from entering the promised land. 

A serious defeat by the Amalekites and Canaanites having 
followed near Hormah, and the purpose of entering Canaan 
being abandoned, the discouraged Israelites commenced a 
retrograde movement towards the wilderness of Sin ; probably 
with the intention of returning to Egypt. It was during the 
early part of this retreat that the awful destruction of Korah 
and his companions occurred ; and the authority of Moses and 
Aaron being supported by this interposition of Providence, the 
Hebrews submitted once more to their guidance, and were 
conducted through the tortuous wadis on the western side of 
Wadi el 'Arabah, till they crossed the latter at the head of 
the Elanitic gulf. Turning northwards at or near Ezion-geber, 
their wanderings continued along the eastern side of the valley 
in question, to Mount Hor, where Aaron died. A detour was 
now made round the country of the Edomites,* who had refused 
the use of the highway, and also that of the Moabites and 
Ammonites, who being thus taken in flank, no longer offered 

' See above, vol. I., pp. 683, 684, 685, &c. 

« Numb., chap. XIII., v. 25. ' Ibid., cliap. XIV., v. 4. 

* Ibid., chap. XX., V. 17-21. 


serious resistance. Hcshbon, Baslian, &c., having successively Advance to the 
fallen, the Israelites halted in the plains of Moab, at the foot 
of Pisgah, after spoiling the Midianites of their gold, silver, 
and flocks. 

During the preceding period the Pentateuch must have 
been completed, probably from written as well as oral testi- 
mony ; and here the great leader of the Hebrews terminated Death of 
his earthly career, after allotting the several tracts destined for pa^age^o"f the 
the twelve tribes ; who passed the Jordan accordingly the same •^°'''^^°- 
year, not long after the visit of Balaam from Mesopotamia, 
and his forced prophecy. 

Although the wanderings of the Hebrews had continued for 
forty years, the extent of the country traversed was very 
limited, being chiefly confined to the wadis lying westward 
and eastward of the range of Mount Seir,.or rather of Wadi 
el 'Arabah. The country on each side of this depression is well 
known, particularly the beaten track of the annual pilgrims to 
Mekkah. The pasture throughout this line is for the most part 
good ; and the Israelites thus possessed this important advantage 
to an equal, if not to a greater, extent than the pastoral Arabs of state of the 
the present day. They were, it is true, deprived of many of the simliar^to that 
comforts they had enjoyed in Egypt, as fish, cucumbers, melons, °^*^^ Arabs. 
leeks, onions, garlick, &c. ;^ but having ample flocks, they were, 
as a matter of course, provided with the ordinary means of 
subsistence which the nomadic life affords, independently of the 
miraculous supply of quails and manna. Even water was pro- 
duced for them when their guides failed to find it at the 
different cisterns or secret wells which, fi-om time immemorial, 
have existed in northern Arabia. 

The erratic life of the wilderness, which the Arabs have 
continued in the manner already described,^ with enviable con- 
tentment, almost from the time of the Dispersion, was intended 
as, and no doubt became, a serious punishment to the un- 
manageable followers of Moses, who had been hitherto only 
accustomed to a settled mode of life in Egypt. 

But with the extinction of one generation their probation Occupation of 

' Numb., chap. XL, v. 5. * See above, vol. I., pp. 682, 683, &c. 


B.C. 1543. 

Flight of the 
and Philis- 

of Cushan- 

terminated, and Joshua, having succeeded Moses, led the 
people across the Jordan. A portion of the inhabitants appear 
to have fled from Philistia to Africa, and they are said to have 
erected a monument commemorative of their flight from Joshua, 
son of Nun, the robber.^ On the same occasion another 
section of the ancient inhabitants took a north-easterly direc- 
tion, and proceeded into Armenia under a leader named 
Canaanidas, whose descendants, as well as those of his followers, 
were afterwards known by the name of Gunthanians.^ 

The flight of a portion of the earliest inhabitants of Palestine, 
seems to have been facilitated by the intercourse which con- 
tinued to exist between distant countries after the Dispersion. 
This intercourse is evident, in the case of the Canaanites and 
Philistines, from a passage in one of the prophets, by which we 
learn that the Palestines (Philistines), were brought out of 
Caphtor or Cappadocia (the western or third Armenia), and 
the Syrians from Kir,^ which is also in Armenia. 

The Israelites, however, had not been long on the western 
side of the Jordan, and were not as yet in full possession of the 
promised land ; when shortly after the death of Joshua, about 
1516 B.C., they submitted to the arms of Cushan-Pishathaim, 
whose appellation of wicked Cushite most likely owed its origin 
to his descent from Nimriid, and to his being, at the same 
time, their determined enemy ; and it appears that the Hebrews 
continued under his yoke, and in a state of servitude, for about 
eight years.^ This prince ruled Mesopotamia, which was then 
a separate government from that of Assyria. 

At the period in question, a protracted contest for the 
dominion appears to have been maintained with alternate suc- 
cess between this kingdom and that of Armenia. Heykab, 
shortly after the commencement of his reign over the latter 
kingdom, is said to have raised the national glory to a greater 
height than it had attained previously. He subdued Amindas, 

' Procopius, de Varul, lib. II. 

* Hist, of Armenia, by .1. Avdall, Esq., vol. I., p. 27. 
^ Amos, chap. IX., v. 7. 

■* Jackson's Chronol. Antiq., vol. I., pp. 137, 138, compared witli Judges, 
ch. III., V. 8. 


king: of Assyria, and compelled him to do homage ; but Wars between 
Belochus or Belock, the successor of the latter, recovered the and Assyrians, 
lost ground, having during a hotly-contested campaign defeated 
and killed Heykab. 

Reverting to the western extremity of the Old World, it 
will be seen that Egypt, now a united kingdom under the 
eighteenth dynasty, or the Diospolitan kings, was rapidly 
advancing in power and in civilization. This was more par- 
ticularly the case at the period of the Exodus, and even for 
some time previously. Amenopliis, the ninth sovereign of the 
line in question, is supposed to have erected the celebrated 
Memnonia at Thebes, and the fourth in succession was Rameses Rameses ii. 
the Second,^ or the Great, who appears to have been the B.C. 1 376 to 
Sesostris of the Greeks, and probably the second monarch so ^-C- 1328 ; 

This sovereign has been known under so many different 
names, that considerable difficulty is felt in establishing his 
identity, and some have doubted his existence. Newton, and 
after him Marsham," conceived that this individual represented 
the Sesac, or Shishak of the Hebrew scripture, whilst a 
contrary opinion is maintained by Hales, Russel, Gatterer, and 
others. " Such a controversy," observes the learned Jahn, " is 
not easily decided ;"^ but if the 247 years given by Manetho 
to the sovereigns between Tethmosis or Thummosis, who 
expelled the shepherds, and Rameses" or Sesostris, be deducted 
from the time of that expulsion in 1623 B.C., the commence- 
ment of the reign of the great Egyptian monarch would have 
taken place about 1376 b.c. and its termination in 1328 b.c.^ 
Herodotus,* in a more general way than the Egyptian priests. Period of his 
says that there were 330 kings after Menes; eighteen being ^^^^' 
Ethiopians (apparently the shepherds), and that the rest were 
Egyptians ; all being men, with the exception of one, a woman, 

' From Manetho, Anc. Fragments, by I. P. Corj', Esq., pp. 117, 119. 

* ChronoL, XIV., p. 353. London, 1672. 

' Jahn's Hebrew Commonwealth, vol. I., p. 133. 

* Anc. Fragments, by I. P. Cory, Esq., pp. 173, 174. 

* Manetho states in his second book,tliat Sesostris reigned 48 years. Ibid. 
Cory, p. 110. 

^ Herod., lib. II., cap. xcix., c. 



named Nitocris. Of these, nothing particular is recorded, with 
the exception of Moeris, who dug the lake that bears his name, 
and Sesostris. This last^sovereign conducted a fleet from the 
Arabian Gulf, and, having conquered the nations bordering on 
the Erythrean Sea, he returned to Egypt ; and proceeding 
again at the head of a mighty army, he traversed the con- 
tinent of Asia, and subjugated every nation that opposed him.' 
His exploits, as well as those of Thummosis, are indicated on 
and conquests, the walls of the mined palace at Thebes which bears his name, 
and where he is represented as a great conqueror bringing 
home in triumph numerous captives taken from various nations. 
The invasions and conquests of this monarch are known 
traditionally in many countries, with this peculiarity, that the 
enterprises were not merely the hasty inroads of African 
hordes. The main body, acting on the direct line, was sup- 
Army of ported by two vast fleets : one of these appears to have sailed 
ponJ/bVtSo round Arabia, in order to support the right flank on the side 
^^^^^' of Asia, whilst the other moved from the Mediterranean to the 

Black Sea, to support the operations in that quarter ; and both 
of them carried the supplies which are indispensable to insure 
success in such gigantic operations. Two great fleets, pro- 
ceeding from the opposite shores of Egypt, and thus provided, 
must have lessened the difficulties attending the movements of 
such a prodigious force, and also have aflbrded great advantages ^ 
to Sesostris, compared with those possessed at a later period by 
Darius, Xerxes, and other eastern warriors, in their invasions. 
Manetho says that the conquest of Asia, and Europe as far as 
It advances Thracc, occupicd nine years, and that Sesostris everywhere 
into Thrace. gj.g(,|.g(j monumcnts of his victories.^ Diodorus Siculus, who 
goes more into detail, says that by the help of his fleet of 400 
ships, Sesostris gained the islands of the Eed Sea, and subdued 
the bordering nations as far as India. He himself marched 
forward with his land army, and conquered all Asia. He 
passed the Ganges, and traversed India to the shores of the 
main ocean, and laid the foundation of commercial relations 

' Herod., lib. II., cap. cii. Anc. Fragments, by I. P. Cory, Esq., p. 154. 
* Manetho, book II., compared with Anc. Fragments, by I. P. Cory, 
Esq., p. 110. 


with that part of the world. Having subdued the Scythians as 
far as the Tanais, which river divides Europe from Asia, he 
retraced his steps towards the banks of the Phasis, where some 
of his Egyptian followers remained, cither to cultivate the 
country, or because they were weary of the expedition.' 

Previously to the determination to retreat, Sesostris had Supposed 
been in danger of losing his whole army, owing to the diffi- mSoraSi™' 
culties of the passes and want of provisions. His expedition 
having terminated, he erected pillars to commemorate his 
conquests, and then returned to Egypt.^ In this invasion he 
led, according to the historian,^ 600,000 foot, 24,000 horse, vast army of 
and 27,000 armed chariots ; and he had, as already mentioned, ^^^°^'"^* 
fleets in the Arabian and Mediterranean Seas. It is, however, 
evident that the vast force met some kind of check in Scythia, 
from whence Sesostris retired, either for this reason, or on 
account of the intelligence which is said to have reached him 
at this period, that his brother Armais had assumed the 
sovereignty of Egypt. He returned immediately, laden with 
the rich spoils of Asia, and bringing a multitude of captives ; captives and 
some harnessed to his car, others destined to be employed in ^^^^^^ labour, 
the public works. These works, as the inscriptions upon them 
state, were raised without the labour of any of his native 

From the time that Sesostris left some of his followers on 
the shores of the Black Sea, may be dated that intercommuni- 
cation bet.M'een Egypt and Colchis, which induced Ammianus 
Marcellinus to say that the Colchians were an ancient colony 
of Egyptians.^ This is likewise the statement of Herodotus,® 
who observes, that the knowledge possessed by the Colchians 
was derived from Egypt ; and Sesostris appears to have Armenia a 
established some of his followers also in the valleys of the Egypt. *^°*^^ ° 
Caucasus. Armenia itself, as we learn, ^ was, at least for a 

' Herodotus, lib. IT., cap. ciii. " But, be this as it may," adds the his- 
torian, " it appears that the Colchians are of Egyptian origin." — Ibid., 
cap. civ. 

* Diod. Sic, lib. I., sec. II., cap. iv. ' Ibid., cap. iv. 

* Ibid., cap. iv. * Aram., XXIT., cap. viii. 

* Lib. II., cap. civ. 

" Hist, of Armen., by J. Avdall, Esq., vol. I., p. 260. 


short time, a nominal dependency of Egypt. But, as soon as 
the conqueror quitted the country, Pharaoh, who had been 
left in charge, constructed strongholds, as a protection against 
future incursions.^ 

The glory of Sesostris was not confined to his conquests, for 
he appears to have been almost equally celebrated for his good 
Sesostris' government, and his management of the resources of the 
E^lt!^^^^° country: the subdivision of Egypt into thirty inferior king- 
doms, or nomes, is said to have been his arrangement. The 
discovery of the canicular period of 1460 years, in which the 
festivals of the sacred year (containing 365 days without a 
fraction) would return to the same seasons as at the commence- 
ment, is no doubt due to the ancient Egyptians ; and, according 
B.C. 1327. to Strabo,^ Plato, who resided during several years in Eg^^pt, 
learned from the priests of that country what portion of a day 
was to be added to 365 days in order to make up a complete 
tropical year, or the period in which the sun, setting out from 
the first point of Aries, returns to the same point. 

* Hist, of Arraen., by J. Avdall, Esq., vol. I., p. 260. 

* Lib. XVII , p. 806. 

( HI ) 


709 B.C. 

Egyptian Religion and Philosophy carried into Greece. — The Shepherds 
settle in Phcenicia, and the Hebrews in Palestine. — Colonies proceed from 
Phoenicia and Egypt to Greece. — Origin of the Argonautic Voyage. — 
The Fleet returns from Colchis to Byzantium, plunders Troy, and pro- 
ceeds to Spain. — Some of the Argonauts return to Greece by sea, others 
by land, with the booty acquired. — Lydia and Assyria. — Ninus succeeds 
to the Throng of the latter Kingdom. — He conquers Bactria, and marries 
Semiramis. — This Queen becomes a great conqueror, and founds the City 
of Shemiramgerd. — Inscriptions regarding Semiramis found near Lake 
Van. — Ninus succeeds and organizes the Kingdom. — Period of the Trojan 
"War. — Memnon serves at the siege with an Armenian contingent. — Esta- 
blishment of the Hebrew Kingdom. — David succeeds Saul, and is acknow- 
ledged by the Twelve Tribes. — He makes .Jerusalem the capital, and 
establishes his dominion over Judea, Syria, and a part of Mesopotamia. — 
Accession of Solomon. — The Court and Regal Establishments of this 
Monarch. — Cost of the great Temple at Jerusalem. — Solomon erects 
another Temple for his Egyptian Queen, and constructs Tadmor and the 
other Store Cities. — Inquiry concerning the position of Ophir. — Visit of 
the Queen of the South, or Abyssinia. — Her Posterity by Solomon reign. 
— Saba and Sheba synonymous. — The Himyarites and Sabaeans of Africa 
the same people. — Early Land Trade, and difl&culties attending Ship 
Caravans or Mercantile Fleets. — Products of the Countries on the Mo- 
zambique. — Distance, and Time required for a Voyage to this Coast. — 
The other, or Eastern Voyage, was probably founded on a previous 
Caravan Trade to India. — Sanscrit Names of the Merchandize. — Aurea 
Chersonesus supposed to be Ophir. — Distance, and Time required for a 
Coasting Voyage to the Straits of Malacca. — Trade by Barter. — The 
Tyrians employed by Solomon. — The Tynan Hercules, and early Colonies 
of Tyre. — Establishment of Carthage, and various Settlements made by 
this commercial kingdom in Spain and elsewhere. — Accession of Reho- 
boam, and separation of the Ten Tribes. — Shishak invades .Judea. — Con- 
solidation of the Armenian Kingdom. — Invasion of Zerah the Ethiopian. 
— The Kings of Assyria, according to Ctesias. — Invasion of Judea by 


short time, a nominal dependency of Egypt. But, as soon as 
the conqueror quitted the country, Pharaoh, who had been 
left in charge, constructed strongholds, as a protection against 
future incursions.^ 

The glory of Sesostris was not confined to his conquests, for 
he appears to have been almost equally celebrated for his good 
Sesostris' government, and his management of the resources of the 
|°j;r''''°^ country: the subdivision of Egypt into thirty inferior king- 
doms, or nomes, is said to have been his arrangement. The 
discovery of the canicular period of 1460 years, in which the 
festivals of the sacred year (containing 365 days without a 
fraction) would return to the same seasons as at the commence- 
ment, is no doubt due to the ancient Egyptians ; and, according 
B.C. 1327. to Strabo,^ Plato, who resided during several years in Egypt, 
learned from the priests of that country what portion of a day 
was to be added to 365 days in order to make up a complete 
tropical year, or the period in which the sun, setting out from 
the first point of Aries, returns to the same point. 

' Hist, of Arraen., by J. Avdall, Esq., vol. I., p. 260. 
* Lib. XVII , p. 806. 

( HI ) 


709 B.C. 

Egyptian Religion and Philosophy carried into Greece. — The Shepherds 
settle in Phoenicia, and the Hebrews in Palestine. — Colonies proceed from 
Phoenicia and Eg)'pt to Greece, — Origin of the Argonautic Voyage. — 
The Fleet returns from Colchis to Byzantium, plunders Troy, and pro- 
ceeds to Spain. — Some of the Argonauts return to Greece by sea, others 
by land, with the booty acquired. — Lydia and Assyria. — Ninus succeeds 
to the Throng of the latter Kingdom. — He conquers Bactria, and marries 
Semiramis. — This Queen becomes a great conqueror, and founds the City 
of Shemiramgerd. — Inscriptions regarding Semiramis found near Lake 
Van. — Ninus succeeds and organizes the Kingdom. — Period of the Trojan 
War. — Memnon serves at the siege with an Armenian contingent. — Esta- 
blishment of the Hebrew Kingdom. — David succeeds Saul, and is acknow- 
ledged by the Twelve Tribes. — He makes Jerusalem the capital, and 
establishes his dominion over Judea, Syria, and a part of Mesopotamia. — 
Accession of Solomon. — The Court and Regal Establishments of this 
Monarch. — Cost of the great Temple at Jerusalem. — Solomon erects 
another Temple for his Egyptian Queen, and constructs Tadmor and the 
other Store Cities. — Inquiry concerning the position of Ophir. — Visit of 
the Queen of the South, or Abyssinia. — Her Posterity by Solomon reign. 
— Saba and Sheba synon5'mous. — The Himyarites and Sabaeans of Africa 
the same people. — Early Land Trade, and difficulties attending Ship 
Caravans or Mercantile Fleets. — Products of the Countries on the Mo- 
zambique. — Distance, and Time required for a Voyage to this Coast. — 
The other, or Eastern Voyage, was probably founded on a previous 
Caravan Trade to India. — Sanscrit Names of the Merchandize. — Aurea 
Chersonesus supposed to be Opliir. — Distance, and Time required for a 
Coasting Voyage to the Straits of Malacca. — Trade by Barter. — The 
Tyrians employed by Solomon. — The Tynan Hercules, and early Colonies 
of Tyre. — Establishment of Carthage, and various Settlements made by 
this commercial kingdom in Spain and elsewhere. — Accession of Reho- 
boam, and separation of the Ten Tribes. — Shishak invades .Judea. — Con- 
solidation of the Armenian Kingdom. — Invasion of Zerah the Ethiopian. 
— The Kings of Assyria, according to Ctesias. — Invasion of Judea by 

carried into 


Pul. — Tiglath Pileser carries the Jews captive into Assyria.— Nabonassar, 
and Works of Semiramis at Babylon. — Second Captivity of the Jew^s, by 
Shalmaneser, and interchange of the Ten Tribes with the Assyrians. — 
Sennacherib succeeds Shalmaneser ; subjects the Babylonians, and invades 
.Judea. — Siege of Jerusalem and destruction of the Assyrians. — Sen- 
nacherib flies to Nineveh ; is assassinated by Adrammelech and Sharezer, 
his sons. — Profane Accounts of the Discomfiture of the Invaders. 

Egyptian It appears, from various sources, that many of the religious 
phibsTphy rites of the Egyptians had been carried into Greece, together 
with such knowledge of astronomy, geometry, and philosophy, 
as had been derived by that people from Chaldea ; and it is 
also known that many of the chiefs who were expelled from, 
or who quitted Egypt about the time of the departure of the 
Shepherds, formed settlements in different parts of Greece. 

Thus Inachus founded a kingdom at Argos ; ^ Cecrops, of 
Sais, another in Attica ; ^ and Lelex a third, on the river 
Eurotas, afterwards called Sparta.^ ,In addition to these 
colonists, two races of men proceeded, as has been lately 
mentioned, from the banks of the Nile into Phoenicia and 
Palestine, and thus commenced the two kingdoms which 
became afterwards so remarkable in the history of the world. 

One was that of the Hebrew people, who were conducted by 
Joshua into Palestine about 1584 B.C.; and the other that of 
the Shepherds, who, about thirty-nine years previously, were 
led by Arcles, or Certus, their last sovereign, into Phoenicia, 
where, having become a maritime instead of a pastoral people, 
they assisted in founding the city and kingdom of Tyre ; in 
which, even as early as the coming of the former people, 
they appear to have laid the foundation of navigation and 
Colonies from The Settlement of the Cadmonites in Boeotia, which took 
Greece%c. placc, according to the fable, on their failing to tind Europa,* 
and probably a little more than a century after the emigration 
of the Shepherds, may therefore be considered as an Egyptian 

' Pausanias, Greece, vol. I., p. 117. 

* Ibid., p. 7, and vol. II., p. 254; and Died. Sic, lib. I., sec. I., cap. 16. 
' Pansanius, vol. I., p. 11 (i. 

* Herod., lib. IV., cap. cxlvii. 


rather than as a Phojnician colony ; by which, the knowledge 

of letters and rudiments of commerce were drawn indirectly 

from Egypt. It will be remembered, that, in addition to the 

preceding, a direct intercourse took place at a later period, by 

the arrival of Danaus in Greece from Egypt,' apparently about Danaus pro- 

1230 B.c.^ These establishments were followed by others in Greece. 

widely-distant countries ; and though the expeditions which 

led to them were merely commercial or piratical, they proved 

of great importance, by diffusing civilization and a knowledge 

of useful arts. 

Phryxus and Helle, having fled from the threatened wrath First voyage 
of Ino, proceeded from Argos in a galley, either called the 
Ram, or possibly bearing a ram's head,^ to seek an asylum at 
the court of their relative JEetes, king of Colchis. After the 
accidental death of Helle in the straits leading towards the 
Black Sea, which event gave rise to the name of Hellespont, 
ever since borne by those straits, Phryxus continued his voyage 
to Colchis, where he was afterwards murdered,^ for the sake of and death of 
the treasures belonging to his father, which he had brought ^^ 
from Thebes. The desire of revenging this atrocity caused the 
memorable enterprise of the Argonauts, which has generally 
been considered allegorical, or rather mythological. But 
although blended with fiction, and partly lost in the romance 
of poetical description, the voyage comes to us so well sup- 
ported, that there is every reason to believe the foundation, at 
least, to have been correct. The early connexion of Colchis 
with Egypt, the concurring testimony of the Greek historians, 
together with the names, parentage, city, and nation of each 
individual engaged in the expedition,^ seem to leave little 
doubt regarding the authenticity of an undertaking which had, 
as is well known, many important consequences. 

' Diod. Sic, lib. V., cap. xxxvi. 

* Jos., Cont. Apion, lib. II., s. 2, says that there intervened a period of 
393 years between the departure of the Shepiierds and the flight of Danaus, 
which being deducted from 1623 (see above, p. To) leaves 1230. Tlie de- 
parture of Danaus from Egypt has however been placed two centuries 
earlier. See note on p. 58, vol. I., "Wilkinson's Anc. Egyptians. 

^ Diod. Sic, lib. IV., cap. xii. * Ibid. 

* Apollonius Rhodius and Apollodorus Atheniensis. 

VOL n. r 



[chap. V, 

Vessels of the 

Voyage to the 
Black Sea. 

Return from 
Colchis to 

The fleet 
proceeds to 
Spain, &c. 

Rise of Lydia. 

The expedition appears, from the best authority, to have 
been of some extent, for it consisted of six ships, manned by 
Grecian princes and their followers.^ The principal vessel, 
(the galley of Jason, the admiral,) the celebrated Argo, was, 
according to some, so called from Argos, the builder ; but the 
name was more probably derived from Argha, signifying, in 
the Egyptian language, a sacred vessel, she having been taken 
to the temple of Delphos, and there consecrated.^ 

The flotilla reached the coast of Colchis safely, where every 
success attended the land operations under the Theban Her- 
cules;'^ and some enterprises of minor importance appear to 
have been undertaken in the countries lying northward of the 
Euxine, particularly towards the Ister, the Tanais, and the 
Don, which have given rise to some geographical difficulties, 
in consequence of the poetical effusions of the narrators. The 
Argonauts are described as shaping their course down the 
middle of the Pontic Sea, where they escaped with difficulty 
from a violent tempest, and finally reached the straits, which 
they entered in safety, with all the treasures they had acquired 
during their forays."^ In passing, they visited the country of 
Byzas, afterwards the seat of Byzantium, and, having erected 
altars and offered sacrifices, they proceeded through the Pro- 
pontis and Hellespont to Troy. 

After plundering the city, Hercules bestowed Hesione, the 
daughter of Laomedon, upon his friend Telamon, who carried 
her to Greece. The Argonauts now continued their enter- 
prise, by proceeding through the Mediterranean to Spain, in 
which part of the world colonies were already established, both 
from Egypt and PhcBuicia. They then returned to Greece 
with great spoils, part of them by sea, sweeping the Medi- 
terranean, and the remainder by land ; and these brought with 
them immense herds of cattle. 

Lydia had already become an important kingdom, Alcseus, 
the son of Omphale, the twelfth sovereign from Meues, or 

' Iliad, V , 641, and Diod. Sic, lib. IV., cap. xi. 

* Herod., lib. IV., cap. clxxix. 

^ Apollodorns Atheniensis, de Hercule, p. 45. 

* Diod. Sic, lib. IV., cap. xiii. 


Manes, (possibly Noah,) being on the throne. Belus, his suc- 
cessor, is said to have subdued Assyria, and having expelled 
the Egyptian colony left by Sesostris on the northern frontier 
of Colchis, he became possessed of the whole empire, instead of 
being monarch of Lydia only. This sovereign was succeeded Ninus sue- 
by Ninus, who was probably born about the time his father father Belus, 
took the capital of Assyria, which from henceforth bore his 
name, in accordance with the custom of that period, of attach- 
mg to places the names of distinguished individuals; and 
during his campaigns in Asia he obtained the name of Picus.' 
We are elsewhere told that Ninus arose from the south, ^ and 
came to the Black Sea, and the extreme north, destroying 
everything.'^ Diodorus Siculus* also gives nearly the same 
account, adding, that Ninus had conquered Bactria before 
Semiramis reigned alone, and perhaps whilst she was still the 
wife of Menon. The latter, who was one of the principal 
officers attached to the army, is supposed to have put himself 
to death through jealousy, and this event opened the way for 
the union of Semiramis with Ninus. Semiramis thus obtained and marries 
scope for the exercise of her great talents, which were after- ^'^""^™'^- 
wards employed most effectively in consolidating her second 
husband's conquests in Bactria.^ Here Ninus died, and 
Semiramis became, in consequence, mistress of the greater 
part of the world, one of her capitals being Babylon.'^ Be- 
markable specimens of the arts belonging to this period 
were not, however, confined to Babylonia ; they have also 
been discovered near Malatiyah,^ and in many other places 
throughout her dominions. These remains are particularly 
noticed by Diodorus,® especially the magnificent road con- Koad exca- 
structed at great expense by the Assyrian queen across the semlramis. 

' From Scaliger : Ancient Fragments by I. P. Cory, Esq., p. 76. 

* The Red, or the Erythrean Sea. 

^ Orosius' Hist., lib. I., cap. iv. 

■* Lib. II., cap. vi. * Ibid., cap. vii. 

^ Strabo., lib. XVI., p. 737. Compared witli Diod. Sic, lib. II., cap. 



On a tablet between Malatiyah and Kiiarput. Vol. X., p. 25, Journal of 
the Royal Asiatic Society. 
' Lib. II., cap. xii. 




residence of 

near Van. 

Elwand range of mountains, including: the ancient Orontes, 
where distinct traces of it were observed by Major Rawlinson ; 
who states ^ that throughout its whole extent, from the Gung 
Nameh, the western base of the mountain, it still presents the 
most unequivocal marks of having been artificially and most 
laboriously constructed. On the summit of the mountain the 
pavement is still in tolerable preservation. Having successfully 
terminated the war in Armenia, and being pleased with the 
salubrity of the air, as well as the fertility of that picturesque 
country, Semiramis built a magnificent city on the shores of 
the sea Akhthamar (Lake Van). On this city no less than 
12,000 workmen, under 600 overseers or architects, were em- 
ployed;^ and, according to Armenian history, it became 
henceforth the summer residence of its foundress.^ Several 
ancient inscriptions have been lately discovered on the shores 
of Lake Van, near the ruins of Shemiramgerd ; and the 
lamented Professor Schultz, who copied forty-two of these 
inscriptions, deciphered the word " Shemiram " in several of 
them, particularly in one which is written in the arrow-headed 
characters. The dominion of the Ass\Tian queen, therefore, 
over Armenia no longer rests wholly upon tradition ; and, 
thanks to the pains-taking Schultz,^ and the subsequent labours 
of Major Eawlinson, as well as those of another remarkable 
traveller, there are still clearer traces of events connected with 
this as well as the later and still more interesting Achaemenian 
period ; which have been recorded in almost imperishable mate- 
rials at Bisutiin.^ 

' Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. X., part iii., p. 320. 

* Michael Chamish, History of Armenia, translated by J. Avdall, Esq., 
vol. I. pp. 23. 24. This city has lately been visited by James Brant, Esq., 
Her Brit. Majesty's Consul at Erz-Rum : its site had been satisfactorily de- 
termined during tiie previous journey of the late Professor Scliultz. 

^ ^Michael Chamish, History of Armenia, translated by J. Avdall, Esq., 
vol. I., p. 24. 

■* Memoire sur le Lac de Van et ses environs, par Monsieur Fr. W. Schultz. 
Journal Asiatique, vol. IX., 1840, p. 257-322. 

' Tiie Persian cuneiform inscriptions of Bisutun, deciphered and translated 
by Major H. C. Kawlinson, C.B. Journal of tlie Royal Asiatic Society, 
vol. X., parts i., ii., and iii. 


The sculptures and Syriac inscriptions so particularly men- 
tioned by Diodorus' as having been executed by order ofBisutunthe 
Seniiraniis at this place, which is now identified with the Mount gbistau. 
Baghistane of that author, are supposed by Major Rawlinson^ to 
have been totally effaced by Khusrau Parviz, when he was pre- 
paring to form the long surface, scarped by the Assyrian queen, 
into the back wall of his palace. According to another 
traveller, however, Mr. Masson, certain remains of these sculp- 
tures still exist ; three female heads, and some traces of Syriac 
characters, having been discovered by him on his visit to 
Bisutun in 1830.-' 

' Lib. IT., cap. xii. 

* Journal of the Geog. Society, vol. IX., p. 114. 

* From a manuscript paper in possession of the London Asiatic Society, 
and some other observations by Charles Masson, Esq. : — 

'• The scarped mountain at Bisutun, I considered to have been once 
covered with the bas-reliefs or sculptures noticed particularly by Diodorus 
Siculus, as well as intimated by Isidorus. I had not, and have not any Female figures 
doubt upon the matter, because there are still three female faces of very ^°^ 
singular beauty, which have been spared by a very lucky chance, when 
either wantonly (if the act of Muhammedans) or designedly (if the act of 
others) the chisel was employed to obliterate all traces of these sculptures. 
Above the faces are also the remains of an inscription, but not in cuneiform 
characters : the forms to me, looking from the plain below, were circular 
and square, such as certain of the Greek letters might be, or square Sama- 
ritan, or even Indo-Sali. These faces, as well as characters, I believe have 
been unnoticed by modern travellers ; still they certainly exist, and once 
seen, no one could again look upon the scarped mountain without having 
them in full view. The prominent feature of Cambadena is Baptana, where, 
according to Isidorus, ' there is a statue and pillar of Semiramis.' The 
location of Baptana, at Bisutun, having been adndtted, it is natural to in- inscriptions at 
quire if we have at that spot any traces of the remarkable sculptures described *" ^°' 
by Diodorus, and it is gratifying to be able to assert that we have. Diodorus 
says, lib. II., cap. xii., 'Semiramis having completed all these works, 
marched with a great army against the Medes, and liaving reached the foot 
of a mountain called Baghistane, she there formed her camp, and traced out 
in the plain a garden, &c. Mount Baghistane, which is consecrated to 
Jupiter, had one of its sides, a precipitous rock 17 stadii in height, and full 
of inequalities, turned towards the garden. Semiramis caused it to be 
smoothed at the bottom, and had her head, accompanied by a hundred of her 
guards, sculptured on it. She added to this an inscription in Syriac cha- 
racters,' &c. " At 



[chap. v. 

Bactria, and 

is succeeded 

by Ninyas. 

Referring to the successes of Semiramis, it may readily be 
imagined that an ambitious woman, possessing despotic power 
and ample means, would be ready, not only to follow out her 
husband's plans in the neighbouring country of Bactria, but 
even to push them further eastward, as stated by Diodorus 
Siculus, who makes her forces in this campaign amount to the 
prodigious number of 3,000,000 of foot, 500,000 horse, 
100,000 chariots, and 100,000 men mounted on camels, besides 
several hundreds of stuffed elephants, to impose upon the 
Indians.^ Her career, however, terminated with this expe- 
dition, for having met with a repulse on the frontiers of 
India, and her life having been soon afterwards attempted by 
an assassin, at the instigation of her own son, she resigned the 
throne in disgust. 

Ninyas being thus placed in possession of a powerful and 
extensive empire, his first care was its consolidation by the 
appointment of provincial governors in whom he could confide, 
and under whom were judges, generals, and all other officers 
requisite for its well-being.^ The satraps, or deputies, were 
instructed to raise a certain description of force, which, after 

as described 
by Diod. Sic. 

" At Bisutun is a high mountain, the lower parts of which have been 
smoothed or scarped, exactly as the historian describes his Mount Baghistane 
to have been. On this smoothed front are still to be recognized the faces of 
three colossal figures; and what is much to the point, they are obviously 
female faces. Diodorus does not mention in the above extract that the 
guards delineated on the rock were females ; but if my memory deceive me 
not, we have evidence in some author tliat the Assyrian Queen was attended 
by guards of her own sex. Above the three faces are tlie vestiges of symbols 
or characters, possibly tlie faint remnants of the historian's Syriac inscription. 
The faces are carved in bas-relief, and of exquisite workmanship, attesting 
tlie perfection of the arts, of sculpture at least, at so early a period. But the 
circumstance of these colossal figures being carved in bas-relief, unfortunately 
rendered their obliteration comparatively easy to be effected, and the whole 
front of the rock exhibits the marks of the chisel employed in the work of 
destruction. These faces might escape the observation of a casual or inat- 
tentive observer, but they are readily as well as more favourably seen by 
looking upwards upon the rock in an oblique direction, and from the north, 
as in that case their profiles are turned towards the obseiver." 

' Diod. Sic, lib. II., cap. xvi., xvii. * Ibid., cap. xvi. 


performing- military service for one whole year, should be dis- 
charged, and replaced by another levy. This is the first 
militia upon record in history. 

The intercourse existing between Greece and the shores of Cause of the 
the Black Sea, previously to the voyage of the Argonauts, ^•'^^ '^^^' 
became more constant after this event, and so continued up to 
the siege of Troy. This celebrated war appears to have had a 
more remote cause than the abduction of Helen, being sup- 
posed to date from the journey of An tenor to demand his sister 
Hesione from Telamon : and its connexion with the Argonauts 
is the more probable from the circumstance that the sons of 
some of the heroes engaged in the Argonautic expedition were 
employed on this occasion. Hence the^commencement of the 
siege may be fixed at about forty-five or fifty-five years later 
than the voyage alluded to, and probably about the same time 
after the departure of Danaus from Egypt for Argos. This 
would place the landing of the Greeks in Asia between 1185 B.C. 118.5. 
and 1175 B.C., or nearly the time hitherto assigned to that 
remarkable event, which has, in a great measure, served to fix 
so many dates belonging to the heroic age.' Armenia appears An Armenian 
to have shared in this war; Teutamos, the sovereign of that empiofed^at 
country, having sent Memnon thither, at the head of a con- *^^ ^'''=^- 
tingent of 10,000 Ethiopians (of Asia), and as many Susians, 
with the addition of 200 chariots.^ 

At this period, Lydia also held an important place in the 
history of the w^orld, having become a maritime power ; and 
thus, by intercourse with the isles of the Mediterranean, Asia 
Minor became one of the links by which knowledge spread 
westward from the cradle of the human race. 

In a neighbouring territory, the theocracy of the Hebrews 
had lately terminated M'ith the death of the prophet Samuel, 
and the regular Jewish monarchy succeeded. Saul, the first Saul's acces- 
king, had carried on successful w^ars against his pow-erful ^^"° ^" ^^ ' 
neighbours the Philistines,^ the Ammonites,^ and the Amale- 

' A later time, namely. 900 b.c, has been given. See pp. 31, 32. 40, 54 
of the Tables of Synchronology, &c. by the Rev. Charles Crossth\vaite. 
Parker, AYest Strand. * Diod. Sic, lib. II., cap. xvii. 

' 1 Samuel, chap. XIV., v. 31. " Ibid. v. 47. 




The Hagar- 
ites, Itureans, 

David is 
chosen, and 

reigns over 
the twelve 

The limits of 
bis kingdom 
beyond the 

kites,' as well as into the more distant territories of the 
Hagarites, the Itureans, the Nephisbites, &c., lying towards 
the banks of the Euphrates. He took from these wealthy 
nomads 100,000 men, 50,000 camels, 250,000 sheep, and 
2,000 asses,^ notwithstanding the support they received from 
the king of Zobah.^ These nations had not been able to 
regain the authority formerly possessed by Cushanrishathaim, 
by whom the nomadic tribes west of the Euphrates, as well as 
the Hebrews themselves, hid been subjected ; and they were 
overcome by the prudence and valour of Saul; but this 
monarch, having experienced a signal defeat from the Philis- 
tines in the plains of Esdraelon, fell by his own hand in the 
year 1056 b.c. The Philistines followed up their victory by 
taking many cities, and spreading themselves over the country." 
Things were in this discouraging state when the rulers of the 
tribe awarded the sceptre of Judah to David, in Hebron ; the 
other eleven tribes recognizing Ishbosheth, the son of Saul, as 
their king. A civil war was the consequence of this opposition, 
but it was terminated, at the end of seven years and six months, 
by the murder of Ishbosheth. David's authority being then 
acknowledged by all the tribes, he besieged and took Jehus 
from the Jebusites, which became from thenceforth his capital. 

Being now sole monarch, and free from all internal enemies, 
the new sovereign gradually extended his dominions over Coelo- 
Syria, Damascus, Palmyrene, and Iturea ; he also subdued the 
Moabites, Ammonites, Philistines, and other sections of the 
ancient inhabitants who had previously occupied the whole 
range of country from Thapsacus to the borders of Egypt; 
thus realizing the covenant which was to give to Abraham and 
his posterity the territory from the river of Egypt to the great 

After subjugating the Edomites, Moabites, &c., David added 
still more to his territory, having, towards the close of his 
reign, extended the borders even beyond the Euphrates. Here 

' 1 Samuel, chap. XIV., v. 48. * 1 Cluoii., chap. V., v. 19, 20, 21. 

' I Samuel, chap. XIV., v. 47. 

* Ibid., chap. XXXI., v. 1, 2, and following verses. 

* Gen., chap. XV., v. 18. 


he encountered Hadarezer, son of Rehob, king of Zobah (pro- Brass brought 
bably Nisibis), the ally of the king of Syria ; and having tl^a! "^^"^ 
defeated him, he brought " very much brass " from Tibhath 
and Chun, two of his cities.' This commodity was, no doubt, 
the produce of the mines near Diyar Bekr, where it may have 
been found in the same abundance as in the present day, for 
we read that in the time of Solomon there was a sufficient 
quantity of it left " to make the brazen sea, the pillars, and the 
vessels of brass," for the service of the Temple.^ 

A few months before his death, David resigned to Solomon, ^^^^h °^ ^ 

. . . David, and 

one of his youngest sons, the government of his kingdom, which 
was then the principal monarchy in western Asia. It extended, 
as we have seen, from the Mediterranean Sea and the country 
of the Phoenicians to the Euphrates ; and, again, from the 
river of Egypt and the Elanitic gulf^ till it included Berytus, 
Hamath, and even Thapsacus.^ The Canaanites, who seem to 
have been obedient and peaceful subjects, were tributary to 
David, as were also the Moabites, Ammonites, the nomad 
Arabs, and the Syrians of Damascus. 

Finding peace on all sides, Solomon's attention was speedily accession of 
given to the cultivation of the arts and the promotion of com- 
merce, all of which found an active protector in a monarch 
who was distinguished for his learning, as well as for his archi- 
tectural taste. The latter was displayed in his design for the 
celebrated Temple ; and for the execution of this splendid 
work there w^ere introduced into the country many foreigners, 
from whom the Hebrews acquired instruction in different 
branches of the mechanical arts.^ Besides artizans, many 
distinguished individuals, and even sovereign princes, were Tyrian 
attracted to Jerusalem, in order to see and converse with employed on 
the royal sage, and have, at the same time, an opportunity ^^^ Temple, 
of examining in detail the institutions of the State.^ These 
comprehended the administration of the laws, and the regu- 

^ 1 Chron., chap. XVIII., v. 8, the Betah and Berothai of 2 Samuel, 
chap. VIII. V. 8. 

* 1 Chron., chap. XVIII., v. 8. ^ See above, vol. I., p. 539, 540. 

* 2 Chron., chap. II., v. 13, 14, &c. " I have sent thee a cunning man," 
&c. " Skilful to work in o^old and in silver," &c. 

* Ibid., chap. IX., v. 1 and following verses. 



lations relating to the discipline of an army, consisting of 
infantry, cavalry, and chariots, for the security of the kingdom 
from foreign as well as domestic enemies. The court con- 
tained within it all the establishments becoming the state of a 
great monarch; and the inferior details of domestic labours 
were performed by servants or slaves, who were designated 
hewers of wood and drawers of water. 
Materials, ."cc, The greater part of Solomon's subjects were employed, either 
thSucfure. in preparing the materials or in the building of the temple, for 
a period of thirty-nine years, having, besides, the effective 
assistance of Hiram. It appears that 80,000 men were 
occupied in the mountains preparing stone ; others, numbering 
30,000, were engaged in hewing wood, and there were 70,000 
bearers of burdens, making in all 180,000 constantly employed, 
under 3,600 overseers.' The gold, silver, and other costly 
materials left by David expressly for the erection of this superb 
building, with the additions made by Solomon, and the free 
labour bestowed upon the work, have been estimated at a sum 
exceeding the national debt of Great Britain ; but even at the 
moderate computation of Josephus, the 10,000 talents of gold 
and 100,000 talents of silver, at the lowest value, namely the 
Syrian talent, would be 17,718,750/.' 

Shortly after the completion of this edifice, Solomon erected 
what was no doubt an idolatrous temple, for the use of his 
Cushite wife, the daughter of Miphra Muthosis, with whom he 
had received as a dower the city of Gaza, which the king of 
Egypt had recently captured.^ 

Solomon also built Tadmor in the wilderness, and all the 
store cities in Hamath; likewise Beth-boron the upper and 
Beth-horon the nether, and Ba'alath ; ^ but the greatest under- 
taking of all, was the establishment of regular commercial 
intercourse by sea, with that part of the eastern world known 
under the name of Ophir. 

' 1 Kings, chap. V., v. 15, 16 ; 2 Cliron., chap. II,, v. 18 ; Jos., lib. VIII. 

cap. ii. s. 9. 

* Jos., chap. XIII., description of the Temple. 
» 1 Kings, cliap. III., v. 1. 

* 2 Chrou., chap VIII., v. 4, 5, 6, compared with Jo.^.. lib. VIII. cap. vi. 

Cost of the 

Store cities 
built by 


The coasts of Arabia and eastern Africa, with those on Opiiir sought 
both sides of the peninsula of India, have each in turn been Veil as Asia, 
considered the place bearhig that name ; but as the fir.>t does 
not correspond, either as to distance or products, with the 
indications afforded in the Scriptures, the question lies between 
the second and third regions. 

Each of these possesses the chief requisites for the return 
cargoes, but the greatest number of authors are in favour of the 
coast of India, which has all the different products, possibly in- 
cluding the doubtful almug, or algum.^ Although so much has 
been written on the subject, a few remarks on the time and 
means by which the united fleets may have overcome the dangers 
of Tharshish, or the open sea, in search of wealth, may not be 
out of place. In connexion with the time mentioned, a difli- 
culty has arisen regarding the country of "the Queen of the 
South, which is imagined by some to have been on the eastern, 
whilst it has been placed by others on the western side of the 
Red Sea. The first rests in a great measure on Arab history 
and tradition ; and whilst the Saba of Yemen, by its southern Saba of Yemen 
position, agrees with the supposed seat of the Queen's govern- ^° ' ^^°^' 
ment, the ancient Saba, afterwards Meroe,^ not only agrees as 
M-ell, but it may with greater propriety be styled, "the utter- 
most parts of the earth."'^ It has already been seen that the 
Himyarites of Arabia and the Sabaeans of Africa were one and 
the same people/ and that the name of Sheba or Saba, equally 
of Arabic derivaticn, is found in both countries. But a writer, 
whose veracity is now better understood than formerly, 
mentions the interesting fact, which has been repeated by most 
subsequent travellers, that the Abyssinians claim the celebrated 
princess who visited Solomon as one of their sovereigns ; The Queen of 
adding, that her posterity reigned over their country for a long Soiomou. 
time. Moreover, the Abyssinian annals describe the journey 
of the learned Queen of Sheba, Saba, or Asaba (meaning 
south), to visit Solomon, and add that she had a son by this 

' Possibly the odoriferous thyon of Pliny, in lib. XIIT., C!ip xvi, 

* Jos. Ant., lib. II., cap. x. s. 2. ^ Matthew, chap. XII., v. 42. 

* Ludolphus, Hist, ^thiop. I., and Comment, ad suam Hist, ^thioji.. lib. 
XVI., p. 60. 


monarch, to whom, after a reign of forty years, she left the 

This occurred about 986 B.C., and it has been remarked that 
the existing usages, and even the religion of the Abyssinians, 
show traces of an early intercourse with the Hebrews. 

The voyage under consideration was not, however, neces- 
sarily directed to the country of the Queen of the South. It 
Earliest trade will be rccoUccted that the gold of Ophir was known in the 
^ "^' time of Job," as well as in that of David, having been brought 
to Judea chiefly, or perhaps entirely, by land ; and, whatever 
be the place from whence that metal was obtained, the local- 
ities of other portions of the merchandize must be sought for 
beyond the limits of Arabia. It has been seen that this 
Caravan country is at present traversed by several caravan routes •,^ and, 
Arabia. ^°°^ in ancient times, those of the Sabseans towards the western 
side of the peninsula converged on Petra and Egypt; the 
Sabean city of Mareb being the grand mercantile depot, while 
those towards the eastern side tended to Tadmor, which was 
another great emporium, from whence there were branches to 
Jerusalem, Tyre, Ba'alat (Baalbek), and the other store cities. 
Since the camel finds sustenance even in the most desert tracts, 
almost any distance may be accomplished by caravans com- 
posed of these animals ; the allotment of a sufficient number, to 
transport from place to place the supplies of provisions and 
water, in addition to the merchandize, being all that is 
required : the formation of ship caravans, however, must have 
been very difi'erent, owing to the extreme difficulty of their 
organization. The compass was unknown, as well as the 
Difficulties monsoons ; and even if there had been sufficient knowledge of 
trad"e*^by^sea. ^^^ winds and of the geography of the countries, to enable the 
navigators to shape a direct course, the sort of ship then in use 
must necessarily have confined them to a coasting voyage, 
which, in fact, was all that the Phoenicians attempted at a later 
period with superior vessels. Supposing the barks depicted in 
the grottos of Eleutherium and other places in Egypt, as well 

' Bruce's Travels, &c., vol. II., p. 109-113. 

* Chap. XXII., V. 24. 

' See above, vol. I. pp. 618, 629, 630, 637, 685. 


as in the temples of India, to give some idea of those in use 
on the Red Sea in the time of Solomon, and taking the size of ^^^eil^""^"^ 
the men and other objects as a guide in forming a judgment, 
the vessels must have been mere flat boats, of between three 
and five tons burthen ; sometimes with a square sail to assist, 
but depending chiefly on rowers. For this reason, they had a 
much greater proportion of men than sailing vessels require ; 
and supplies of water would have been requisite almost every 
day, and of provisions very frequently. Under such circum- 
stances, the flotilla was not likely to accomplish more than the 
vessels of Nearchus did ; the daily progress during the cool 
season in day-time, and at night during the summer, may 
therefore be estimated at twenty-five miles at most. 

The eastern coast of Africa, about the Mozambique channel, Products of 
would afford gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks or parrots ; LLtof Africa. 
and the distance, following the coast, including that of the Red 
Sea, is about 4405 miles. This, at 25 miles per day, 
would require 170 days, or, with the sabbaths and halts, 218. 
This, with 90 for the monsoon, and 120 for the delay in 
collecting the merchandize, would give 428 days in all ; w hich, 
adding 308 for the return voyage, would be two years and six 
days ; and this, according to Hebrew computation, w^ould be 
called three years. 

But as the gold of Ophir,' and at least some of the other 
objects of merchandize were prepared during the reign of 
David,^ it follows that the countries from whence they were 
brought must also have been known before communications 
were opened by vessels, and the destination of the latter must 
therefore be sought somewhere in the prolongation of the 
existing caravan lines. 

The most important of these was that adopted by Solomon, Trade between 
which passed through Tadmor towards the Persian Gulf This persLu^Guif 
line appears to have been in use since the Phoenicians removed 

' Three thousand talents of the gold of Ophir, and TOGO talents of refined 
silver ; also wood, onyx stones, and all manner of precious stones. 1 Chron., 
chap. XXIX., V. 2-5. 

* For preparation of the materials, see 1 Chron., chap. XXII., XXVIII.. 


from the shores of the latter to the coasts of the Mediterranean ; 
Arados and Tylos being afterwards depots for imports from 
more distant countries. No doubt the merchandize sought 
was brought there in the first instance by land, but probably 
afterwards by water also ; and circumstances, otherwise trifling, 
go far to show that a remote tract of the east was the seat of 
this trade. The Siugalese kakyn nama, or sweet-wood, cinna- 
mon,^ together with other Indian articles, such as pepper, fine 
linen, or muslin and cotton, have each a Greek name, which 
corresponds with the original Sanscrit.^ 

Moreover, it is expressly stated by Josephus, that, in order 
to fetch gold, the shipping of Hiram and Solomon proceeded 
to a land, which of old was called Ophir, but is now the Aurea 
Chersonesus, and belongs to India.^ As the ancient Egyptian 
The Aurea name of the latter country was Sophir,"* which is nearly that 
considered as uscd in the Scptuagint, it is not improbable that the peninsula 
Ophir. q£ Malacca and the adjoining tracts may represent the Ophir 

of Job, David, and Solomon. The name itself is still pre- 
served, being given to Gounang-passaman, one of the culmi- 
nating points of the great chain in the island of Sumatra, a 
lofty mountain rising to the height of 13,842 feet. 

The country lying between this island and Cape Comorin 

produces sandal-wood (which probably represents the algum), 

as M^ell as the other objects of the voyage. These were, in all 

Products probability, obtained by barter only, at the expense of much 

byTelus*o7^ time in going from place to place ; and the delay which 

barter. occurrcd ou this account must have been increased by the 

necessity of waiting for a change of monsoon to return. As 

the nature of the flotilla put a direct voyage out of the question, 

that to Ophir could have been accomplished only by coasting 

along the shores of Arabia, afterwards (supposing Ophir were 

' This name was imported with the commodity. Ilerod., lib. III. 
cap. iii. 

* Ileeren's Asiatic Researches, vol. II. p. 421 et seq., Bohn, 184(>, com- 
pared with Quatreraere, I'Acad. des Inscriptions, tome XV. pt. ii. 
p. ;349-402. 

'' Ant., lib. VIII. cap. 6, s. 4. 

* Michaelis, Spicilegium Geog. Heb., II. 184. 



} J 


\'''^" 4' 


in India), keeping along that of Mekran, and finally following 
both sides of the peninsula of Hindustan : — 

From Ezion-geber, or Dlialiab,' pursuing' the windings of 

the coast, the western side of Arabia gives a distance of 1206 miles. 
The southern side of the peninsula to tlie coast of Persia, 

at the Straits of Ormuz. ..... 1660 

From the Straits of Ormuz to the liiver Indus . . 732 

P>om the latter to Cape Comorin .... 1390 

From Cape Comorin to the River Ganges . . . 1350 

From the River Ganges to the Straits of Malacca. . 1500 

Total . . 7838 ,, 

At the rate of about 25 miles in 24 hours, this would occupy Distances aud 
313 days, which, with the addition of the sabbaths, 44 days, fo^th^vojage. 
and other halts, as rests, at intervals of about 10 days, say 31, 
would make the outward voyage to the coafet of Sumatra quite 
388 days; and this is exclusive of detention from bad weather, 
which must have occurred frequently, especially during the 
monsoons ; for assuredly such frail barks could not venture to 
proceed, excepting at the commencement, or towards the 
termination of these periodical winds. This applies more 
particularly to the Red Sea ; for outside of the straits of 
Bab-el-Mandeb, and, again, along the coasts of Mekran and 
the western side of India, the only resource would be to haul 
up the flotilla until the strength of the gale were passed. It is 
difficult to estimate the time lost in consequence of these 
delays, outward and homeward ; but as a monsoon would be Delay and 

, , . , difficulties 

encountered durnig each voyage, about three months may be caused by the 
allowed, making 90 days each way ; and as from 90 to 120 
days would probably be occupied on the coasts of Ophir and 
Parvaim' in bartering for the desired articles, and in refitting 
the ships, this number of days, with 478 for the return voyage, 
will give 1076 days, or nearly three years in all, for the time 
consumed in an enterprise which forms one of the glories of 
Solomon's reign. 

As it was chiefly owing to the skill and intrepidity of the The early 

n TT 1 1 1 • ^ r\ ^ • ii trade of the 

ship-men or Hiram that the trade with (Jphir was opened by Pha-nicians 

' This place is represented, Plate 45. 
* 2 Chron., chap. III. v. 6. 



[chap. V. 

extended by 
the Tyrians 

into Africa 
and Europe. 

sea, it will not be out of place to revert to the progress pre- 
viously made by these mariners. 

By the extension of the earliest navigation, Tzur, or Tyre, 
had assumed a high place as the emporium of trade with 
various kingdoms,' having gotten gold and silver into her 
treasures, by great wisdom and traffic." 

It has already been seen that their leader was Arcles, who, 
as the Tyrian Hercules,^ was the first navigator in the Medi- 
terranean, and the founder of several colonies ; he was deified 
by the Tyrians, and even by the Egyptians, by whom he had 
been expelled. 

The settlement in Spain, which Arcles had intrusted to his 
son Hispal, speedily became the most valuable of these infant 

From Cadiz, the principal port of the southern part of the 
Peninsula, voyages were undertaken to the western coast of 
Africa, where the colonies appear to have been so numerous 
that, at a later period, we are told the Getuli destroyed about 
300 settlements belonging to the Phoenicians.'* Other voyages, 
again, were directed northward, and appear to have been 
extended to the British islands, and the estuary of the Khine, 
if not also to the Baltic Sea. 

The mines found in the southern parts of the peninsula of 
Iberia, about Tartessus, Carteia, &c., seem to have contributed 
still more to the extension ol the trade of Phoenicia. Gold 
and silver, which were at this period so abundant as to be used 

' Fine linen with broidered work from E^ypt was woven in thy sail, blue 
and purple from the Isles of Elisha (Hellas). They of Persia, of Lud, and 
of Phut were in thine army. Tarshish was thy merchant ; Javan, Tubal, and 
Meshech, they were thy merchants : they traded in men and vessels of brass. 
Togorniah traded in thy fairs with horses and mules. The men of Dedan 
brought thee horns of ivory and ebony. Syria was thy merchant : they 
occupied in thy fairs with emeralds, purple, and broidered work, and fine 
linen, and coral and agate. Haran, and Canneh (Calneh), and Eden, the 
merchants of Sheba, Asshur, and Chilmad, were thy merchants, &c. — Ezekiel, 
chap. XXVII., v. 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 23. 

^ Ibi.l., chap. XXVIII., V. 4, 5. 

* Cic, de Xat. Divin., lib. III., compared with Jusephus, Ant., lib. VIII. 
cap. V. 

* Strabo, lib. XVII., p. 825. 


for anchors, and even farming implements, were sent into the 
latter country to be exchanged, together with glass, purple, 
fine linen, and trinkets, for the commodities of eastern 

There is little doubt that the Tyrians had availed themselves Early com- 
of the waters of the lied Sea for commercial purposes previ- Red'seaf 
ously to the voyages undertaken by Solomon, although no dis- 
tinct proofs of the fact have been handed down in connexion 
with their history. Gold of Ophir, coral, pearls, and the topaz, 
were known in the time of Job ; ^ and when Joseph was sold, 
we hear of a mixed caravan of Ishmaelites and Midianites, 
merchantmen engaged in trade.^ During the Exodus, gold, 
silver, brass, iron, tin, and lead, were found in Idumea ; ^ and 
it will be remembered that David's preparations for the 
Temple, included gold of Ophir, silver, bfass, iron, the onyx, 
and other precious stones.^ 

It appears that during the reign of the latter monarch, the 
idolatrous title of Abii Ba'al (Abibalus), which had been given 
to the first sovereign of Tyre, was renewed, and bestowed on 
the father of Hiram. 

The reign of this prince was particularly connected with The temples 
the religion of the country, for, according to Menander of dedicated to 
Ephesus, he pulled down the existing temples, and constructed Astarte^^ ^^'^ 
others, which he consecrated to Hercules and Astarte.^ 

The historian of the Jews continues the line from this 
sovereign to Pygmalion, in the seventh year of Mhose reign, 
and 143 years after the building of the temple, Dido fled into 

Whether in consequence of growing dissensions or want of Departure of a 

r-im- 1 1 J 1. ^ L colony from 

space, a portion oi the 1 yrian people proceedea to tne coast Tyre, 
of Africa, where a suitable site was obtained for a city; and as 
the best means of maintaining a position situated at the extre- 
mity of a continent inhabited by a warlike people, they con- 
sented to pay a ground-rent or tribute." Carthage occupied a 

' Chap. XXVIII., V. 15-20. ' Gen., chap. XXXVII., v. 28, 36. 

^ Xumb., chap. XXXI., v. 22, 50. " I Chron., cliap. XXIX., v. 2, 4. 
* Josephus, Cont. Apion, lib. I., s. 18. " Ibid. 

^ Justin, XIX., 2. 



of Carthage 

peninsula between Tunis and Leptis, which, by projecting into 
the gulf of the former, gave rise to two bays, both of which 
Establishment wcre tolerably well sheltered by the projection of Cape Bon. 
The city was defended on the land side by the citadel of 
Byrsa, and triple walls, ninety feet high by thirty feet broad, 
the rest of its circumference being protected by a single line.^ 

The system which had raised the parent city to a hitherto 
unexampled state of prosperity was pursued at Carthage, with 
the advantage of occupying the centre, instead of, as at Tyre, 
the extremity of the commercial outlets, which the Mediter- 
ranean Sea commanded, into Europe and Africa. The former 
continent especially, on account of the rich mines of Andalusia, 
required intervening stations, such as the Balearic Isles, Sar- 
dinia, Sicily, &c., in addition to a chain of settlements along 
the African shores, from the pillars of Hercules to the seat of 
government. Besides the preceding colonies, some of which 
were merely renewed, having been first instituted by the Phoe- 
nicians, others were placed in different parts of Mauritania, 
Numidia, Cyrenaica, and Marmarica.~ 

The latter stations fulfilled the double object of promoting 
agricultural industry and encouraging the trade of the mother- 
country, by serving as depots of merchandize at suitable dis- 
tances, for the use of the caravans trading to the interior ; and 
as the safety of these isolated positions required the good-will 
of the inhabitants, who were, generally speaking, warlike, their 
sanction was secured by territorial acknowledgments and other 

The colonies in the interior contributed largely, partly in the 
shape of tribute, but chiefly in agricultural produce, towards 
the expenses of Carthage, whose resources were also augmented 
by supplies from her numerous colonies elsewhere. These 
were partly received as taxes, and partly as donations to the 


resources of 

' Appian, I., 435, &c., compared with Campomanes, Antiquidad Maritima 
de la Republica Carthago. 

* Diod. Sic, lib. I., compared with Heeren's Hist. Researches, Africa, 
vol. I., p. 7, and pp. 39, 40. 

" Polybius, I., 177, compared with Heeren's Hist. Researches, Africa, 
vol. I., p. 30. 


chief city of a kind of federation, which was established for the 
object of mutual benefit, rather than with the view of exercising 
an acknowledged dominion. 

Having in the very outset the advantage of the experience Phoenician 
which the parent city had derived from several centuries offou,m°°of^ 
traffic by laud as well as by sea, the African colony of Carthage, q^\^^ 
instead of seeking new paths, such as those pursued by its 
predecessors, had only to follow their steps, taking advantage 
of a more extensive field. For, besides additional maritime 
colonies, Carthage possessed the resources derived from the con- 
tinent of Africa, through the agricultural establishments which 
had been formed in the interior, in connexion with the capital. 

Africa, including Egypt, produced corn, fruits, wax, honey, Commercial 
skins of wild beasts, ivory, gold, silver, flax, linen, kc, in great AfticT^ ° 
abundance. Frankincense, perfumes, gold, pearls, and precious 
stones, together with the purple, trinkets, and rich stuffs, &:c., 
of Tyre, were received from the Red Sea and Arabia, as well 
as the countries Iving eastward of the latter; and from the 
western and northern countries they imported iron, tin, copper, 
lead, amber, gold, and silver. 

Having thus the greatest part of the resources of the world Nature of the 
at command, with the advantages of a government which, being fnd^™™^° ' 
partly aristocratic and partly democratic, was considered the 
most perfect hitherto known,^ it is not surprising that the Car- 
thaginians should have gradually raised their city to a pitch of 
greatness, exceeding that of Tyre at her most splendid period. 

But, on the other hand, extensive colonization necessarily 
produced many jealousies, while ambition excited by pros- 
perity, speedily led to foreign wars ; and with mercenary troops, cause of the 
which could be raised to almost any extent in Africa and Spain, ^arg'^^^'"'^" 
Carthage subsequently engaged in a protracted and, as it 
proved, fatal contest with the future mistress of the world. 

But before becoming involved in a struggle for existence, 
maritime enterprises, similar to those made to Ophir in the 
time of Solomon, were occasionally undertaken by this people ; 
which, as coming within the limits of this work, will be noticed 
in their proper places. 

' Aristotle, de Rep., lib. IV. 



The infant kingdom of Israel acquired much strength towards 
the close of David's career, and it continued to progress during 
that of his successor, when its power was increased and consoli- 
dated, by means of extensive commercial and political relations 
with other countries. 
Dissatisfaction But a chaiigc took placc about the end of Solomon's till 
of the Hebrew ^l^gj^ pposperous reign: the introduction of idolatry,^ and the 
heavy taxes exacted for the support of his luxurious capital and 
effeminate court, having sown the seeds of defection previously 
to this monarch's decease. The bulk of the Israelites were 
consequently ready to revert to a state of discord ; and the 
enterprising Jeroboam was the most formidable of the three 
principal leaders, whose attempts to gain power distracted the 
commencement of the succeeding reign. 

The imprudent conduct of Eehoboam speedily caused a 
separation of the Hebrew kingdom, and Jeroboam having 
returned in haste from Egypt, was placed at the head of ten 
tribes and of the tributary nations. The seat of his govern- 
ment, now called the kingdom of Israel, was at Shechem. 
The tribes of Judah and Benjamin, forming the kingdom of 
Judah, only remained to Rehoboam, whose capital was Jeru- 
salem. The idolatry of Egypt had been adopted, in a great 
measure, by the bulk of the Hebrew people, and Jeroboam 
easily induced the Egyptians, his allies, to punish and humble 
the king of Judah, who having permitted idolatry in his own 
dominions, had drawn upon himself this chastisement, the 
coming of which was made known to him by the prophet 
Shishak Amcnophis, who, according to Manetho, was the son of 

inTades Judea. Tg|-}^^-fjQgis and grandsou of Myspharmuthosis, or Misphragmu- 
thosis, the father-in-law of Solomon, was on the throne at this 
time.^ He was the Bala of the Arabians, and appears to have 
been deified under the title of Ba'al, or Belus : * he is supposed 
also to have been the famous Shishak, or Schesonk. At the 

' 1 Kings, chap. XI., v, 7, 8. 

* 2 Chron., chap. XI., v. 2, 3, 4. 

'•' Ancient Fragments by I. P. Cory, Esq., p. 118. 

* Crossthwaite's Synchronology, p. 245. 


head of 1200 chariots, 60,000 horsemen, and a people without B.C. 971. 
number, inckiding the Lubims, the Sukkiims, and Ethiopians, 
he took the fenced cities of Judah ; Jerusalem itself surrendered 
to his arms, when he carried off the treasures of the Temple 
and those of the palace,^ leaving Rehoboam weaker, and con- 
sequently less able than before, to contend with the increasing 
power of Jeroboam and the Israelites. 

Turning towards western Asia at this period, it will be seen 
that the extension of the Haiganians, or Armenians, as a people, 
had hitherto been chiefly towards the east ; they followed, in the Spread of the 
first instance, one of the vales of Eden, now a fertile valley of •™'''^^^'^^- 
the Araxes, as far as the shores of the Caspian Sea, and from 
thence they spread into the gorges of the Caucasus, under the 
name of Haikanians. 

They are the Gargareis of Strabo, who places them north of 
Albania, close to the Amazons, and says that they came with 
the latter from Themiscyra, on the Black Sea." In all proba- 
bility they are one of the many colonies that came into 
Armenia after the first great emigration from Shinar. 

The Armenian kingdom appears to have been consolidated 
at this particular period under Pharnak, who made the country 
independent, and succeeded in so maintaining it, although 
exposed to the invasion of two powerful enemies, the Assyrians 
and Babylonians, who menaced him in turn during the re- 
mainder of the fifty-three years of his reign. 

The Assyrian or Cushite dominion was very extensive about 
this time, for it not only included Arabia and I'ran, which was 
now the seat of government, but also the dependencies of the 
latter in central Asia, and even in India. At this remote 
period, the latter region was composed of three immense pro- India com- 
vinces : that of the Ganges, that of the Indus, and peninsular provinces. ^^^ 
India, all of which paid tribute to I'ran, having been previ- 
ously subjected by Feridiiu or Arbaces.' 

Subsequently, however, Tartary appears to have gained a 
temporary ascendancy, I'ran having been occupied for twelve 
years by Afrisiab, king of Tiiran. This prince was in turn 

' 2 Chron., chap. XII., v. 3, 9. * Strabo, XL, p. 504. 

^ Sir William Jones, vol. I., p 49. 


expelled by Zal, father of Rustam, hereditary prince of 
Seistan ; and the last was succeeded by Loo, or Loah. 

This sovereign, and the period of his reign, appear to syn- 
Zerah.the chronisc with Zerah, the Ethiopian, and his invasion of Judea 
Tades Judea?" " with a vast amiv and 300 chariots." ^ Dr. Wells remarks 
that the original word Cush could not have meant the portion 
of Africa so called, which lay at too great a distance from 
Judea to permit such an invasion : moreover, if it had taken 
place from that part of the world, the intervening country of 
Egvpt must have been passed through, and subdued by such a 
powerful host." 

But the geographical difficulty will cease if we bear in mind, 
that the word Cush was applied to the Arabian as well as to 
the African territory ; and probably it formed at this moment 
a part of that extensive empire which stretched continuously 
from the shores of the Ked Sea to the territories of I'ran,^ 
from whence Judea had already been frequently invaded. 

About this period Assyria resumed her place in the history 

of the world, after having been for a lengthened period almost 

The Assyrians a Complete blank, and scarcely noticed in profane history. It 

in the time of is, howevcr, clear that the dominion founded by Nimriid con- 

ra am; ^iuued iutact up to the time of Abraham, when the subsidiary 

kings of Elam, Shinar, and Ellasar, are mentioned as following 

Tidal, the Assyrian king of kings, or of nations, to the borders 

of Palestine ; ^ and it seems to have been unimpaired at the 

time of Balaam's prophecy regarding Ashur,^ as well as when 

Cushan-rishathaim, the dependent sovereign of 3Jesopotamia, 

occupied Judea.^ 

The defensive preparations of the Hyksos, as mentioned by 
profane writers,' also show that at this period the Assyrian 

and also at a ' i i i ^ ^ ^ p -r^ i • • ^•1 

later period, power extended almost to the borders oi Egypt ; and it is hke- 
wise evident that it was in full force more than a thousand 
years after its formation, when Teutamos, the twentieth sove- 

' 2 Chron., chap. XIV., v. 7. 

'' Wells' Geog. of the Bible, vol. 1., p. 192. 

* Kuscli Kabgok. 

■* See page 65 of present volume, and Gen., chap. XIV., v. I. 

* Numbers, chap. XXR'., v. 22. * Juiiges, chap. III., v. 8, 10. 
" See above, p. 73. 


reign from Niiiyas, led a contingent to the siege of Troy.' '^}^^ Assyrian 
Other incidental circumstances are mentioned by Euscbius, 
Syncelhis, and Diodorus Sicuhis, in addition to the more 
detailed history of the kingdom given by Ctesias from the 
Persian archives. The latter, who had the advantage of col- 
lecting his materials during a residence of seventeen years at 
the court of Artaxerxes Mnemon, commences with Nimrikl or 
Ashur, and gives in succession Ninus, Semiramis, Ninyas, 
Arius, Azalius, Xerxes or Baleus I., Armamithres, Belochus I., 
Baleus II., Sethos (called Attados), Mamythus, Ascaleus, 
Ascarius or Maschaleus, Spherus, Mamylus, Spartheus, 
Ascatides, Amyntes, Belochus II., Baletores or Beletaras, 
Lamprides, Sosares, Lamparus, Panyas, Sosarmes, Mithreus, 
Teutamus or Tautanus, Teuteus, Thineus, Dercylas, Em- 
pacmes or Eupales, Saosthenes, Pertiades or Perithiades, 
Ophrateus, Ephecheres, Acraganes, and Thonos Concolerus or 

The reign of this monarch, who appears to represent the Median 
earlier Sardanapalus of the Greeks, was terminated by a revo- cording'to 
lution, in which he w'as overthrown by Arbaces, who, assisted 
by the Babylonian forces under Belesis, succeeded to the 
throne. The dynasty of the former, namely, Mandauces, 
Sosarmus, Artychas, Arbianes, Arta^us, Artynas, Astybaras, 
Aspadas or Astyages, and Cyrus, ten, including Arbaces, is 
called Median by Ctesias, owing to the founder being con- 
sidered one of this people, though in reality an Assyrian. This, 
and a similar circumstance at a later period, regarding Deioces, 
have caused some historical difficulties, which may, however, 
be in a great measure removed by distinguishing the Median 
dynasty of Ctesias, which commenced with Arbaces, from the 
later line, beginning, according to Herodotus, with Dejoces :^ 
Media being in each case a satrapy of the empire, and not a Historical dif- 

. ^ " '■ ficulties caused 

separate nation.^ by the Median 

But even if no such explanation were offered respecting the ^^^ ' 

' Diod Sic, lib. II., cap. xvii. 

" This distinction is the result of the talented researches of the late T. M. 
Dickinson, Esq., Secretary of the Bombay branch.— See Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, vol. IV., p. 217, &c. London, 1837. 


relative condition of Media, it could scarcely be supposed that 

the once-powerful kingdom of Assyria should have ceased to 

exist from the reign of Ninyas to that of Sardanapalus. 

The Assyrian Indeed, it is shown by undoubted authority, that at the time 

empire, and ^ •' . '' . 

of the commencement of the Median revolt under Deioces, or 
Kaikobad, the Assyrians had already been masters of upper 
Asia for a period of 520 years.^ And the probability that in 
his last work on Assyria, the historian may have distinguished 
between the great empire over central Asia, and the previous 
state of the Assyrian monarchy, is strengthened by the account 
of Trogus Pompeius in Justin, who says - that the Assyrians 
ruled in Asia for the term of 1300 years. 

There must, doubtless, have been a line of sovereigns during 
its line of the period mentioned by Herodotus, if not the whole of the 
probably interval in question ; and possibly such as that supposed to have 
uninterrupted, j^^^,^ taken from the Persian archives. And as several circum- 
stances mentioned in connexion with the later, as well as the 
earlier sovereigns, are substantiated from other sources, may 
not greater weight be claimed for the historian of Cnidus, than 
that which has usually been given to his enumeration of the 
earlier kings ? It is just possible that the monumental history 
and inscriptions now being rescued from the ruins left by time 
Remains near on the banks of the Tigris, may, when deciphered, not only 
enlighten the prove that the archives in question existed, but also in some 
hiSory!" degree restore the important link wanting in the early history 
of Assyria.^ 

' Herod., lib. I., cap. xcv. 

* Lib. T., cap. ii., compared with Agathias Scholasticus, lib. II., p. 63. 

^ Considering the vast importance of these discoveries in connexion with 
the earliest postdiluvian liistory, it cannot be uninteresting- to give the extract 
of a letter addressed by Mr. Hector, an officer of the Euphrates Expedition, 
to Tliomas Stirling, Esq., of Sheffield, dated June, 1845, respecting his visit 
to Khorsabad, &c. : — " Khorsabad is eighteen to twenty miles N.N.E. of 
Mosul. I examined the excavations over and over again, and the more I 
looked at the remaining sculptures, the more was I struck with astonishment 
as I thought of the ages and ages tliat have passed by since they were exe- 
cuted and buried. There are, I think, fifteen immense chambers or streets 
cleared out, all connected with each other at right angles, and all covered 
with sculptures and inscriptions of various sizes and sorts, representing pro- 
cessions of men in state, tl;e same of horses, richly caparisoned, apparently 


Whatever doubts may have been justly entertained regarding 
the preceding sovereigns do not apply to the so-called Median 
dynasty of Ctesias, since it is found that Arbaces, as well as 

led as an ofiering- to tlie king ; scenes of battles, and fighting of all descrip- 
tions, witli bows and arrows, spears, daggers, and shields, &c. &c. ; armies 
marching with horses and chariots, besieging towns, &c. ; drinking parties, 
with tables and cliairs and wine-cups, with servants pouring out the wine ; 
garden scenes ; hunting parties, shooting birds and hares in forests, with 
bows and arrows ; men impaled before besieged towns ; dead men falling off 
ramparts in fighting ; prisoners in chains ; sea scenes, with fish swimming 
about. There is one scene which would exactly correspond to the taking of 
Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar (Ezekiel, ch. xxix., v. 18), where the prophet 
says, ' everj'' man's head was bald, and every shoulder was peeled.' There 
were a great many large-winged bulls, with men's heads, about twenty to 
thirty tons each, and generally of beautiful execution. They were placed at 
the end and corners of the diflPerent passages or cha«Tibers, and generally in 
pairs ; these the people seem to have worshipped, and placed there as pro- 
tecting deities. The remaining sculptures looked very well and perfect 
M'hile standing in their places, but fell to pieces immediately on attempting 
to disturb them. It is evident that the place was destroyed by fire, from the 
quantity of charcoal found in excavating ; and in some spots, where the fire 
had been strong, the marble sculptures were burnt to lime to a considerable 

depth on the face that had been exposed I left Mosul on the 

2nd June, travelling by night, on account of the heat, and took the road 
along the east or left bank of the Tigris, on purpose to see Tell Nimrud. 

" June 3. — Arrived at Nimrud. The place, as to shape, has somewhat 
the appearance of Khorsabad, but is three or four times as large. The 
artificial mound, which I suppose to have been the palace, is of an oblong 
form, about two miles in circumference, and from 50 to 60 feet high, 
perhaps more, with a high conical pyramid raised at the north corner of the 
mound, about 120 feet high, which must have been a watch-tower, or some- 
thing of that kind. The apparent wall of the city is from six to eight miles 
in extent, forming a kind of square, cori-esponding to the four cardinal 
points. The mound is placed at the S.W. corner of the enclosure, where the 
Tigris had at one time washed its two sides. At present, the Tigris has 
receded some four miles, and left a large plain between the mound and the 
present bed of the river. On the top of the mound I saw the upper end of 
some marble slabs above the ground, closely joined together, forming a 
chamber or cistern, 22 feet by 12 ; it was nearly filled with earth. I was 
informed its depth was from 8 to 10 feet. No appearance of writing was to 
be seen ; but had it not been so dreadfully hot, I would have dug it out. 
There are quantities of broken bricks, with cuneiform characters upon them, 
scattered over the mound ; they appeared to be inscribed all over, and the 
characters are much larger, and seem to have been cut, not stamped, in the 
centre, like those generally brought from Babylon, and those which I saw at 


Assyrian Several of his successors, not only figured in Persian history, 

ne?te7whh but Were likewise connected with the kingdoms of Israel and 

that of Judea. jy^j^^i-^ . ^^q^q particularly Sosarmus, the thirty-ninth of the 

general list of Ctesias and the third of his Median dynasty, who 

is represented by Pul. 

Menahem, the murderer of the regicide Shallum, appears to 
have brought on his country the vengeance of the Assyrians, by 
the temporary conquest of Tipshah or Thapsacus ; and having 
on his return succeeded to the crown of Israel, he purchased, 
on the appearance of the Assyrians, an ignominious peace, by 
paying 1000 talents, and Pul, or Sosarmus,^ returned to his own 

Alexander Polyhistor, in noticing the circumstance, says 

Pul overcomes there was a king of the Chaldeans whose name was Phulus, of 

Menahem. ^y}jQj^^ ^Iso the historical writings of the Hebrews make mention 

under the name of Pul, who they say invaded the country 

of the Jews.^ 

But a small kingdom, sufficiently wealthy to raise at a short 
notice about 375,000/.^ as a peace-offering to the Assyrians, 
was not likely to enjoy for any lengthened time the deliverance 
thus purchased by Menahem, who, though he had the command 
of 60,000 soldiers, paid this contribution in preference to 
defending his country. After this humiliating treaty was 
made, the intestine wars, which continued with alternate suc- 
cess between the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, in which that 
of Syria occasionally took a part, afforded the Assyrians a pre- 
text for interference. 
Tigiath-Piie- Tiglath-Pileser, or Artychas, had succeeded his father 
?udeYan? Sosarmus, or Pul, on the throne of Assyria; Nabonassar, 

Khorsabad. On the south side of the mound there is a piece of a I^ind of 
rough sandstone, with cuneiform writing upon it, very roughly executed. In 
the edge of the mound, where the rains have formed guts 10 or 12 feet below 
the surface, pavements of bricks of bitumen are to be seen. I had nothing 
with me that would dig out one of tiiese bricks, to see if they contained 

' Royal Asiatic .Journal, vol. IV., p. 231. 

* Euseb., Ar. Chroii., 39. 

^ One thousand talents of silvei*. — Jos., lib. IX., cap. xi., compajed with 
2 King?, chap. XV., v. 20. 



probably another son of the latter, being viceroy at Babylon, 

which in consequence became for a time a separate government. 

The former monarch, on some pretence, now fell upon the carries the 

kingdom of Israel, and took Ijon, Abel-beth-]\Ia'achah, Janoah, captiveshuo^ 

Kedesh, Ilazor, Gilead, Galilee, and all the land of Naphtali, ^^^J"'*- 

and carried the inhabitants captive to Assyria.' 

Afterwards, Ahaz, the king of Judah, being besieged in Jeru- 
salem by the united forces of Pekah, king of Israel, and Rezin, 
king of Syria (who at this juncture recovered Elath), made an 
urgent appeal to the king of Assyria, sending as a propitiation 
the treasures of the Temple and palace, &c. Moved by these 
presents, and by the submission of the king of Judah, Artychas 
marched to his assistance, and having taken Damascus, he slew 
Rezin, and carried the people captive " to Kir.^ 

On learning the death of Rezin, and the advance of the 
Assyrians into the dominions of Israel, Ahaz proceeded to 
Damascus, taking with him all the gold and silver from the 
royal treasury, as well as from the Temple of God, together 
with its precious gifts ; and having carried the whole to 
Tiglath-Pileser, at Damascus, agreeably to his engagement, he 
returned to Jerusalem.* 

These events took place towards the end of the reign of Babylon under 
Artychas, or Tiglath-Pileser ; whilst Babylon continued under 
his brother Xabonassar. This is the sovereign who has obtained 
such unenviable notoriety by his vanity in destroying the 
records of his country, in order that a fresh era might be 
supposed to commence with his reign. 

The city of Babylon, which had of late declined, in conse- 
quence of Nineveh being the seat of the supreme government, 
was now destined to recover its former splendour under the 
second Semiramis. This queen is by some supposed to have Semimmis 
been the mother, and by others the wife, of Nabonassar, and ^ ^ *''^"" " 
she has been greatly celebrated by Herodotus for the works 

* 2 Kings, chap. XV., v. 29. 

* Ibid., chap. XVI., v. 8, 9. 

* So called by the Persians. This is the Kur or Cyrus, a tributary of 
the river Araxes ; the Kur of the Russians. — See above, vol. I., pp. 10, 12. 

* Josephus, lib. IX., cap. 12. 



[chap. V. 

of Babylon. 

with which the capital w^as adorned during her time. These 
consisted in spacious quays, magnificent palaces, and other 
noble edifices. One of the royal palaces was erected on the 
eastern, the other on the western bank of the Euphrates, and 
they w^ere connected by a bridge, as well as by a tunnel under 
the river. Descriptions of the famous temple of Belus, of the 
stupendous w^alls encircling the town, and of the lake to drain 
it, are familiar to all from the descriptions of Herodotus, 
Diodorus Siculus, and other ancient historians. Strabo also 
enumerates, in a general w^ay, the magnificent works exe- 
cuted by this queen, as the walled cities, aqueducts, ditches, 
roads, &c.^ 

Nadius, who usurped the government of Nabonassar, pro- 
bably after the death of Semiramis, was succeeded, two years 
later, by Chinzius and Porus, whose joint reign lasted five 
years. Judaeus, the next monarch, was followed by Merodach 
Baladan, and during the reign of the latter the neighbouring 
territories became the theatre of some important events. 

Hoshea having failed in furnishing the usual tribute to 
Assyria, the kingdom of Israel was in consequence invaded 
Shaimaneser by Shalmancser, and compelled to submit to that powerful 
of monarch, the Arbianes of Ctesias. But the Assyrians had 
scarcely recrossed the Euphrates when Hoshea attempted to 
shake off the yoke ; and having for this purpose formed an 
alliance with So, or Sabacus, king of Egypt, he began by 
imprisoning the Assyrian officer who was stationed in his 
capital to receive the tribute. 

Kesolved to punish effectually the indignity thus offered to 
the representative of the supreme monarch, Shaimaneser again 
invaded Syria : he immediately laid siege to Samaria, and as 
Sabacus made no effort whatever to give the promised aid to 
his ally, that city fell, after having been beleaguered for three 
years, when Enemessar, as he is now called,^ carried away the 
His return, and seven tribcs from the western side of the Jordan into Assyria, 
&eveTtni)€s. ^^ his father, Artychas, had previously done the others, from 
the eastern side of the same river. The captivity of the ten 

' Lib. XVI., p. 737. 
* Tobit, chap. I., v. 2. 

invades the 




tribes was thus completed.^ On the present occasion, Arbianes TobU is 
carried the principal inhabitants to Ilalah, and to the Khabur, Nhl^eveh" 
the river of Gozan," and to the cities of the Medes. Babylon, 
the capital, is commonly spoken of as being the abode of the 
captives, but many of them were taken to the country lying 
about the Khabur, and even to the Assyrian capital, Nineveh, 
in which Tobit's kindred were placed.^ This person there 
became the purveyor of Enemessar, the father of Sennacherib,* 
and through the kindness of the king he was permitted occa- 
sionally to visit the other captives in Media.^ From the latter 
circumstance it would appear that the country of the Medes 
was again subject to Assyria at this period. 

Not content with the removal of the prisoners to the moun- 
tains of Media, Arbianes, or Shalmaneser, by way of securing 
effectually his dominion over Syria, sent colonists thither from Assyrian 
some of the most populous cities in his empire, as from Babylon, into syrfa. 
Cutha, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim (Sippara), and located 
them in Samaria, where the idolatrous practices of the Assyrians 
soon became firmly established/' 

Elibus, having slain Merodach-Baladan, and usurped the 
throne of Babylon, with the intention of becoming independent, 
Sennacherib, who had recently succeeded his father Shalma- Sennacherib 
neser, proceeded with an army against the Babylonians, and, ^^^^^^ ^' ^^ 
after routing them, he commanded that Elibus and his adhe- 
rents should be carried into the land of the Assyrians. In 
consequence of this success, Sennacherib took upon himself the 
government" of the Babylonians, appointing his son Asadanius, 
or Esar-Haddon, to be king, and then retired into Assyria. 
Having heard a report that the Greeks had made a hostile 
descent upon Cilicia, he put himself immediately at the head of 
his army, and overthrew them in a pitched battle.- overthrows the 


' 2 Kings, chap. XVIII., 9 and following verses ; and 1 Chron., cliap. V., 
V. 26. 

* On the eastern side of the Tigris. 

' Tobit, chap. I., v. 10. * Ibid., v. 15. 

* Ibid., V. 14. 

" 2 Kings, chap. XYII., v. 24. 
^ Ancient Fragments, by I. P. Cory, Esq., p. 61 

^ Ibid., from Euseb., Ar. Chron., p. 62. He afterwards built the city of 
Tarsus, after the likeness of Babylon, and called it Tharsis. 

142 Sennacherib's invasion of judea. [chap. v. 

The first invasion of Judea by Sennacherib (the Sargon of 
Isaiah)/ took place in the fourteenth year of Hezekiah, when, 
all the fenced cities being taken by the Assyrians, the king of 
Judah, in the hope of arresting their progress, resorted to the 
desperate expedient of stopping all the fountains, as well as the 
overflow of the brooks running through the land.^ He was 
compelled, however, to submit to the powerful conqueror; and 
the latter having, as the price of peace, received the sum of 
thirty talents of gold and three hundred of silver, sent his army 
iieinvades towards Egypt, Under the command of Tartan, who took 

judea and r* ^ 

Ashdod,^ one of the frontier towns. 

Notwithstanding this success, Sennacherib appears to have 
considered it dangerous to continue the invasion of Egypt, 
whilst the kingdom of Judea remained unsubdued in his rear, 
particularly at the moment when a vast force was on the march 
in that direction, under Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia.^ 

He therefore abandoned hostilities against Egypt, in order 
to hasten the conquest of Judea ; when, having overcome and 
subdued the whole country and its cities, with the exception of 
Libnah and Lachish, he renewed the siege of those places, 
and also commenced in form that of the capital itself But 

besieges Jeru- whilst the majority of his forces were employed in pushing the 
siege of Jerusalem, in the hope of anticipating the intended 
assistance of the Egyptians and Ethiopians, Tirhakah was 
marching his army through the Desert, in order to fall directly 
on their rear. At this juncture the operations of the Assyrian 
monarch were completely paralyzed by the sudden loss of 

Destruction nearlv his whole army. God, says Berossus, had sent a pesti- 

of his army i • "i t ,^ ^ i r> , • i c 

before Jeru- Icntial distcmpcr aiiioug them, and on the very first night oi 
saiem. ^-^^ sicgc 185,000 mcu, with their captains and generals, were 

destroyed/ Sennacherib, in consequence of this disaster, fled 
with all speed to Nineveh, where he was assassinated in the 
temple of the idol Nisroch, by his sons Adrammelech and 
Sharezer;^ or by one of them only, according to Eusebius. 
' Chap XX., V. 1. 

* 2 Chron., chap. XXXII., v. 4 ; the outlet of Cedron towards the 

* Isaiah, chap. XX., v. 1. ^2 Kings, chap. XIX., v. 9. 

* Berossus, quoted by Joseph., lib. X., cap. i. 
« 2 Kings, chap. XIX., v. 37. 


The latter author, after enumerating the various exploits of this Death of 
monarch, whom he calls Sennacherim, adds, that lie reigned 
eighteen years, and was cut off by a conspiracy which had been 
formed against his life by his son, Ardumusanus.^ 

The overthrow of Sennacherib in this expedition, which was 
destined against Egypt, is described by Herodotus,^ who gives 
such a version of the affair as might be expected from the 
vanity of the Egyptian priests, from whom he received the 
account, and who w^ould naturally ascribe the deliverance to 
their own gods. The relation given by Herodotus is as follows : 
— " After this, Sethos ascended the throne of Egypt, and 
treated his soldiers with great severity ; he took from them the 
lands which had been granted by former kings, and the con- 
sequence w^as that they refused him any aid against Senna- 
cherib. This caused great perplexity to Sethos, who went into 
the tem.ple, and complained with tears to his idol of the peril 
he was in. In the midst of his distress he was overtaken by 
sleep ; and in his vision he was told to be of good courage, for 
no misfortune should befall him. Confiding in this dream, he Account of this 
took such of the merchants, artificers, and populace as were Herodotu?!^ ^ 
willing to follow him, and marched to Pelusium, where the 
Assyrian army was encamped. When arrived at this place, 
field-mice in great numbers spread themselves about among the 
invaders, and gnawed in pieces the quivers, bows, and thongs 
of the shields ; so that on the following morning, being destitute 
of arms, they w^re obliged to fly, and, being closely pursued, 
many of them fell." " Even to this day," adds Herodotus, 
" there stands in the temple of Vulcan a statue in stone of this 
king, having a mouse in his hand, and saying, as expressed by 
the inscription, 'Let him who looks on me reverence the B.C. 710 or 
Gods.'"^ '"'• 

' Euseb., Ar. Chron., 42. ' Lib. II., cap. Ml. 

'' Herod., lib. II., cap. IH. 

( 1^4 ) 


OF BABYLON, 538 OR 536 B.C. 

Hezekiah's Treasures. — Babylon and jSTineveh united. — Ecbatana taken. — 
March to Cilicia. — Chinilidanus and the Scythian Invasion. — Cyaxares. — 
Nabopolasar and Kineveh. — Saracus destroys himself. — Nabopolasar 
governs Nineveh. — Pharaoh Necho's Fleets and invasion of Babylonia, 
Carchemish, &c. — Nebuchadnezzar as the General of his father invades 
Palestine and Egypt. — Daniel carried captive. — The Army returns by two 
routes to Babylonia. — Nebuchadnezzar mediates between the Lydians and 
Medes. — March to Jerusalem. — Plunder of the Temple. — Nebuchadnezzar 
adorns Babj-lon. — Rebellion of Zedekiah. — Jeremiah's prophecy. — Nebu- 
chadnezzar besieges Jerusalem, and carries Captives to Babylon. — Judea 
laid waste. — Tyre besieged and taken. — Nebuchadnezzar attacks Esypt 
and carries Spoils to the Temple of Belus. — Commerce, Canals, and Works 
of Nebuchadnezzar. — Nebuchadnezzar's Prophecy. — He loses his reason. 
— He resumes the throne. — His Death and Character. — Evil-Merodach 
succeeds, and is Assassinated. — Neriglessor succeeds. — His War with 
Cyrus. — An embassy comes from India to Babylon. — Depravity of tlie 
Babylonians. — Belshazzar ascends the throne of Babylon. — His mother, 
Nitocris, prepares for a Siege. — Advance of Cyrus. — The river Gyndes 
drained by means of numerous Channels. — Babylon beleagured. — The 
stratagem of diverting the River. — Assault of Babylon. — Babylonia added 
to Assyria. 

Division of From several circumstances mentioned in Scripture, it is 
the death of evident that the preceding short and disastrous reign had 
Sennacherib, j^pgught the affairs of Assyria into a very troubled and 
confused state. The death of Sennacherib was followed by 
a temporary division of his empire ; in consequence of the 
efforts made by the rulers of some of the satrapies to establish 
their independence. One of the number, Merodach Baladan, 
the Mardoch Empadus of Ptolemy,^ and son of Nabonasar or 

' Jahn's Hebrew Commonwealth, vol. I., p. 149. 


Baladan, who, as his deputy, had hitherto governed Babylon, 
now sent an embassy to congratulate Ilezekiah on his recovery 
from sickness, as well as on his miraculous delivery from the 
invasion of Sennacherib ; and it was on this occasion that, in 
the pride of his heart, Hezekiah showed the treasures of his Hczekiah's 
house, as well as those of the Temple.' He received, as the ^^^^^^' 
punishment of his vanity, prophetic intelligence of the coming- 
captivity, at the moment when Babylon had just revolted from 
Assyria, and become a separate kingdom.^ 

After a reign of twelve years, Merodach Baladan was suc- 
ceeded by Arkianus, who reigned only five years ; and this 
period was followed by an interregnum of two years, on the 
termination of which Belus mounted the throne ; but the rule 
of that sovereign did not exceed three years. Apronadius 
succeeded, and at the expiration of six years the sceptre passed 
to Rigebelus. After the short space of one year the crown 
devolved upon Messomordacus, who reigned only four years: 
after which another interregnum occurred at Babylon. 

Esarhaddon, the third son, succeeded his father (Sennacherib) Esarhaddon 
in the government of Assyria after a short interval ; he appears throne of 
to be represented by Artacus, the sixth of the Median dynasty ^^^y^^^- 
of Ctesias. 

This monarch found the kingdom in a very distracted state. Revolt of the 
owing to the revolt of one portion of his people, probably the ^'^**°^' 
Persians, called Cadusians,^ who maintained a bloody contest 
with the Medians ; but having at length restored peace by 
gradually extending his dominion over both kingdoms, he was 
prepared, now that his power was consolidated, to take advantage 
of the favourable opportunity offered by the interregnum at 
Babylon, to add that kingdom to his other possessions. Being 
thus placed at the head of a powerful army by the temporary 
re-union of Babylonia and Assyria, Esarhaddon determined to Esarhaddon 
pursue his father's project of extending his dominions, and he 
proceeded to the invasion of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, leav- invades Syria 

and Egypt. 
' Deau Prideaux's Connexion, vol. I., p. 19, (ed. 1831); Jos., Ant., lib. 
X., c. 2. 

* 2 Kings, chap. XX., v. 12, 13, 17, 18. 
^ Diod. Sic, HI). II., cap. xxii. 


Dejoces raised ing Dejoces, who Fulcd at Ecbatana, to govern the kingdom, 
of Medh™"^ to which the latter had been called by the unanimous voice of 
the Medes.' 

It was during these wars in the western countries that Sar- 
dochoeus or Saosduchinus, son and general of Esarhaddon, 
having defeated Manasseh, king of Judah, and overtaken him 
Captivity of in his flight, carried him to Babylon in chains.^ Some com- 
anasse . mentators, and amongst them Dr. HaleSj are of opinion that 
Esarhaddon was the great Sardanapalus f but the capture of 
Nineveh does not appear to synchronise with the reign in 

Saosduchinus * succeeded his father Esarhaddon, after having 

been his deputy over Nineveh and Babylon ; and Phraortes, 

about the same time, succeeded Dejoces on the throne of Media. 

Accession and Being of an ambitious and warlike disposition, Phraortes 

Phraortes? iuvadcd his neighbours in Iran with such success, that he was 

enabled to conquer the whole of that part of Asia. In the 

belief that the same success would attend him in a still greater 

undertaking, he subsequently turned his arms southward, and 

commenced that rebellion against his sovereign, which, in the 

end, proved fatal to himself 

Saosduchinus We cau scarccly feel a doubt that the monarch here alluded 

douosor!'^^^" to is the same who is so particularly mentioned as Nabuchodo- 

nosor in the apocryphal book of Judith, for the dates, as well 

as the whole of the circumstances, perfectly correspond. There 

we find that, in the twelfth year of Nabuchodonosor's ^ reign at 

Nineveh, Arphaxad, or Phraortes, who reigned over the Medes, 

rebelled, and fortified the palace and treasury, built by his 

father Dejoces ® in Ecbatana,^ with walls of hewn stone, having 

towers and gates seventy cubits high by forty cubits broad, for 

the going forth of his mighty men.® 

' Herod., lib. I., cap. 97, 98. * 2 Chron., chap. XXXIII., v. 11. 

* Crossthwaite's Synchronology, p. 260. 

* Ancient Fragments, by I. P. Cory, Esq., pp. 80, 83. 
^ The Nabuchodonosorus of Chaldean history. 

« Herod., lib. I., c. 98, 99. 

^ Now Takhti-Soleimdn ; also Shiz or Gaza, vol. X., pp. 157, 158, of 
Royal Geographical Journal. 
" Judith, chap. I., v. 1-4. 


The city and fortress of Ecbatana are particularly described Description of 
by Herodotus. The palace and treasury occupied the centre Ecbataua/^ 
of an enclosure, consisting of seven concentric circles, each 
being constructed in such a manner that its battlements over- 
topped the neighbouring wall. The battlements of the first 
circle were white, those of the second black, the third scarlet, 
the fourth blue, the fifth orange, and all were thus distinguished 
by different colours, except the sixth, which was plated with 
silver, and the seventh with gold.^ The conical hill and posi- 
tion of the ruins of Takhti Soleiman appear to coincide with 
the descriptions of Herodotus, the seven colours being derived 
from a fable of Sabean origin, the walls here representing the 
seven heavenly spheres, and the seven climates through which 
they revolve.^ 

In order to overcome this rebellious attempt, Nabuchodo- Nabuchodono- 
nosor assembled all that dwelt by the Euphrates, the Tigris, the forces of 
and the Hydaspes ^ (Hedypnus), in the plain of Arioch/ with 
the king of the Elymseans, also very many nations of the sons of 
Chilod or Gelod/ and marched the whole to the field of 

In addition to the troops thus assembled, the king of the Ms empire, 
Assyrians sent to all that dwelt in Persia, and westward in 
Cilicia, Damascus, Libanus, and Anti-Libanus, as well as on the 
sea-coast ; also in Carmel, Galaad (Gilead), Esdraelon, Sa- 
maria, Jerusalem, Betane, Chellus, Kades, Taphnes, Ramesse, 
and all the land of Gezen (Gosen)^ together with Tanis, and 

' Herod., lib. I., cap. xcviii., xcix. 

* Royal Geographical Journal, vol. X., pp. 126, 127, 

^ The Hydaspes is evidently a mistake, probably in transcribing the Hedyp- 
nus. The latter is supposed (see above, vol. I., p. 205) to be represented 
by the eastern arm of the river Kariin ; and as it flows along the northern 
border of Elymais, the next province mentioned in Judith, its geographical 
position coincides. 

* Judith, chap. I., v. 6, and Tobit, chap. I., v. 14. Now the district of 
Mah-Sabadan, described under the name of Massabatice by Strabo, pp. 524, 
725, as intervening between Susiana and the districts around Mount Zagros ; 
also as the Sambata^ of Ptolemy, lib. VI., cap. i. See vol. IX., p. 47, of 
Royal Geographical Journal. 

* Supposed to be part of the Arabs, probably of the Palmyrene district, 
and others bordering upon Syria. 




[chap. VI. 

captured, and 

IMemphis, and the inhabitants of Egypt, as far as the borders 
of Ethiopia. But as many of these nations were very remote, 
they made light of his commands, and sent his ambassadors 
away in disgrace ; ^ from which it may be inferred that his 
power to command them was merely nominal. 

This took place in the seventeenth year of his reign, and the 
preparations of Nabuchodonosor had occupied more than four ^ 
years previously to taking the field. Being victorious in his 
enterprise over the horsemen, chariots, and cities, he took the 
towers of Ecbatana ; and Arphaxad being slain with darts in 
the mountains of Eagau (the Rhages of Alexander),^ the con- 
queror returned to Nineveh, where he took his ease, banquet- 
ing with all his army for the space of 120 days, as Ahasuerus 
(Artaxerxes Longimanus) did at a later period." 

The preceding account perfectly agrees with that given by 
Herodotus of Phraortes, the son of Dejoces, who was doubtless 
the same monarch, and who, not being content with Media, 
proceeded from conquest to conquest, till he undertook an ex- 
pedition against the Assyrians of Nineveh, in which he perished 
with the greatest part of his army.^ It is, besides, a remark- 
able corroboration that the defection of the allies of the Assy- 
rians is also stated by Herodotus, who adds, as Judith does, 
that they were still powerfiil.^ 

The defection of the western states led to the invasion of 
Judea by the Assyrians : of this there is not any account, 
excepting that which is given in the book of Judith ; this book, 
therefore, supplies some important links in profane as well as in 
sacred history. 

During this time of continued festivity, and in remembrance 
of his oath to be avenged upon the people of the provinces 
westward of Assyria, also with the purpose of bringing, as he 
said, the whole world under his dominion, Holofernes, the 

' Judith, cliap. I., v. 7 — 12. * Judith, chap. I., v. 14. 

^ Represented by the remarkable ruins of Kal'eh Erig near Veramin, east- 
ward of those of Rei, and also of the city of Teheran. Vol. X., p. 135 of 
Royal Geographical Journal. 

* Esther, chap. I. * Lib. I., cap. cii. 

* Herod., ibid. 


general of his armies,' was called into his presence; when the ^'■™y°*' 
great king, or, as he is also called, the " lord of all the earth, "^ 
proceeded to give him detailed instructions to move with 
120,000 men and 12,000 horsemen, or mounted Median 
archers, against the disobedient people in the western country, 
at the same time commanding this people to send him earth 
and water, such having been at all times the tokens of sub- 
mission in the east. 

The account of the succeeding operations, as given in the 
book of Judith, has a great interest for the military historian, 
since it shows that the Assyrian forces were regularly divided 
into horse and foot, with a proportion of officers, the whole 
systematically organized according to their several grades, from 
the general-in-chief to the followers of the Gamp. This organiza- 
tion not only secured the due performance of all the executive Organization 
duties and details, but was also the means of overcoming the forceps, ^^" 
greatest of all difficulties experienced by large armies, that of 
providing the supplies. By an efficient commissariat, provi- 
sions of all kinds were prepared and transported for the con- 
sumption of this vast force throughout its lengthened march. 

The details in the book of Judith are so precise, that they 
may be considered as constituting an answer to the objections 
which have been made to the marches of the eastern armies in 
ancient times, on account of the supposed difficulty of providing 
the necessary supplies. This difficulty has been thought insur- 
mountable, though the campaigns of Darius, Xerxes, and others 
seem to establish the fact that it was overcome. 

We are told that Holofernes went from the presence of his Supplies for 
lord, and called together the governors, captains, and officers of 
the army of Assur ; when, having arranged them, as a great 
army is ordered for war,^ he took camels and asses for their 
carriages, a very great number, also sheep, oxen, and goats, 

' Supposed to be derived from the Persian " Aula Pharneese," as ex- 
plained by Col. D'Arcy, R, A., and we find the name of Artaphernes amongst 
the generals of Darius. 

* The sovereign of Persia still receives the title of Shah-in-Shah of I'ran. 
— Correspondence relating to Afghanistan : Parliamentary Papers, pp. 78, 
134, 135. 

^ Judith, chap. 11. , v. 14, 16. 



without number, for their provision, and plenty of victuals for 
every man in the army. He then prepared depots to receive 
the corn, to be collected out of all Syria, for his passage ; also 
gold and silver he took out of the king's house in great abund- 
ance. Then went forth he, and all the army, ^yith the chariots 
and horsemen and archers, who covered the face of the earth 
like locusts.^ 

The march from Xineveh is particularly detailed, and the 
geography of the successive countries so faithfully ibllowed, that 
even if the book itself be apocryphal, it must have been from 
the pen of some individual, who was well acquainted with the 
whole of the countries lying between the Tigris and the river 
of Egypt ; the details are thus given : - " And there joined 
unto him [Holofernes] all that dwelled upon the mountains, 
and those that dwelled by the Euphrates, Tigris, Hydaspes 
(Hedypnus), and the field of Arioch, that M'as the king of the 
Elimees [EXi^/za/wi/] ; and many people of the nation of Gelod 
joined their armies with him,"^ even as far as Jerusalem and 
Bethaven, and Chellus and Gades and the flood of Egvpt. So 
when they were past Xineveh three days' journey, they came 
unto the plain of Bectoleth,* at the mountain Arge or Arggeus 
(Arji'sh Tagh), which standeth on the left hand of the Upper 
Cilicia. And it may here be mentioned that as the mountain 
in question lies to the north or left hand, and not far from the 
borders of Upper Cilicia, the most convenient route thither 
from Nineveh would be along the valley of the Tigris, and 
onward along the plain of Malatiyah to the Halys at the 
A'yanlik of Haji Bektash.^ Holofernes subsequently moved 
through Asia his tcnts from Bcctolcth, and led his army, as well horsemen as 

Minor, .,,.,. . *^ . 

Tootmen, with their chariots, into the mountains ; and invading 
their castles and winning their holds, he broke into the famous 

' Judith, cliap. II., v. 20. 

" In Day's black-letter Apocrypha, published in 1549. 

' Judith, chap. I., v. 6, 7. 

* Or opposite to the plain of Bectoleth, according to the Greek Apocry- 
pha. Antwerp, 1566. 

* As tiiis place is but a little way from the mountain in question, and not 
distant from the ancient Mazaca, it is therefore probable that this city may 
represent Molopus, and that the plain near Bektash is that of Bectoleth. 


city Molopus. He destroyed Phud and Lud, and spoiled all 

the people of llasses and Ismael, who dwelt toward the desert 

at the south side of Challeorus.' And then passing over ciiicia and 

Euphrates, he went by Mesopotamia and all the noble cities ^^™'''*="^' 

that stood by the river Arbonai,^ and he destroyed them even 

to the sea-side, and subdued the coasts of Ciiicia, and slew all 

that withstood him. And he came unto the borders of 

Japheth, that lie against Aluster and Arabia, and he went 

through all the country of the Medians,^ and set their tents on 

fire, and burned their houses ; and then came he down into the 

fields of Damascus, in harvest, and set on fire all their lands, 

vines, and trees, and burnt their flocks and cattle, and spoiled 

their cities and fields, and killed all their youth with the edge 

of the sword. 

Nabuchodonosor, * passing through Syria, Sobal, and Ala- to the coast of 
pamea, Mesopotamia and Idumea, came in sight of Asdrelon/ 
nigh unto Dorats,*' which is against the strait passage of Jewry; 
and pitching his tents between Gaba ' and Scython-Polim,* he 
tarried there that month, whilst he gathered together all the 
vessels that belonged to his army. 

The death of Holofernes during the siege of Bethuliah, ^ ter- Death of 
minated this remarkable campaign, as is supposed about 656 b.c. ° ° "°^^* 
Eight years later, 648 B.C., Chinilidanus, or Chuniladanus,'" also 
called Saracus," succeeded to the dominion over the vast pos- 
sessions of Nabuchodonosor ; and he had the seat of his govern- 
ment in Nineveh. Being of an effeminate disposition, the 
power entrusted to him was not long recognised, especially by 
the Babylonians and Medes; the latter revolted about 663 b.c. Revolt of the 
and Cyaxares, properly Kei Axares, who succeeded his father ^ ^^" 

' Perhaps Chalcis, in the desert of Aleppo. 

* No doubt the Mesopotamian Khabur. 

^ Probably so called as being the recent conquests of Dejoces and Phraortes. 

* Supplementary passage in black-letter Apocrypha. 

* E(7CpccriXior — Esdraelon. 

* Aoratae, the land of dates or gifts. Antwerp Apocrypha. 
^ ra)6a— Gaba. 

" The city of the Scythians, 
' Jotapata or Safet. See Vol. I., p. 479. 
'° Cory's Ancient Fragments, pp. 80, 83. 
'* Prideaux's Connexion, vol. T., p. 40. 



[chap. VI. 

Inroads and 

of the Scy 

Phraortes, not only recovered what had been lost by the defeat 
of his father, but drove the Assyrians within the walls of 

About the twelfth year of his reign a formidable inroad into 
Ass\Tia took place, led by Madyas.^ A swarm of Scythians 
from Central Asia passed the Caucasus in search of a richer 
country with a milder climate, and having penetrated, probably 
by the route of Derbend, into Media, they defeated Cyaxares 
in a bloody contest, overran that kingdom, and established 
themselves in the regions of Colchis. Having no other enemy 
to contend with, the Scythians extended their conquests to 
Svria, and even to the borders of Egypt ; from whence, owing 
to the judicious entreaties and presents made to them, they re- 
turned through the land of the Philistines. Wars, however, 
appear to have been carried on with various degrees of success 
during a period of twenty- eight years ^ against both the Medes 
and the Assyrians : within that time, such a division of 
interests was created as led to the downfal of the Assyrian 
empire ; and the two collateral empires of the Medes and Per- 
sians rose upon its ruins. 

The importance of Media among the ancient nations had 
ery much at this period ; for, Cyaxares having deli- 
vered his country from the Scythians, by murdering the greatest 
part of them at a general feast which was given in every family, 
the Medes regained their freedom, and with it their ancient 
boundary, the Halys.^ A war succeeded with the Lydians on 
account of the protection given by the latter to some fugitive 
Scythians; and after a battle, made remarkable by a total 
eclipse which terminated the engagement, peace was subse- 
quently restored by the intervention of Labynetus, the king of 
forms an Babylon, and Syennesis, king of Cilicia ; which was cemented 
the Ljdians. by the marriage of Astyages, sou of Cyaxares, to the daughter 
of Alyattes, king of Lydia.^ 

At this period Babylonia was a separate government under 
Nabopolasar, who, having been sent thither as commander of 
the army of Saracus, took this opportunity of revolting, and 


recovers his . . 

dominions and increased 

Ilerod., lib. I., cap. ciii. 
Tbid., cap. cvi. 

* Ibid., cap. cv, 

■* Ibid., cap. Ixxiii., Ixxiv. 


turning his arms against his sovereign.' This individual, also 
called Busalossorus,^ having obtained Amuhean, the daughter 
of Astyages, satrap of Media, to be affianced to his son, Nabo- 
palasarus, who is called by Eusebius Nabuchodorosorus,^ and 
being assisted by the Medes, under Cyaxares, marched to sur- 
prise the city of Ninus or Nineveh. Saracus, the king, being siege of 
apprised of these proceedings, sent his three sons and two '"^^*'' " 
daughters, with a great treasure, to Paphlagonia, and being 
reduced to extremities by the joint attacks of his traitorous 
enemies, which continued upwards of two years, he burnt him- 
self with his concubines, in the royal palace.* Nabopolasar 
succeeded to the dominion of the empire in consequence of this 
event, and Nineveh having been almost entirely destroyed 
during the late siege, he determined to establish the seat of 
government at Babylon : this city, which was soon afterwards Babylon 
surrounded by a strong wall,^ thus became the capital of the capital. 
Assyrian empire. 

Reverting to another kingdom, it appears that about this Psammeticus 
period the attractions of commerce had broken down the bar- !he™omLerce 
rier which had hitherto excluded foreign vessels from the ports °^^^p^' 
of Egypt. For Psammeticus, the reigning prince, having ap- 
plied himself to the advancement of trade, did not hesitate to 
bring about this great change by admitting foreign vessels in 
future, and receiving with hospitality the strangers who accom- 
panied them. 

The gifted Nechus or Pharaoh Necho, his successor, directed Pbaraoh 
the energies of his enlarged mind to carrying out on a grand acauaiatSuez, 
scale the mercantile projects of his father. He endeavoured, 
as it were, to cause the isthmus itself to disappear, by opening 
a communication between his fleets in the Mediterranean sea, 
and those in the Arabian Gulf, by means of a canal. This was 
sufficiently broad for two triremes to sail abreast in passing 
between the Ped Sea at Suez, and the river Nile at the town 
of Bubastis.® Being warned by an oracle to leave its comple- 

' Euseb., Chron., p. 46. * Euseb., Ar. Chron., p. 53. 

^ Ibid. * Jackson, Anc. Chron., vol. I., p. 342, 

* Euseb., Chron., 49. 

* Ilerod., lib. II., cap, clviii., clix. 


tion to a foreigner/ he relinquished the excavations for a still 
more remarkable undertaking, 
and sends a Nechus being determined to solve the geographical problem 

fleet of the peninsular form of Africa, employed certain Phoenicians 

for this purpose, despatching them with instructions to cir- 
cumnavigate this continent, and return to Eg^^pt through the 
Pillars of Hercules. In accordance with these commands, the 
fleet prepared for this purpose sailed down the Arabian Gulf, 
and entering the Indian Ocean, continued to coast southward 
till the autumn, when the crews landed and sowed some grain ; 
and having aAvaited the harvest, they continued the voyage, 
again putting ashore to sow and reap as they advanced. After 
the lapse of two years they reached the Pillars of Hercules, and 
to circumna- during the third year they returned to Egypt, and stated, adds 
Mgae uca. jj^pQ^jQ^-^g^ " what is uot Credible to me though it may be so to 
others," that in their circumnavigation of Libya they had the 
sun on their right hand, that is on the north.^ 

The alleged difiiculty of giving credence to the fact thus 
stated, is precisely that which in modern times best confirms its 
truth, resting as it does upon a change of position during the 
latter part of the voyage, which the mariners could not by any 
possibility have imagined. But independently of the confirma- 
tion thus given, the circumnavigation of Africa at the time in 
Previous question was not so much a fresh voyage of discovery, as the 
the «)aste^of extcusion of othcrs which had been already carried along the 
Africa. coasts of this continent for the extension of commerce. The 

western coast was already known, whilst the previous and more 
difiicult enterprise to Ophir must, in connexion with the land- 
trade, have given some knowledge of the eastern coast ; so that 
only the southern coasts of Africa, on each side of the continent, 
were in reality unknown at the time Nechus despatched his 
Pharaoh ^N^ot Satisfied with the well-merited distinction which he had 

acquired in consequence of the benefits conferred upon man- 
kind, more particularly by the circumnavigation of Afi'ica, 

' Seventy years later it was resumed by Darius Ilystaspes, and ultimately 
completed by Ptolemy the Second. Strabo, lib. XVII., p. 1157. 
* Herod., lib. IV., cap. xlii.; and Rennel, p. 672, ed, 1800. 


Pharaoh Necho determined to take advantage of the unsettled invades Judea, 
state of the countries beyond the Euphrates, and marched, at^° 
the head of a large army, to Akko (now Ptolemais), in order to 
proceed through Palestine and Gilead to the dominions of 
Nabopolasar. Being refused a passage, however, by king 
Josiah, a battle took place at Megiddo,^ in which the king of 
Judah was killed ; when a contribution of one hundred talents 
of silver and one of gold was levied upon Jerusalem, and car- 
ried into Egypt.^ Having now secured the intended line of 
march, and made all the necessary preparations, he proceeded 
towards Assyria. This was in the third year after the battle advances into 
of Megiddo, and after crossing the Upper Euphrates he attacked "^^^^'^ 
the celebrated city of Carchemish. During this operation an 
extensive revolt having taken place in Cosle-Syria and Phoenicia, 
two provinces which had been conquered by Nabopolasar, that 
king determined to punish the delinquents in these provinces, 
but being himself too far advanced in life to undertake such a 
campaign, he sent his son, who is best known as Nebuchad- 
nezzar, then the partner of his throne, with a powerful army 
against the Egyptians and revolted Syrians. A complete victory ivebuchad- • 
over the former, at Carchemish, was the consequence; and the the Egjptiaos, 
young prince, pursuing his success, subdued the whole country 
to the river Nile, with the exception of Judea, which was then 
under Jehoiakim. Against this province, however, he speedily 
turned his arms; and Jerusalem being surrounded, Jehoirikim iavadies Judea^ 
saved his capital by promising tribute for the next three years. 
As security for this payment a number of the principal inha- 
bitants, amongst whom was the prophet Ezekiel, were delivered 
up, together with a portion of the treasures of the tem.ple, and 
carried as hostages to Babylon.^ 

On the death of his father, Nebuchadnezzar returned to the and returns to 
capital ; and to this event we owe the knowledge that two ^ ' ''^ ^ 
different lines of march were in use at the period in question 

* Magdolus; Herod., lib. II., cap. clix. Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. 157. 

* 2 Kings, chap. XXIII., v. 29-33; 2 Chron., chap. XXXVL, v. 3-4 ; 
compared with Herod., lib. II., cap. clix. 

^ Jos., lib. X., cap. vi. ; 2 Kings, chap. XXIV., v. 1 ; 2 Chron., chap. 
XXXVI., V. 6. 


the route of between Babylon and Jerusalem. The king, as we are told by 
Berossus, gave orders that the part of the forces which wore 
heavy armour, together with the captives and the baggage, 
should proceed leisurely to Babylonia, no doubt through the 
populous countries in the line of Syria ; whilst he, with a few 
of his attendants, returned home by crossing the desert direct 
to Babylon. When he arrived there he found that his affairs 
had been faithfully conducted by the Chaldeans, the principal 
person among them having preserved the kingdom for him ; 

Nebuchad- and he accordingly obtained possession of all his father's domi- 

?beXoTe!°*^"ions without opposition.^ 

The tranquillity of Jerusalem, ^vhich had thus been purchased 
at the expense of its treasure, continued undisturbed during the 
three first years of the captivity. Nebuchadnezzar had at this 
time become a mediator between the Medes and the Lydians ; 
and having united with the sovereign of the former people he 
proceeded to besiege Nineveh,^ w^hich was then occupied by the 

Jehoiakim seized this opportunity to rid himself of the tribute 
imposed upon him, by rebelling, probably trusting to assistance 

Siege and from Egypt. Ncbuchadnczzar however, continued his opera- 
tions against Nineveh till he had depopulated the city and laid 
it in ruins ; thus accomplishing all that the prophets had pre- 
dicted concerning it.' After this,* having also in the mean 
time established his authority over the dominions of Nabopo- 

Nebuchad- lasar, hc marchcd westward to punish his rebellious satraps in 

Jifdea and*^^^ ^^^^ direction. In this expedition, he took the whole line of 
country from the river Euphrates with all that appertained to 

* Corj-'s Ancient Fragments, p. 329; from Syncel. Chroii., 220; Euseb. 
Praep. Evan., lib. IX. 

* Nahum, chap. II. 

^ Ibid., also chap. III. 

■* There is a difference of three years at this period among the commen- 
tators ; which may be accounted for by the circumstance that Nebuchadnez- 
zar, who was engaged with more weighty matters, had left the subjugation 
of Palestine to the neighbouring tribes, the Chaldeans, Syrians, Moabites, 
and Ammonites, 2 Kings, chap. XXIV., v. 2. These ravaged the country 
from 602 to 599 B.C., and shut up Jehoiakim in tlie city, probably till near 
the time of Kebucluuhiezzar's return to tlie western provinces. 

destruction of 

ciiAr. VI.] jehoiakin's captivity. 1.57 

the king of Egypt, including Jerusalem itself/ which was in alli- 
ance with the latter kingdom at that time.^ Jehoiakim having 
been killed and thrown before the walls,^ the money of the royal carries spoil 
treasury, with the golden and other vessels of the temple of Solo- Babyl'ou'7'^^ ° 
mon, were taken away and placed in the temple of Babylon ; ^ 
3023 Jews were at the same time conveyed as captives to that city. 

Jehoiachin, also called Jechoniah, and in contempt Coniah, 
succeeded his father at eighteen years of age. The peace of 
the city was not, however, of long continuance, for after the 
short interval of three months, Nebuchadnezzar returned to Second siege 
besiege it, and took Jehoiachin, with his mother and his whole and*^ ' 

court, and all the treasure of the house of the Lord and the 
king's house, and carried away all the princes, the mighty men 
of valour, even 8,000 captives, and all the craftsmen and 
smiths, together with the mighty of the land, to Babylon.^ A 
portion of these was planted on the river Chebar, and amongst 
them was Ezekiel, whom we find prophecying in the land of the 
Chaldeans, on the banks of that stream.*' Farther in the in- further cap- 
terior were Mordecai and others ; for, as Berossus expresses it, jews. 
*' he distributed the captives in colonies in the most proper 
places of Babylonia." ' 

On his return from this campaign, Nebuchadnezzar devoted Embeiiish- 
his attention for some years to the embellishment and enlarge- Babylon. 
ment of Babylon ; but in this occupation he w^as interrupted by a 
hostile confederacy of the kings of Amnion, Moab, Edom, Tyre, 
and Sidon. Into this conspiracy, notwithstanding the warnings 
of Jeremiah ^ and Ezekiel,^ Zedekiah, once Mattaniah, then king 

' 2 Kings, chap. XXIV., v. 7. * Ibid., chap. XXIII., v. 33, 34. 

^ Jos., lib. X., cap. vi. 

* 2 Chron,, chap. 36, v, 6, 7, and Jer., chap. LII., 18th, and following verses. 

* 2 Kings, chap. XXIV., v. 15, 16. 

* Ezekiel, chap. I., v. 3. 

I Cory's Ancient Fragments from Berossus, p. 39, and Syncel. Chron., 
p. 220. 

® "Where are now your prophets who prophesied unto you, saying the 
king of Babylon shall not come against you, nor against this land ? Chap. 
XXXVII., V. 19. 

^ Ezekiel gave a very remarkable but enigmatical warning of the fate of 
Zedekiah, by predicting that he should be carried to Babylon, and yet that 
he should not see it, though he should die there. Chap. XII., v. 13. 


Eebeiiion of of Judah, had entered, hoping that with the powerful assistance 

zedekiah. ^^ ^^-^ ^jj^^^ pharaoh Hophra, king of Egypt/ he might be able 

to throw off the Chaldean yoke, and release the Jewish captives, 

who were then looking for a speedy return from AssjT-ia as well 

as Babylonia, to their native land. 

On the news of Zedekiah's rebellion, the Babylonian monarch 
anticipated the promised succour of the Egyptians, by making 
a hasty march and surrounding Jerusalem.^ Having thus in- 
Nebuchad- tcrposcd his forces between those of Zedekiah and the Egyp- 
jerusakmT^^^ tians, hc marchcd to meet the latter during their advance. On 
this movement^ being made, the Egyptians hastily retreated into 
their own country, without even hazarding a battle in support 
of their allies ; and Nebuchadnezzar being thus at liberty, began 
the siege of the city in form, that is, by building forts round 
about it.* After a siege of eighteen months '" a famine pre- 
vailed, and all the men of war fled by night, by the "svay of the 
gate, between the two walls. The Chaldeans pursued the king, 
and having overtaken him in the plains of Jericho they carried 
him to Riblah,^ where his sons were put to death in his pre- 
sence by order of Nebuchadnezzar. After this, Zedekiah's own 
eyes having been put out, he was led in fetters of brass to 
Babylon,'' where he died, without, as had been predicted, having 
seen the splendour of the city, now adorned with Jewish spoils, 
including the magnificent vessels of Solomon's temple,^ which 
are supposed to have furnished the materials for the golden 
colossus on the plain of Dura, 
and adorns his Thcsc had been Carried thither by Nebuzar-adan, the com- 
ite^spoiir* ^ mander of the Royal Babylonian Life Guards, who not only 
set fire to the temple as well as to the palaces, but destroyed 
all the defences of the city,® leaving merely some of the poorest 

' Jerem., chap. 37., v. 2-7 ; and chap. XVII., v. 3. 

* Joseph., lib. X., cap. viii. 

^ Jerem., chap. XXXVII., v. 7. 

* 2 Kings, chap. XXV., v. 1. 

* i. e. from the 10th month of 590 B.C. to the 4th month 9th day of 588; 
Jerem., chap. XXXIX., v. 1, 2. 

* A province of Ilamath. ^ 2 Kings, chap. XXV., v. 7. 
« Ibid., V. 13-17 ; 2 Chron., chap. XXXVL, v. 18. 

» 2 Kings, chap. XXV., v. 8, 9, 10. 


of the inhabitants as vine-dressers and husbandmen ^ in Judea, 
under the government of Gedaliah, a Hebrew, the son of 

The rebelhon of Ismael, and the murder of Gedaliah, caused Destruction of 
the return of Nebuzar-adan, who entirely deprived Judea of city o™Jeru- 
its remaining inhabitants ; and as these were not immediately ^^'^™* 
replaced by others, the country continued for a time uninhabited, 
wasted, and desolate.^ Such was the melancholy termination 
of the Israelitish monarchy, after it had stood about 468 years 
from the commencement of David's reign. 

The second year after the destruction of Jerusalem, Nebu- Tyre besieged 
chadnezzar once more crossed the Euphrates, to make war on Nebuchad- ^ 
the western nations, and laid siege to Tyre : this siege or °^^^'^^- 
rather blockade continued for a period of thirteen years, when 
the city surrendered, but not until it had been deserted by its 

During this protracted siege, detached parties were sent by 
Nebuchadnezzar in different directions to reduce the Sidonians, 
the Moabites, and the Ammonites ; and to revenge the death 
of Gedaliah. Nebuzar-adan, at this time, carried 745 captives 
from Judea, which completed the desolation of the land.^ 

Shortly after Tyre had fallen, Nebuchadnezzar took advan- Nebuchad- 
tage of the intestine disturbances caused by the rival claims of {he^p'oiisT/^ 
Apius and Amasis, to invade Egypt, and having mastered the ^fj^/jj'^^" 
whole country, and slain great numbers of the natives, he en- 
riched himself and his army with the spoils of that kingdom : 
on this occasion he transferred numbers of Egyptians, as he had 
before done Jews, Phoenicians, and Syrians, to his territory 
beyond the Euphrates.® 

The spoils obtained in these expeditions were employed by 

' 2 Kings, chap. XXV., ver. 12 ; also Jerem., chap. XXXIX. , v. 10. 

"^ 2 Kings, chap. XXV., ver. 22. 

^ Dent., chap. XXVIII., v. 21 ; Jerem., chap. XLIV., v. 2. 

* Ezek., chap. XXVI., v. 2, 7. This city was now taken for the first 
time, after a glorious resistance, against one of the greatest warriors of 
ancient times. 

* Jerem., chap. LII., v. 30. 

* Josephus, Cont. Apion, lib. I., cap. 19; Syncel. Chron.. 220; Euseb. 
Praep. Evan., 1. 9, s. 41, 



He adorns 

Erects a 

and forms 



The Nahr- 
Malka canal. 




Nebuchadnezzar in augmenting tlie splendour of his capital, 
and in adorning its temples, particularly that of Belus, in a 
sumptuous manner.^ The same king also rebuilt the old city, 
and added another to it on the outside, surrounding each of 
them with three walls, as defences against any subsequent 
attempt to besiege Babylon, and effect an entrance into it by 
diverting the river. Some of these walls were built of burnt 
brick and bitumen, and some of brick only. When the king 
had thus fortified the city, and had magnificently adorned the 
gates, he added another palace to those in which his forefathers 
had dwelt: this structure adjoined the others, but exceeded 
them in height and splendour, and round it he formed what 
has been called a pensile paradise, or hanging garden. This, 
which was composed of high terraces, and supported on stone 
pillars, was made to resemble a mountainous tract of country, 
and was so arranged in order to gratify his queen, who had 
been brought up in Media, and was fond of such scenery.^ 

The improvements of the capital were not, however, the only 
undertakings of Nebuchadnezzar ; the great work of the Nahr- 
Malka canal, and one portion of the extensive Nahrawan, east- 
ward of the Tigris,^ are attributed to this monarch. 

The object of the former was to open a communication for 
vessels between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. It is also 
believed that the Pallacopas was cut by him, to carry the inun- 
dation of the former river into a lake, 1 200 stadia, or about 
120 miles in circumference, from which were to be sent out 
numerous small channels, for the purpose of irrigating and fer- 
tilizing this part of Babylonia. 

Eusebius relates, from a Chaldean tradition, that afler the 
completion of all his works, Nebuchadnezzar prophesied, from 
the roof of his palace, the conquest of the city by the Medes 
and Persians, and then expired." This tradition is probably a 
variation of the account given in the Scriptures^ of the temporary 

' Jos., Cont. Apion, lib. I., cap. xix. 

* Ibid., and Syncel. Cliron., 221 ; and Euseb., Praep. Evan., lib. IX., s. 
41, from Abydenus. 

" See vol. I., pp. 28, 30. •• Euseb., Praep. Evan., lib. IX., s. 41. 

* Daniel, chap. IV., v. 33. 


insanity with which this great monarch, when at the summit of Temporary 
prosperity, was afflicted : the circumstances there mentioned, king'.' ^ ^ 
may indicate either that the king, under the influence of his 
malady, imagined himself to be transformed into an ox, and 
wandered about the country, or simply that he withdrew from 
his palace and dwelt in retirement, confining himself to a vege- 
table diet till his reason returned. The former opinion is not 
improbable, since a person labouring under any kind of mental 
aberration is honoured in the East, and is allowed to follow un- 
interruptedly the tendency of his own will. 

On the recovery of his reason he resumed his throne, but it 
is not known how long afterwards he occupied it. Unfortu- 
nately we have only a mere outline of the reign of this monarch, 
who, from the importance of his military expeditions, his en- 
couragement of commerce, and the splendour with which he 
adorned his capital, was evidently one of the greatest princes of 
antiquit}\ Vestiges of his canals remain, and his trade to Commerce 
China is known historically; but as yet no work has reached ^jjp\;njgQ"/p|° 
us detailing the links ^Yhich connected the interior and exterior ^"chadnezzar. 
commerce of this great empire.^ 

El Voradam, the Evil-Merodach of Megasthenes, Evil- Evii-Mero- 
maradach of Berossus, and the Iloarudun of Ptolemy, who had siou) anr'^^" 
assumed the government during the insanity of his father,^ suc- 
ceeded to the throne on his death ; but having proved himself 
both unworthy and tyrannical, he was assassinated in the follow- death by 
ing year, after exhibiting one, and perhaps only one, trait of 
generosity, in releasing the unfortunate Jehoiachin, king of 
Judah, after a captivity of thirty-seven years. 

During his short reign Evil-Merodach laid the foundation of 
that animosity between the Medes and Persians which after- 
wards occasioned the destruction of the Babylonian empire. It 
appears that during a hunting expedition, that prince, at the 

' In ancient times there was a trade with China from the ports of Siir and 
Kilhat in the Persian Gulf; an island half way, called Kolah (possibly 
Ceylon), being at one period the entrepot for that trade : Arabic MS. 7503, 
in the British Museum, compared with Masiidi's Historical Encyclopaedia, 
p. 328, translated by Aloys Spernger, M.D. 

* Jerome, Comment, on Jerem., chap. LII., v. 31, and Calmet's Diction- 
ary of the Bible— Evil-Merodach. 



Riseofhosti- head of some Babylonians, ranged through a part of the adjoin- 

thTMedlrand ing kingdom of Media, when Astyages, the king of that country, 

Babylonians, accompanied by his son-in-law Cyrus, hastily assembled some 

troops, and having put the followers of Evil-Merodach to the 

rout, he pursued them to their own border with considerable 


Nerigiissar NeHglissar or Neglisarus,^ the Neriglissoorus of Josephus,* 

Scceeds Evil- son-iu-law of Nebuchaduezzar, took this opportunity of murder- 

Babyfou,\ud i"g ^is brothcr-iu-law Evil-Merodach, and succeeded him as 

king of Babylon. 

In order to secure the throne thus usurped, and restrain the 
growing power of the Medes and Persians, at a period when 
the energies of the youthful Cyrus were beginning to display 
themselves, Nerigiissar proceeded to collect the forces of the 
several satrapies of Lydia, Phrygia, Caria, Cappadocia, Paph- 
lagonia, Cilicia, &c. : he even sent envoys to the kings of India/ 
Cyaxares sue- in order to obtain assistance from them, Cyaxares, with the 
inVedia^^ assistauce of Cyrus, had succeeded his father Astyages on the 
throne of Media, and with the view of counteracting the warlike 
preparations of the king of Babylonia, he called his nephew out 
of Persia with a body of 30,000 men, appointing him corn- 
Cyrus takes mander-in-chief of all his forces. After three years employed 
against in extcnsivc preparations, Nerigiissar the Babylonian, assisted 

erig issar. |^^ ^ body of Arabians, together with the other forces, including 
the Lydians, under the command of the well-known Croesus, 
advanced to encounter the Medes and Persians under Cyrus. 
The latter, on his side, was assisted by a body of Armenians, 
who had already subdued that portion of the kingdom of Ba- 
bylon which was next to their country. Previous to the com- 
mencement of hostilities, it is said that an embassy arrived from 
India to inquire into the grounds and causes of the war, offering 
mediation if it might be accepted, and threatening at the same 
time to join that party which appeared to have justice on its 
The Indians sidc '.* this Mas probably a consequence of the mission just 
oiTerme la- j^^eutioned as having been sent to India by Nerigiissar. 

In the contest which followed, Cyrus gained a complete 
' Euseb., Chron. Arm., pp. 41, 42. 

^ Contr. Ap., lib. I., cap. xx. ; Euseb., Preep. Evan., lib. IX. 
" Cyropsedia, lib. I. * Ibid., p. 36. 





xV> . >-^ 


victory over Neriglissar, who was slain ;^ and the Babylonian Defeat of the 
camp, together with all the baggage, and many captives, were ltd LydTan^s. 
taken next day, after much slaughter. ^^^ 

Neriglissar was succeeded by his son Laborosoarchodus, whose 
cruelty and oppression caused the revolt of two of his provinces, 
and an invasion of Babylonia by Cyrus ; the latter, however, 
returned into Media, being unable to induce his enemies to quit 
the impregnable walls of the city. 

The Babylonian monarch being thus freed from immediate Cyrus returns 
danger, gave the rein to all his vicious propensities, and that "''^ ^ y «" 
to such an extent, that his irritated subjects conspired, and put 
him to death by torture." After his decease, the conspirators 
assembled, and by common consent placed the crown upon the Accession of 
head of Nabonnedus,^ one of the leaders of the insurrection.^ or^Beulmzzar. 
This was the Belshazzar of Scripture, being the son of Evil- 
Merodach, by Nitocris, a very politic, active, and resolute 
woman, who in reality governed the empire. Whilst the dissi- 
pated and thoughtless grandson of the warlike Nebuchadnezzar 
rioted in intemperance, and indulged his grossest appetites, his works of 
mother had completed the great works commenced by that con- ^'***^"^' 
queror, and perfected the defences of the capital, more especially 
the walls which defended the banks of the river, and which were 
curiously built with burnt bricks and bitumen.^ The tunnel 
also is supposed to have been her work ; and as a farther means 
of preserving the capital of an empire, then tottering to its very 
foundation, Nitocris laid in a sufficient store of provision to Supplies col- 
supply the inhabitants for many years.*^ But the period was j3abyion^ 
now fast approaching when the prophecies against this rich, 
voluptuous, and idolatrous city,'' were about to be accomplished ; 
and the instrument chosen to "subdue nations and loose the 

' Euseb., Praep. Evan,, lib. X. 

* Joseph., Contr. Apion, lib. I., cap. xx. ; Euseb., Praep, Evan., lib, IX. 
^ Nabonnidich of Ptolemj^ ; the Labynetus of Herodotus, lib. I., cap. 


* Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. 41. 

* Ibid. 

* Herod,, lib. I,, cap, cxc. 

^ The glorj' of kingdoms, and the beauty of the Chaldee's excellency, 
Isaiah, chap. XIII., v. 19. 

M 2 



[chap. n. 

The river 
drained by 

Former course 

Belshazzar is 
defeated, and 
takes refuge 
■within the 
walls of 

Blockade of 

loins of kings " ^ was already advancing against it from Sardis, 
accompanied by the Armenian king, Tigranes, with his forces. 

It was during this march that the wild feat was performed of 
punishing the river Gyndes for disrespect to the Persian prince. 
In consequence of one of the sacred white horses having been 
drowned in attempting to swim across this stream, Cyrus declared 
that he would make it fordable, without wetting the knees of 
those who were passing. Accordingly, his whole army having 
halted, and his operations against Babylon having been suspended 
for this purpose, he dug 360 channels, and diverted the body 
of the river into them. This was, however, an operation of no 
very great difficulty, in such a country as that through which 
the Diyalah passes in the latter part of its course, especially as 
a whole army of men, accustomed to the management of water, 
was employed upon it for the remainder of the season. It 
appears, that at one time the Diyalah did not disembogue itself 
into the Tigris, but its waters were carried, chiefly in one 
channel, in a south-easterly direction, into the Kerkhah, and the 
change may possibly be the consequence of the canals dug by 
Cyrus on this occasion. 

Whilst the invaders were delayed by this useless operation, 
Nitocris was occupied in collecting a large army to oppose them, 
and the enervated monarch, Belshazzar, drew out these forces, 
hoping to cover and save the capital ; but he experienced a signal 
defeat, and was driven within the walls of Babylon by the vic- 
torious Persians. 

Cyrus, having thus become master of the surrounding country, 
immediately commenced what was rather a close blockade than 
the regTilar siege of the city, which previously to that time had 
been deemed impregnable, owing to the extent and peculiar 
strength of its works ; on which, in fact, all the skill of their 
architects, and much of the wealth of successive sovereigns of 
that great empire, had been expended. 

In addition to the inner fortifications of the citadel, or palace, 
with its gates of brass, there was a triple line of exterior de- 
fences, flanked by lofty towers, which encircled a vast city, 
amply furnished with troops. It had, moreover, an enormous 

' Isaiali, chap. XLV., v. 1. 


population, which was abundantly supplied for a long time to 
come, owing to the foresight of Nitocris. AVithin the walls, as strength of iu 
is customary with Eastern cities, it had the advantage of gardens 
and tracts of cultivated ground,' and a wide space between the 
houses and the walls.^ Such a city might fairly be considered 
to be perfectly secure against any kind of open attack ; there- 
fore, it was with a firm reliance upon its extraordinary strength, 
that the defenders of Babylon treated the hardy warriors of 
Cyrus with the utmost scorn. It is said that they derided the 
efforts of the besiegers from the summits of their towers and 

The siege continued for more than two years, without the Duration of 
slightest impression having been made on the place, notwith- 
standing all the perseverance and valour of the besiegers. At 
that time battering-rams, catapultse, and mines, appear to have and mode of 
been unknown to Cyrus ; and the works which he executed for 
the purpose of reducing the city consisted merely of an extensive 
circumvallation, provided with towers constructed of date-trees, 
and sufficiently elevated to command the walls.* The forces of 
Cyrus were, moreover, inferior to those of the Babylonians, 
while the high walls and towers, with the strong lines of defence, 
appeared to render the city impregnable. In these circumstances 
Cyrus, either of himself, or in consequence of a hint from one 
of his generals,^ determined to adopt one of those daring pro- 
jects, by which great commanders are distinguished from ordi- 
nary captains. 

Having learnt, it is supposed from Gobryas and Gadates, Project of 
two Babylonian nobles, who, having been ill-treated by their ducTthe c^. 
king, had deserted to the Persian camp, that a great annual 
festival would be held at a particular time within the walls, 
Cyrus determined to take advantage of the circumstance by 
storming the city, at the very instant when he might expect to 
find the whole of its defenders lost in revelry. In order eftec- Cyrus pre- 
tually to accomplish this project, he gradually and silently {he wat^ers o7 
prepared the means of suddenly diverting the waters of the *^^ Euphrates. 

' Quin. Cur., lib. V., cap. i. * Diotl. Sic, lib. II., cap. viii. 

^ Cyropaedia, lib. VII. ; Quin. Cur., lib. V., cap. i. 

* Cyropaedia, lib. VII. ^ Herod., lib. I., cap. cxci. 



and pushes the 

Euphrates from their ordinary channel ; thus opening a passage 
for his troops, along the bed of the river, into the very heart of 
the city. 

This gigantic operation was more practicable for the Persians 
than it would have been for a nation less accustomed to the ma- 
nagement of water, more particularly as they had just practised 
nearly a similar operation, by draining the river Diyalah. More- 
Enlarges the over, they had the great advantage of finding the work facili- 
Semiramis,^ tatcd by the existence of a canal cut by Semiramis, and since 
enlarged by Nitocris, for the purpose of conveying the over- 
flowings of the great river into the Chaldean lake. Cyrus had, 
therefore, only to enlarge this canal sufficiently to receive the 
whole, instead of a portion of the waters of the Euphrates, which 
would at once flow into the new channel, without the necessity 
of constructing a bund or dyke for this purpose. 

The plan being matured, Cyrus continued to push the siege 
with increased vigour ; and in order to occupy the enemy's 
attention more effectually on the side of the city, he employed 
his best troops in that quarter, whilst the inferior soldiers, to- 
gether with the numerous hordes always following in the train 
of an Asiatic army, were employed in working out the bed of 
the canal, which was opened at some distance to the north-west 
of the city. 

Herodotus does not tell us whether or not a bund was con- 
structed as an additional means of diverting the course of the 
river ; but this could scarcely have been necessary, for the 
stream in that part of Babylonia is so dull, that a new bed with 
a deeper channel in the proposed direction, and at the most, a 
partial bund projecting at a suitable angle from the lower side 
of the canal, would have answered the purpose. 

The operation was accomplished after nightfall on the 
evening of the festival, supposed to be that of Sacea, which, 
according to Berossus, took place in the eleventh month, called 
Loos ; when, during a period of five days, it was the custom 
that the masters should obey their domestics, one of whom was 
led round the house, clothed in a royal garment, and him they 
call Zoganes.' 

' Ancient Fragments, p. 43, by I. P. Cory, Esq. 

Facilit)' of 
the river 


Cyrus posted one-half of his army where the Euphrates enters Plan of the 
the city, and the other half at its outlet, the columns being ge- *"^'^'*' ^^^ 
nerally guided by the two Babylonian nobles just mentioned ; 
and the troops having orders to enter the channel from above 
and below at the same time. At the appointed hour, the revelry 
being at its height, the columns advanced along the bed of the 
river, in which the water had been suddenly diminished so as to 
be quite fordable : and as the gates leading from the quays to the 
river had been left heedlessly open/ they entered the streets, its success 
imitating the shouts of the revellers, and were thus enabled, Je"p"fry!'^^ 
unnoticed, to unite at the royal palace itself. The king, sup- 
posing the noise of the assailants to be only the clamour of a 
drunken mob, ordered his guards to open the gates and ascertain 
its cause ; on which, his foes rushed onwards with resistless 
force, and having killed the guards, forced their way to the 
palace. Belshazzar, with his sword drawn, defended his life for 
some time, but was at length slain, and his attendants shared Death of 
the same fate. This took place in the month of November, in 
the year 536 b. c, perhaps within one hour after the mysterious 
characters written by a supernatural hand on the wall had been 
interpreted by Daniel.^ 

The main object of the assault having been accomplished, by Humanity of 

!• f»i 11 iiiii?ii" r^ Cyrus during 

the takmg oi the royal palace and the death ot the kmg, Cyrus, the assault, 
in conformity with that humanity which prevailed with him, ^° 
even during the feverish moment of an assault, immediately 
issued a proclamation, promising life and safety to all who might 
come to him and deliver up their arms, at the same time 
threatening death to those who refused to accept his proffered 
clemency. This had the desired effect, for the inhabitants soon 
submitted to the conqueror. Cyrus in consequence became 
master of this mighty capital without further bloodshed. So 
quietly, indeed, was this accomplished, that those who occupied 
the citadel, probably the Mujellibeh, learnt only at day-break 
that the city belonged to Darius the Mede, or rather to Cy- 
axares, who was both uncle and father-in-law^ to Cyrus ; or, to 

' Isaiah, chap. XLV., v. 1. 

'■' III that night was Belshazzar, tlie king of the Chaldeans, slain ; and 
Darius, the Median, took the kingdom. Daniel, chap. V,, v. 30, 31. 


use the expression of Xenophon, " When that part of the city 
which borders on the river was already in possession of the 
enemy, those who dwelt nearer the centre knew nothing of it." ^ 
his fidelity to It was in behalf of Cyaxares that Cyrus had undertaken this 
Cyaxares. gj-g^t expedition, and though he had added Babylonia to his 
conquests over Asia, Syria, and Arabia, he still regarded his 
uncle as the head of the empire, being during the remainder of 
his life content to govern as deputy or viceroy at Babylon, as 
he had till then governed the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and 

' Cyropsedia, lib. VII. * Jerem., chap. LI., v. 27. 

( 109 ) 



404 B.C. 

Cyrus the Great vis^its Persia. — His Accession and Forces. — Daniel's autho- 
rity. — Preparations for Building the Temple at Jerusalem. — Cyrus' 
Decree. — The Medes and Persians become one Nation. — Cambyses suc- 
ceeds. — Invasion of Egypt and Ethiopia. — His Death. — Sinerdis usurps 
the Throne. — His Death. — Stratagem and Accession of Darius Hystasj)es. — 
Rebellion in Susiana and Babylonia. — Darius marches to quell the latter. 
— Revolt and Capture of Babylon, according to Herodotus. — A Revolt in 
the Upper Provinces recalls Darius. — His authority is established. — 
Organization of the Empire. — Posts establislied. — Use of Firmans. — The 
Temple at Jerusalem Rebuilt. — Voyage of Scylax. — Invasions of Scythia 
and Greece. — Zerd-husht, or Zoroaster, and the Religion of the Magi. — 
Invasion of Greece. — Battle of JNIarathon. — Fresh Armaments of Darius. — 
His Death. — Character. — Xerxes' Succession. — Invasion of Greece. — 
Contingents. — March. — Bridge over the Hellespont. — Thrace. — Ther- 
mopylae. — Salamis. — Retreat into Asia. — Battles of Plataea and Mycale. 
— Death of Xerxes. — His Character. — Artaxerxes Longimanus, or Aha- 
suerus, succeeds. — Esther. — The Jews. — Reception of Themistocles at the 
Court of Assyria. — Double Victory of the Greeks on the Coast of Pam- 
phylia. — Peace between the Greeks and the Assyrians. — Xerxes Murdered. 
— Sogdianus and Darius Nothus. 

After the fall of Babylon, about 536 b.c, Cyrus visited his Cyrus accom- 
father and mother in Persia, and from thence he returned cTaxareJ 
through Media, bringing with him as his wife the daughter of^'^'^^^^^-^^°°- 
Cyaxares, with whom as a dowry, he had been promised the 
kingdom of Media in reversion, after the death of her father. 
Cyaxares himself accompanied the bridal party to Babylon, 
where he died, after having, in council wath bis son-in-law, 
divided the empire into 120 provinces, which were to be The empire 
governed by those who had distinguished themselves during the pr"Es ^'^ 




[chap. VII. 


The rebnild- 
ing of the 
Temple is 

decreed by 

The sacred 
fire of the 
Temple com- 

■with that of 
the Magi. 

M ar, the whole being under the general superintendence of three 
presidents, of whom Daniel was the first :' a preference, to 
which the prophet was well entitled, not only in consequence 
of great wisdom, but also his long experience; having spent 
about sixty years as prime minister at Babylon. 

On mustering his forces, Cyrus found that his army, distri- 
buted over the empire, consisted of 600,000 foot, 120,000 
horsCj and 2,000 chariots armed with scythes. 

Daniel did not fail to take advantage of the favourable 
moment, offered by his high position and influence in the 
empire at the time of Cyrus' accession, to press the object most 
at his heart; using for this purpose the powerful argument, 
that 120 years previous to his birth, Cyrus was predestined to 
release the Israelites from their captivity.^ Accordingly the 
prophecy, specially naming Cyrus as the shepherd who was to 
perform the pleasure of God, by saying to Jerusalem thou 
shalt be built, and to the Temple thy foundation shall be laid,^ 
being shown to that prince, Daniel's Avishes were granted ; and 
about November of the same year, being also the seventieth of 
the captivity, the decree was issued, giving permission to all the 
Jews who were so disposed to return to Judea ; and, to those 
who preferred to remain, perfect liberty to contribute as they 
pleased, gold, silver, and precious stuffs, to assist in building 
and adorning the Temple.^ 

In this memorable firman, Cyrus asserts, " that the God of 
heaven had given him all the kingdoms of the earth, and 
charged him to build a house at Jerusalem which is in Judah,"* 
where (it is added) " they do sacrifice with continual fire."^ 

The last part of the sentence seems to allude to " the lamp 
to burn always in the temple,"^ which no doubt Cyrus consi- 
dered the same as the fire of the Magians. The doctrines of the 
latter, as restored by Zoroaster, constituted nearly a pure 

' Dan., chap. VI., v. 3. 

* Isa., chap. XLIV , v. 28, and chap. XLV., v. 1. 
« Ibid., chap XLIV., v. 28. 

* Ezra, chap. I., v. 3, 4, and VI., v. 3, 4. 

* Ibid., and chap. I., v, 1, 2. 

« 1st Esdr., V. 6, 24; and Brisson, de Hegn. Pers., 351, 356. 
' Exod., chap. XXVII., v. 20. 


theism;' which being apparently the religion of Cyrus, that 
monarch caused the idols of Babylonia to be replaced by the 
fire ; and that the latter was maintained as a symbol of the Fire was a 
Deity and not as an object of worship, is manifest from a S,J'an';,i^"ct 
remarkable sentence, which was applied to Cyrus and his °^^'^'"?^'i'- 
paternal grandfather. " Think not," said Zoroaster, " that they 
were adorers of fire ; for that element was only an exalted 
object, on the lustre of which they fixed their eyes ; they 
humbled themselves a whole week before God ; and if thy un- 
derstanding be ever so little exerted, thou must acknowledge 
thy dependence on the Being supremely pure."^ 

In accordance with the command he had issued, Cyrus not Cyrus restoios 
only restored the 5,400 sacred vessels of the Temple of Jeru- Se TempL?^ 
salem, but also prescribed the size of the building intended to 
receive them ; and even directed that the expense of its erection 
should be defrayed from the royal treasury."^ 

Shesh-bazzar, the Zerubbabel or Zorobabel of Scripture, a de- Zerubbabei 
scendant of David, and the grandson of Jeconiah, having been jemsaiem" 
nominated governor of Jerusalem by Cyrus, he prepared to lead 
his countrymen homeward ; and after a delay of some months 
in assembling the bulk of Judah and Benjamin, in addition to 
some from the other ten tribes, and also in making the neces- 
sary preparations for a journey of about 720 miles, 42,360 accompanipd 
Je%vs, with 7,337 servants,* accompanied him across the Desert, jews!'from 
and reached their native land. This was seventy years from 
the commencement of the captivity.^ 

The limited number thus collected by the first edict, deno- 
minated by the Hebrew writers, the bran or dregs of the 
people,® were chiefly from Babylonia and the adjoining region Babylonia and 
of Susiana, in which however, others still remained, while the reavfns'the 
bulk of the ten tribes resided in Assyria, Media, and other ten tribes in 
parts of the east. Zeal for the Temple having been the grand Meiia.'^ ^" 
motive of the journey, the restoration of the altar for burnt- 

' See above, vol. I., p. 85. ^ Sir "Wni. Jones' Works, vol. I., p. 89. 

* Ezra, chap. I., v. 11, and YI., v. 3, 4, 5 : 2 Cliron., chap. XXXVL, v. 23. 

* Ezra, chap. II., v. 64, 65. 

* Jer., chap. XXV., v. 11, and cliap. XXIX., v. 10. 

* Talmud, Bab. in Kiddushini. 





laid of the 

The Samari- 
tans interrupt 
the work, and 

influence the 
court of Persia. 

The ^ledes 
and Persians 
become one 
people under 


Doubts re- 
garding the 
manner of 
Cyrus' death. 

offerings, was the first object ^ of those who returned, and the 
contracts for the reconstruction of the building, as well as the 
preparation of materials having been completed, the foundation 
of the Temple was laid with great solemnity, soon after the com- 
mencement of the second year.^ 

The size, and even the plan itself, were the same as those of 
the former structure, but the means at command were greatly 
inferior, and this disadvantage was increased by an unexpected 
circumstance, which interrupted the progress of the work. The 
mixed people of Samaria, who were Cutheans intermixed with 
a remnant of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, and claiming 
descent from the two last, proposed to assist in the great national 
work ; but from a jealous and exclusive spirit, the new comers 
indignantly rejected the proposal. The ancient feud between 
the rival people was thus revived, and assumed a character of 
fierce and implacable hatred, from which the Jews immediately 
suffered. Samaritan influence and intrigue were successfully 
exerted at the court of Persia to stop the work. The Jews, 
however, hoping for a change, continued to collect and prepare 
materials during the remaining five years of Cyrus' life, as well 
as the life of his successor. 

With Cyrus, the sovereignty had passed from the Medes to 
the Persians, and the two became henceforth one people in 
dress, manners, and religion ; the customs of the latter nation, 
being naturally adopted by the sovereign, in compliment to the 
place of his birth ; and as a matter of course they were also in- 
troduced amongst the Babylonians. Cyrus likewise first esta- 
blished the custom of removing the court from Babylon at the 
expiration of the winter months ; two months, in the spring, 
were spent at Shushan, and the warmest season, at Ecbatana.^ 

According to Xenophon,^ the subsequent years of Cyrus' 
reign were spent in peaceable pursuits. But Herodotus and 
Diodorus Siculus, give a very different account of the manner 
in which the days of this conqueror terminated ; and though 
the tomb of this monarch, on the plains of Murgh'-ab, N.N.E. 
of Persepolis, seems to favour the statement of Xenophon, 

' Ezra, cliap. TTT.. v. 3. 

" Cyropeedia, lib. VIII., p. 233. 

- Ibid., V. 8, 10. 

* Ibid., cap. viL, p, 551, 


it is unlikely that the circumstances related by the historians 
concerning his expedition to a distant country, and the manner 
of his death, should be altogether fabulous. They expressly 
state that Cyrus, having invaded the country eastward of the 
Caspian Sea,' perished in a great and bloody battle against 
Tomyris, queen of the Massage t?e," after constructing a city 
to -svhich he gave the name of Cyropolis.^ 

Cambyses, his second son, who had been appointed his sue- Cambyses 
cessor, ascended the throne about 529 b.c, and manifested all ^hronef ^^^ 
his father's love for war, but without a shadow of prudence. This 
prince, one of those who bore the scriptural title of Ahasuerus, 
having taken some offence against Egypt, made extensive pre- 
parations by sea and land throughout his vast empire, in the 
very commencement of his reign, for the conquest of that 
country. More than three years were employed in engaging prepares to 
the Cypriots and Phoenicians to assist him with their fleets, and i^°JJ»<^es Egypt, 
in collecting the Greek auxiliaries. 

The subjugation of the growing colony of Carthage had been 
contemplated also, but in consequence of the Phoenicians having 
refused to assist against those with whom they were connected, 
(the Carthaginians being originally from Tyre), this part of the 
project was abandoned : the intended operations were therefore to 
be confined to Egypt, and the upper portion of the Nile. Ac- 
cordingly, leaving Patizithes, a chief of the Magians, as his crosses the 
deputy at Susa, Cambyses took the field in the fourth year of deTert!" 
his reign, and agreeably to the arrangements already made for 
the friendly passage of his army through Arabia, he marched at 
the head of an overwhelming force in a direct line across the 526 to 525 B.C. 
latter country, instead of taking the more circuitous and ordinary 
route, through Upper Mesopotamia and Syria. At the sug- 
gestion of Phanes of Halicarnassus ^ contracts were made w-ith 
the Arabs for the necessary supplies of water ; and, faithful to 
his engagements, the king of Arabia collected all the camels 
in his dominions, and having loaded them with large skins, 
chiefly those of camels, filled with water, he sent them to the 

' Herod., lib. I., cap. cciv. * Ibid., cap. cev., ccxiv. 

^ Strabo, lib. XVI. See Appendix (A.) to this volume. 
* Herod., lib. III., caps, iv., vii., ix. 



[chap. VII. 

The Arabs 
find supplies 
for the march. 

taken, and 

Egypt submits 
to CambTSes, 

His rash 



the temple of 

and against 

places which were destitute of that indispensable requisite 
of life.^ Water being thus provided the march of Cambyses 
was safely accomplished as far as Pelusium ; and this strong- 
hold, the key of Egypt, was taken by the following stratagem, 
which was proposed by Phanes, who, on some disgust, had 
revolted from Amasis and joined Cambyses.^ The Persian 
king placed a number of cats, dogs, sheep, and other animals in 
advance of his troops, and the Egyptians being unable to shoot 
an arrow that way, lest they might injure some of those sacred 
animals, the place was carried without difficult}^ 

Psammeticus, who had just succeeded on the death of 
Amasis, being defeated in a great battle fought in that neigh- 
bourhood, the invaders advanced to Memphis, where the 
Egyptian prince surrendered, and the whole of Egypt sub- 
mitted in consequence. Cambyses being master of the country, 
indulged his ungovernable temper by destroying many of its 
monuments ; nor did he even respect the dead, for the body of 
Amasis was dug up,^ and treated ignominiously. 

During his short stay in Africa, Cambyses gave the reins to 
his headlong and reckless disposition, by undertaking at the 
same time two distant land expeditions ; each of which Avas 
attended with the most fatal result. The first consisted of 
51), 000 men, whom he despatched to set fire to the temple of 
Jupiter Ammon. This force is said to have been overwhelmed 
by a shower of sand raised by a hurricane, whilst traversing the 
desert of Oasis Magna,* from which it is certain that the troops 
did not return.^ 

The second expedition proceeded under his own command 
towards Ethiopia, but the necessary supplies failing, a portion 
only of the army returned to Thebes, the rest having perished : 
the troops had in their retreat, been driven to the necessity of 
consuming first the sumpter beasts, and finally, as a last resource 
to maintain life, a number of their companions : these were 
taken by lot to be put to death for the support of the others.'' 

Herod,, lib. III., cap. ix. 
Ibid., lib. IV., and Polyggenus, lib. VII. 
Ibid., lib. III., cap. xvi. * Ibid. 

Ibid. « Ibid. 

, cap. XXV. 


Shortly after his return from the expedition, he received in- 
telligence of a revolt in his own dominions, which was headed 
by Gomates, a Magian ' (the brother of Patizithes) ; this man 
having personated Smerdis or Bardeus,^ who had been mur- A revolt 
dered by order of Cambyses.^ This information induced the Smeniis 
king to set out with all haste for Persia, leaving the government ^^^^'^^ 
of Egypt to the care of Ariandes. He avoided on his return 
the shorter route of the Desert by which he had advanced, and 
took that of Syria, where he died of a wound received from his 
own sword whilst precipitately mounting his horse. This event the return and 
took place on Mount Carmel at Ecbatana ;* which place had Cambjses, 
been named by the oracle of Buto,^ as that which would be 
fatal to him.'' 

We are told that there was not any one sufficiently bold 
to oppose the Magian, and Gomates had remained in undisputed 
possession of the empire during seven months, when Darius, 
the Gushtasp of the Persians, son of Lohrasp or Hystaspes, one 
of the seven nobles who conspired against him, mounted the 
throne." According to Herodotus, it had been agreed among 
these nobles, that he whose horse first neighed to the rising 
sun should be king ; and, by an artifice, the horse of Darius Darius obtains 
was made to win the monarchy for his master.^ But, in de- a s^tratilgem.^ 
tailing his own achievements on the tablets at Bisutiin, this is 
made a religious war, in which, by the help of Ormazd, Darius 

' Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. X., pp. 201, 202. 

* Ibid. =* Herod., lib. III., cap. Ixi. 

* Plin., lib. v., cap. xix. ^ Herod., lib. III., cap. Ixiv. 

® According to the translation of the Bisutun tablet, Gomates, a Magian, 
having falsely declared liiniself to be Bardeiis, the son of Cyrus, and the 
brother of Canibyses, the whole state of Persia, Media, and the other pro- 
vinces became rebellious, and he assumed the crown : and Cambyses, unable 
to endure his misfortiuies, died. — Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
vol. X., pp. 201, 202. 

^ These alono, says Darius, were my assistants : Int£ephernes, tlie son of 
Hys . . . ., a Persian; Otanes, the son of , . . ., a Persian; Gobryas 
by name, the son of Mardonius, a Persian ; Hydarnes, the son of . . . ., 
a Persian ; Megabyrus, the son of Zopyrus, a Persian ; and Aspethines, the 
son of . . . ., a Persian.— Bisutun Tablet. Journal of Royal Asiatic 
Society, vol. X., p. 257. 

^ Lib, III., cap. Ixxxv., Ixxxvi. 


slew Gomates the Magian, and the chief men who were with 
him ; and having re-established the chaunts and sacrificial 
worship, he confided these duties to the families who were de- 
prived of them by Gomates, or, in other words, he restored the 
ancient religion of the country in connexion with the State. 
Darius, although he only followed the steps of Cyrus and his 
uncle Cyaxares, may be considered the real founder of the 
Persian empire, in consequence of the wisdom he displayed in 
the government of the country, which had only been in part 
reduced to order, after having been subjected by the arms of 

^'^^saniza- thosc monarchs. Darius accomplished these great objects by 
dividing his vast dominions into provinces of a convenient size : 
a certain number of these constituted a viceroyalty, of which 
there were twenty, each under the general superintendence of 
a satrap, to whom all the inferior governors of provinces, dis- 
tricts, &c., were responsible ; though they were appointed or 
removed only at the pleasure of the sovereign himself By this 
arrangement, a salutary check was maintained over the governors 
of the satrapies. Such a check was the more necessary, as in 

various general the satrapies not only comprised many provinces, but 

empire! somctimes ouc of them consisted of several kingdoms. In the 

first, for instance, were the lonians, the Carians, the Lycians, 
Pamphylians, and others ;^ in the second were the Mysians, 
the Lydians, and the Cabalii. Babylon, together with the 
territory of Assyria, belonged to the ninth satrapy." 

Moderate In the time of Cyrus, and even during that of his successor, 

contributions n ^ • ^ ^ • 1 

established, there was not any fixed taxation, and the sovereign only re- 
ceived uncertain gratuities from time to time ; in addition to 
which, during war, contingents of men and money were fur- 
nished for the exigencies of the state. This system prevailed 
till a fixed tribute and a regular quota of men were esta- 
blished for each satrapy^ by Darius. This regulation induced 
the Persians to designate him the Broker, whilst M'ith equal 
point, Cambyses was called Master, and Cyrus the Father of 

and inter- the Empire.'* 

tious But the statistics, then so wittily termed brokerage, were the 

' Herod., lib. IIT., cap, xc. ^ Ibid., cap. xcii. 

* Ibid., cap. Ixxxix. * Ibid. 


more easily managed, in consequence of a system of intercommu- throughout the 
nication which had been commenced throughout the empire in ^"P""®* 
the time of Cyrus, and was more completely established in that 
of Darius.^ The object was accomplished by means of couriers, 
who were stationed at certain distances, for the rapid transmis- 
sion of the firmans, which in this way were sent to, and answers 
received from, the different governors. Those issued by the Firmans or 
monarch are supposed to have been stamped upon barrel-shaped Medes and 
bricks of small size, which were afterwards solidly baked as the Persians. 
best and surest means of preventing any change in the edicts ; 
which thus became the laws of the Medes and Persians." With- 
out doubt one of the most memorable was the decree of Cyrus, Darius causes 
permitting the return of the captives to rebuild Jerusalem and ofdie^Tempie 
its Temple. Encouraged by the prophet Haggai, the work ^yas ^*^^^ '■^*^™^'^' 
resumed in the beginning of the second year of Darius, viz., 
520 B.C. Tatnai, the governor of Syria and Palestine, having 
made an appeal to his sovereign, in order to ascertain if the 
decree of Cyrus really existed, as was alleged by the elders of 
the Jews, a search was in consequence made, and the decree 
being found in the archives of Ecbatana,^ the king enjoined 
Tatnai and Setharboznai to see it fully executed. These per- 
sons were further commanded to carry out the original inten- 
tions of Cyrus, and to give at the same time all possible 
assistance to the Jews in rebuilding their Temple.* To this 
measure Darius was no doubt moved, like his predecessor, by an 
irresistible impulse, M^hich made each an instrument in fulfilling 
the Divine purposes. In other respects, it would seem that the the return of 
court of Persia could have no good ground of objection to ^^„l^^^]' 
the return of the Jews to their native land, since, in such ^^^ edict of 
return, they only moved from one part of the Assyrian domi- 
nions to another. 

' Herod., lib. VIII., cap. xcviii. 

* Several of these barrel-sliaped bricks may be seen in the British 
Museum ; and Asiatic tradition connects tliem m ith the firmans of the great 
Assyrian monarchs : the character is cuneiform. 

' Ezra, chap. YI., v. 1-3. 

* 1 Esdras, chap. V., v. 47, and following verses; also Ezra, chap. VI., 
V. 5-17. 

VOL. n. N 



Expedition to 

Rebellions in 
Susiana and 

Completion of The Temple, which had been commenced by Zerubbabel 

tLe'iempie. ^^yg^ty years previously, or about 534 B.C., was completed in 

the seventh year of Darius, on the same scale of grandeur, but, 

in point of costly materials, it was " as nothing " if compared 

with the former structure.^ 

The first distant undertaking of Darius was that of sending 
an army under his general Otanes to Samos, with the view of 
restoring Syloson, the brother of Polycrates the tyrant of the 
island, to his throne, from whom when a private individual, he 
had received a splendid garment. This service was scarcely 
completed when the attention of the king was urgently called 
to his own dominions, by the revolt of the Babylonians. Their 
city, having been so long mistress of the East, could ill brook 
the change caused by its subjection to Persia, especially when 
Shushan became the capital of the empire ; this change neces- 
sarily diminishing its pride and splendour. 

It appears from the Bisutiin monuments, that Darius was 
occupied previous to his accession, and probably as a satrap of 
his father, who governed Parthia and Hyrcania, in quelling a 
rebellion in Susiana and another in Babylonia. The former, 
led by Atrines the son of Opadarmes, was speedily overcome 
by his deputy, but the latter being very serious required his 
presence ; Naditabirus, the son of Aena, calling himself Nabo- 
chodrossor, the son of Nabonidus, having seized the govern- 
ment. An interesting description, and even some of the 
details, are given of the campaign which followed. Darius, by 
means of a demonstration and the use of rafts, forced the 
passage, and defeated the army of Naditabirus on the banks of 
the Tigris, and completely overcame him the second time, 
when disputing the passage of the Euphrates near a city called 
Zanzana close to Babylon. A signal defeat in the vicinity of the 
capital put an end to the rebellion, and Naditabirus being 
taken prisoner was put to death .^ 

A fuller account, especially of the capture of the city, is 
however, given by Herodotus. 

' Haggai, chap. II., v. 3. 

* Translations of the Blsutun Tablets, vol. X., part iii,, pp. 211-214, of 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society : London, 1847. 

quelled by 


Hoping to recover its lost importance by an attempt like The Baby- 
that M'hich was made by Nabopalasar against the Assyrians, ^'^^^ '*^^° 
the Babylonians took advantage of the unsettled state of things 
consequent on the death of Cambyses, to make preparations for 
war, by secretly laying in stores of provisions ; and at the end 
of four or five years, the city was so amply provided, that the 
citizens openly revolted, and set up a king. 

On receiving this intelligence, Darius hastily assembled his Darius 
forces, and marched a powerfiil army to put an end to this against. 
rebellion. Seeing themselves begirt by a force which they ^^^^5^^°- 
could not oppose in the field, the Babylonians turned their 
thoughts wholly to the best means of resisting it within the 
walls ; and having for this purpose agreed to cut ofi* all unne- Cruelty of the 
cessary mouths, they cruelly strangled the whole of the women 
with the exception of the favourite wife of each individual, and 
a maid-servant to every house. ^ After continuing the siege for 
twenty months without the slightest advantage, Darius made 
himself master of the city by one of the most extraordinary 
stratagems hitherto recorded in history. Zopyrus, one of his stratagem of 
most devoted captains, having cruelly maimed himself, went to the city: 
the city, pretending to have fled from the tyranny of his 
master : having obtained the confidence of the besieged, and 
eventually the command of some of their troops, he thus gained 
an opportunity of opening two of the gates of the city to the 
Persians. Darius in consequence obtained possession of the his cruelty to 
place, when he immediately caused the crucifixion of 3,000 loniai.'^" 
Babylonian nobles, who had been the chief fomenters of the 
revolt ; he likewise took away the hundred brazen gates of the 
city, and reduced the height of its walls from 200 cubits to 
only 50 cubits.^ 

The remaining inhabitants were not however, molested, but Repeopiing of 
on the contrary, Darius caused each of his satrapies to furnish ^ °°' ^^ 
a proportion of women, amounting in all to 50,000, to replace 
those who had been so cruelly put to death before the siege.^ 

Darius appears to have remained at Babylon till a revolt, or 
rather an opposition to his authority, in Persia, Susiana, Media, 

> Herod., lib. III., cap. cl. " Ibid., cap. clviii., clix. 

* Ibid., cap. clix. 

N 2 


consolidation Assyrio, &c., obHged him to marcli in person, when being, as it 
o e empire. -^ g^pressed, by the grace of Ormazd, completely successful in 
suppressing these rebellions, the most formidable of which was 
that of Media,^ he became the sovereign of Persia, Susiana, 
Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, and the maritime parts of Egypt. 
Also of Sparta, Ionia, Armenia, Cappadocia, Parthia, Zarangia, 
Asia, Chorasmia, Bactria, Sogdiana (Gandaria), the Sacse, the 
Sattagydes, Arachosia, and the Mecians ; in all twenty-one 

After the accomplishment of this object, Darius became 
anxious to know the state of the countries lying eastward of 
Scythia, with a view to their conquest, and more especially the 
termination of the river Indus. Accordingly he built a fleet at 
Caspatyrus, in the territory of Pactyica on the Indus, which he 
Scyiax sails entrusted to a skilful Greek mariner named Scylax, a native of 
indi^, and Caryanda, who admirably fulfilled the instructions of the 
monarch by sailing down the whole length of the river ;^ thence 
ascends the coasting to the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, and ascending the 
■ Arabian gulf to the port at its northern extremity, from which 
the Phoenicians had before taken their departure to circum- 
navigate Africa.* 

The reality of the Periplus of Scylax has been much 
questioned, but scarcely it would seem upon sufficient grounds, 
since such a voyage was but limited compared with that of 
Ophir, and it was in all probability only following the course of 
the ordinary maritime trade between western India and the 
Persian Gulf This voyage was accomplished in the short space 
of thirty months ; and Darius immediately availed himself of the 
information acquired by it, to subjugate a portion of the Indian 
territory westward of the Indus :' this afterwards became the 
twentieth satrapy, and yielded a revenue of 360 talents of gold.® 
Darins invades Soou after the consolidation of the new territory, Darius 
^^ '^' commenced preparations with a view to the subjection of 
Scythia, by way of punishment, as he alleged, for the invasion 

' Tlie name of Phraortes is mentioned in the Tablet in connexion with 
this kingdom, 

* Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. X., pp. 197, 198. 

' Herod., lib. IV., cap. xliv. * Ibid., cap. xlii. 

[ Ibid., cap. xliv. • Ibid., lib. III., cap. xciv. 





of Assyria by the people of that country in the time of 
Cyaxares,' about 120 years before. 

The fleet which accompanied the troops consisted of 600 
vessels, chiefly manned by lonians and others from the coast of 
Asia Minor, ^Yhile the land army collected on this occasion, 
including the cavalry, amounted to 700,000 men,^ who were 
conducted by Darius himself to the shores of the Bosphorus, Passes the 
where they found a bridge already executed for their passage a bndgrof°° 
into Europe. The preparation of a bridge of boats was^*^^^' 
evidently a familiar operation at this time, both in Babylonia 
and Assyria. The one in question exceeded three-quarters of 
a mile in length, or according to Herodotus, seven stadia,^ and 
it was successfully completed by Mandrocles the Samian, not- 
withstanding the great difticulty caused by a very rapid 

During the passage of his troops, Darius proceeded as far as 
the Cyaneoe rocks, at the entrance of the Black Sea; from 
thence he despatched his fleet with directions to ascend the 
Ister a certain distance, and prepare another bridge. Having subdues 
reduced Thrace, Darius continued his march to the appointed 
passage ; and after a fruitless pursuit of the Scythians through 
deserts and uncultivated countries^ for three months, he re- 
turned after losing one-half of his numbers, but without aban- 
doning his purpose, for he left Megabyzus the Persian, one of 
his chief commanders, with 80,000 men, to finish the conquest. 
This general, having succeeded in bringing the Thracians and 
others under the Persian yoke, rejoined Darius at Sardis,® from Returns to 
which place he afterwards accompanied the monarch to Susa.'' susa. 

Soon after the Scythian expedition, a revolt, arising out of a 
contest between two small factions at Naxos, one of the 
Cyclades, led the way in a most unexpected manner to an 
important train of events. Aristagoras having failed in imme- Anstagoras 
diately putting down the revolt in that island,® and being ' 
unable to fulfil the engagement made with Artaphernes, his 

' Herod., lib. IV., cap. i. 

* Ibid., cap. Ixxxv. 

* Ibid., cap. cxxii., cxxiii. 
Ibid., lib. v., cap. x.xv. 

* Ibid., cap. Ixxxvii. 

* Ibid., cap. Ixxxvii. 

* Ibid., lib. v., cap. xxiii. 

* Ibid., cap. xxxiv. 





immediate chief, to meet the expenses, determined to take 
arms ^ against Darius. With the assistance of the lonians, and 
with twenty-five vessels which had been sent from Athens and 
Eretria,' Aristagoras and his allies boldly sailed to Ephesus ; 
from whence they marched to Sardis, which city being chiefly 
built of cane, was burnt either accidentally or otherwise. The 
approach of the Persians and Lydians soon afterwards caused 
the retreat of the invaders. They were, however, overtaken 
and defeated at Ephesus, from whence the discouraged Athe- 
nians retreated with their vessels and quitted the alliance.^ 

These circumstances determined Darius to make war upon 
Greece, which was carried on for a time with various degrees 
of success. Of its principal events, a brief notice will presently 
be given, on account of the consequences which resulted from 
them to the empire of Persia ; and because they were the first 
steps by which the military glory of the Grecian people, was 
raised to the high eminence which it subsequently attained. 

The lonians speedily revenged the defeat at Ephesus by a 
brilliant descent which they made on the continental territory 
of Darius. In this they not only occupied Byzantium, and 
different places near the Hellespont, but likewise many others 
in Caria; and in consequence of these successes they were 
joined by the people of Cyprus.* In order to punish this inva- 
sion, and at the same time take ample revenge for the burning 
of Sardis, Daurises and Dardanus were sent with ample forces 
first against Abydos, Lampsacus, &c., and thence into Caria. 
In this province they gained a victory after a bloody battle,^ the 
fruits of which, however, were lost by a successful ambuscade 
placed by Heraclides f who followed up his success by subduing 
the Eolians and the rest of the ancient Teucrians.'' Soon after 
these successes, mutual discord and Persian intrigues caused the 
Samians and Lesbians to abandon the lonians, and the fleet of 
Darius having captured Milo, the inhabitants were removed to 
Susa. In the following year Chios, Lesbos, and Tenedos, shared 

' Herod., lib. V., cap. xxxv. 

* Ibid., cap. cii., ciii. 

* Ibid., cap. cxvii.jcxx. 
^ Ibid. 

* Ibid., cap. xcviii., xcix. 
■* Ibid., cap. ciii., civ. 

* Ibid., cap. cxxi., cxxii. 


the same fate ;' whilst the shores of Thrace were subjected by 
the Phoenician fleets, iu alliance with Persia. 

It was during an inroad in the northern provinces of Persia Slaughter of 
by Argjasp, a Scythian prince, which took place in the thirty- the^SgL ^° 
fifth year of Darius, that the celebrated Archimagus (Zoroaster) 
and the priests of his religion, about eighty in number, were 
slaughtered in the principal fire temple at Balkh, during an 
assault made on that city. 

By some it is believed that the founder of the Magian order 
lived about 624 years before the first Egyptian dynasty, by 
others it is thought that he was cotemporary with Xinus -^ and 
Xanthus, the historian of Lydia, places him 600 years before 
the invasion of Greece by Xerxes.^ It appears, however, that 
there were several persons who bore the name of Zoroaster. Four prophets 
One of these was a Chaldean or an Assyrian ; another was an of ZoroLle™^ 
inhabitant, or according to some, a king of Bactria, who was 
also called Oxyartes ; a third was a Pamphylian, and there was 
a fourth, who, according to Pliny, lived a little before the time 
of Xerxes. 

The last appears to synchronize with Zerdusht or Zerd-husht, zerd-husht 
the celebrated religious reformer of Persia, whose ministry "vvas ^^^^^^^ ^^® 
brief, but very remarkable, in consequence of the successful ^^i'S'o°- 
efibrts which he made to restore the ancient religion. His 
tenets are contained in the celebrated Zend-avesta, and its com- 
pendium the Sad-der.'* 

The exalted moral precepts, and the great knowledge of the its precepts 
divine attributes therein inculcated by this sage, have by some dSiv'ed frSn ^ 
been supposed to have been derived from his intercourse with ^^^ Hebrews. 
the Hebrew people in the time of Daniel, or possibly from the 
prophet himself, with whom he was cotemporary in Susiana. 

The reformer is supposed to have been born at Urumiyah, 
and to have commenced his ministry at Shi'z ^ in that neigh- 

' Herod., lib. V., cap. xxxi. 

* Justinius, lib. I. 

* Mliller's Fragmenta Historicum GnECorum. p. 44. 
*■ Hyde's Hist. Relig. Vet. Persar, cap. xxv., xxvi. 

' Or Canzaca, the Atropatenian Ecbatana. — Royal Geographical Journal, 
vol. X., p. 68. 


bourhood : his work professes to be the result of his prayers and 

meditations in a cave near that place. 

His reforma- It should not, howevcr, be forgotten, that this Zoroaster did 

Magfan ^ not tcach anything new, but merely restored what had been 

religion. inculcatcd somc centuries before by an mdividual of the same 


Sabaism and other corruptions, such as sacrifices on the 
highest mountains to Jupiter, the sun, moon, earth, &c.- being 
prohibited, the doctrines of the reformed Magian religion 
became nearly those of the ancient Persians. The good and evil 
principles are considered as being permitted by the will of God ; 
The doctrines a general resurrection and day of retribution were likewise 
llm.^'^^^^'^ ^^ inculcated by Zoroaster, who added, that those who had done 
well, and lived in obedience to the law of God, were to pass into 
the realm of light, and those who had done evil, were to suffer 
everlasting punishment in a land of obscurity. " Endeavour, 
therefore, O man " (so runs the precept), " to do all the good 
thou canst, without fear or apprehension, for God is benign and 
merciful, and will reward even the smallest good thou dost."^ 
Account given A passage of Cclsus, preserved by Origen,* appears to throw 
y Ce sus, gome light on the account given by Herodotus of the Sabaism 
of the Persians. Celsus compares the path of the soul through 
the firmament and planets, to a ladder which leads through seven 
The seven gatcs to the suu. The first gate is said to be of lead, which, 
fphe^res! according to the Persians, expresses the slow revolution of 
Saturn ; the second is tin, which typifies the brightness of 
Venus ; the third gate being of brass, represents the supposed 
firmness of Jupiter ; the fourth is iron, and on account of the 
general usefulness of that metal, it is represented by Mercury ; 
the fifth, a mixed metal, is applied to Mars ; the sixth, quick- 
silver, is identified with the Moon ; the seventh gate is of gold, 
the emblem of the Sun, according to the Persians.^ 

Clitarchus, in his 12th book, mentions as a summary of the 

' See vol. I., p. 85. * Herod., lib. I., cap. cxxxi. 

* Sad-der, part V. ; Hyde's Hist. Relig. Vet. Persar, &c. 

* Orij^, Contra Cels., lib. IV., edit. Spencer. 

* See the French translation, vol. I., p. 426, and vol. II., pp. 889, 390, of 
the Zend-avesta, for a similar account. 


religion of the Magi, that they offer to the gods sacrifices, 
prayers, and vows. Nature and the origin of the gods are 
objects of their researches, believing that fire, air, M'ater, and 
earth, are divinities. They object to the worship of statues, and 
consider it most perverse to believe that the gods are male and 

The worship of Venus was condemned by the Magi, who The Magi 
remained firm to the great article of their faith, which they go±^ 
carefully transmitted to their posterity,^ that " there is one 
God :" the belief in magic was probably introduced a little 
anterior to the time of Zerd-husht or Zoroaster. 

The explanation of the sage himself regarding the use of fire,^ 
and the above-mentioned assertion in the firman of Cyrus,* 
serve to show that the sun and fire were considered but as 
symbols of the Deity,* and were venerated as such. In order The sun and 
to protect the latter, as an emblem of the Divine presence, fstvniTofs^of^ 
temples were built for worship instead of continuing the ancient <^^ Deity, 
custom of burning fires on the tops of the mountains.® A 
liturgy was composed by Zoroaster, and tithes were set apart 
for the maintenance of the priesthood ;' but fasting and celibacy 
were condemned, as tending to a neglect of the best gifts of 
God ; whilst diligence in cultivation was considered better than 
repeating ten thousand prayers.^ 

Here we are almost reminded of the thousands of rams, and The spiritual 
ten thousand rivers of oil of the prophet f and many passages in iLng preserved 
the Zend-avesta still more clearly recognize the Almighty 
government of the world, as well as that spiritual morality so 
conspicuous in the book of Job,^° and which bears at the same 
time such close affinity to the precepts of Noah. 

Other traces of a primaeval religion appear to have been in I'ran. 
long preserved in the territory of Iran, which by its geogra- 

* Apud Diog. Laert. * Hyde, Hist. Eelig. Vet. Persar., p. 90. 
' See above, p. 171. * See p. 170. 

* Ibid. • Herod., lib. I., cap. cxxxi. 
' Sad-der, art. viii. 

' Zend-avesta, tome I., p. 224, and Precis des Systemes de Zoroaster. 
^ Micah, chap. VI., v. 5, 8. 

'» Job, chap. XX., v. 4, 9, 11, and 27; chap. XXIII., v. 12, 14; chap. 
XXIV., V. 1 ; chap. XXIX., v. 11-17; chap. XXXI., v. 4, 5, 6, 26, 39. 





phical position connected the western countries with those of 

central and eastern Asia, and became at the same time the 

means of transmitting through the Magi, and their successors 

the Brahmins, a remnant, at least, of such a revelation of a 

fiiture state as had been imparted to mankind. 

Purity of The iuscriptious placed by Darius Hystaspes on the tablets 

SS m"^'°' ^^ Bisutiin, and those of his successor at Persepolis, clearly 

Persia show that religiou was intimately linked with the state, ^ and at 

the same time they confirm the statement made by Sir William 

Jones and others, that the ancient Persians worshipped with 

pious fear, love, and adoration, one all-wise, omnipotent, 

eternal, infinite, and omnipresent God." 

and in Meso- At the time of the exodus of the children of Israel, the same 

Jime™'f ^° ^^^ elevated morality appears to have existed among some of the 

people of Mesopotamia. Balaam, the Chaldean seer, tells the 

messengers from Moab^ that man should act justly, love mercy, 

and walk humbly with his God ;* adding, towards the close of 

his conference, that a star shall proceed from Jacob, and a 

sceptre from Israel.^ 

This remarkable prophecy was fulfilled about 1544 years 
later, when the Magi, the supposed posterity of the prophet 
himself, followed a star from the East, till it brought them to 
the manger of the Messiah in the city of David. 

The death of Zoroaster, and the evils inflicted on the country 
in consequence, were soon revenged by a force under the son of 
Darius, who drove the Scythians before him with great 
slaughter. And the principal fire temple being restored, Darius 
continued his support to the re-established religion by assuming 
the title of Archimagus in the room of Zoroaster. 

At this time, in consequence of the part taken by the 
Athenians in the rebellion of Aristagoras, a large fleet was 
despatched with a numerous army under the command of Mar- 

' Royal Asiatic Journal, vol. X., pp. 280, 286, 291, 310. 

* SirWm. Jones's Works, vol. I., p. 87, compared witli Hyde's Hist. Relig. 
Vet. Persar, cap. xxiii. and xxxiii. ; also Euseb., Pi-sep. Evangel., lib. I., 
cap. ult., p. 42. 

* The Elders of Moab carried the rewards of divination in their hand. 
Numb., chap. XXII., v. 7. 

* Micah, chap. VI., v. 8. * Numb., chap. XXIV., v. 17. 

assumes the 
title of 





donius, who received peremptory orders from Darius to subdue 
Eretria, Athens, and Macedonia.^ But the loss of 300 vessels 
and 20,000 men in doubling Cape Athos, together with an 
attack of the Bryges, compelled this commander to retreat into 
Asia, after fulfilling only one object, which was the reduction of 
the Macedonians.^ Far from being discouraged by this unfore- 
seen result, Darius renewed his preparations, and prepared 
vessels on a greater scale than those before sent : at the same Darius 
time he dispatched heralds to Greece to demand earth and and TvateiT'^ 
water. The people of Egina complied M'ith these demands, but 
war was the consequence of the refusal of the Athenians.' 

Darius seized this occasion to send Datis and Artaphernes 
into Cilicia, where they embarked 300,000 men in vessels; 
and having burned the capitals of Naxos and Eretria, they 
passed on to the coast of Attica, and occupied the plain of 
Marathon with a force which has been estimated at 100,000 
men.'* The Athenian army was advantageously posted on the Position of the 
hills overlooking this circumscribed space, but Miltiades, who forces, and 
had served under the Persians, and was well acquainted with 
the nature of their troops, as well as their tactics, determined to 
forego this advantage, in order to avoid the fierce, and almost 
irresistible shock of an Asiatic host, by suddenly becoming the 
assailant. Accordingly, with a front sufficiently extended to 
occupy the whole width, he rushed at full speed, with 10,000 
Athenian and 1,000 Plataean warriors to attack the enemy. 
The latter were most disadvantageously posted, being hampered 
by their circumscribed position between the sea, a marsh, and 
the hills in question, and exposed at the same time to the long 
spears of the Greeks. Success, therefore, favoured the assail- o*f^r defeat 
ants on both flanks, but in the centre they were broken by the Persians. 
Persians, who advanced for some distance through their dis- 
ordered ranks. Had Datis taken advantage of this circum- 
stance, the city of Athens would soon have been in his 
possession, but the Persians, being without orders, ceased to 
advance, and the Athenians, having routed both flanks, wheeled 

* Herod., lib. YI., cap. xliii. * Ibid., cap. xlv, 

* Ibid., cap. xcii. 

* By Cornelius Isepos. Herodotus does not mention the number. 


round, and, by attacking the rear of this mass, the battle was 
gained : the name of Miltiades was thus immortalized by a 
splendid and unexpected victory. 

The loss of the Athenians is stated to have been only 192 
men during this unprecedented engagement, which terminated 
by taking seven of the enemy's vessels, and driving the dis- 
comfited Persians into their ships, after losing 6,400 men.^ 

Datis returns Datis made a bold attempt to recover his lost ground by 
doubling Cape Sunium, hoping to reach the city of Athens, but 
being frustrated by the rapid return of the handful of brave men 
from Marathon, he sailed back to Asia' to make the result 

Fresh prepara- kuowu to his sovcrcigu. Darius feeling irritated, rather than 

by Darius, discouragcd by this fresh disaster, resolved to take the field in 
person : and, accordingly, he sent orders to the different 
satrapies of his empire to equip vessels, and to furnish troops 
and provisions on such a scale as would overwhelm his enemies 
in Greece.^ 

After three years had been spent in making preparations and 
in assembling his numerous legions, and when just about to 

A rebellion in march, Darius rcccivcd news of a rebellion in Egypt : this he 

Egypt. ' , . . . 

determined to suppress at the same time, by detaching a portion 

of his army in that direction, whilst he intended to proceed with 

the remainder to punish the Greeks. A lengthened contest 

amongst his three sons, to determine which should be named the 

successor to the throne, was scarcely decided in favour of 

Death and Xerxes, whcu a short illness carried off Darius in the thirty- 
character of ' . •' 
Darius. sixth year bf his reign. 

Although remarkable for that chivalrous generosity in par- 
doning offences, which so frequently forms part of the character 
• of an Asiatic prince, Darius stained the brighter portions of his 
life by occasional acts of useless cruelty, such as the wanton 
execution of the three sons of Oebazus,"* and that of his Egyptian 
lieutenant, Aryandes, for merely coining money in his name.* 
This monarch had the glory, not only of extending his empire, 
but also of consolidating many large and rich provinces ; as 

' Herod., lib. VI., cap. cxv., cxvii. * Ibid,, cap. cxvi. 

' Ibid., lib, VII., cap. i, * Ibid,, lib, IV,, cap, Ixxxiv. 

* Ibid., cap. clxvi. 


those of Thrace, Macedon, the Ionian Isles, and the wide- 
spreading territory bordering upon India. 

In addition to the detailed arrangements already mentioned Works 
for the management of the vast territory extending from the Darius. 
Indus to the Nile, the reign of Darius Hystaspes was very 
remarkable in other respects. He continued the canal intended 
by Nechus to open a communication from the Nile to the Red 
Sea,* and coined money of the purest metals, both gold and 
silver ; of the former was the well-known Daric, and of the 
latter the Aryandic of Egypt.^ But in thus providing for their 
ordinary wants, Darius did not fail to study the prosperity of 
his people, by the equity of his government^ on one hand, and 
the generosity of his rewards on the other ; and above all, by 
the moderation of his imposts. He was accustomed to refer His modera- 
the question of the amount of such taxes to the opinions of and' ^*^"'^' 
others,* taking care at the same time to fix the demands at a * 

lower rate than had been pronounced equitable by the wise men 
of the state ; who were, we are informed, consulted by him on 
all occasions of importance.^ 

The enlightened reign of this monarch, the second Ahasue- 
rus of Scripture, or rather the second who bore what appears to 
have been a title rather than a name, was likewise distinguished 
by other circumstances, which had an influential effect upon his 
dominions ; amongst these were the fostering care so success- encourage- 
fully given to astronomy through his bro.ther Jamasp^ (Gush- science. 
tasp), who was celebrated for his acquaintance with the fasci- 
nating science of astrology, and the change effected by the 
restoration of the Magian religion to its primitive purity. The 
latter object was brought about by Zoroaster, M'hose tenets 
speedily took a firm root in the empire,'' and spread to the 
borders of Bactria. 

Whilst this monarch and his immediate predecessors, Cyrus 
and Cambyses, were laying the foundation of the Persian mo- 

' Herod., lib, IV., cap. xxxix. * Ibid., cap. clxvi. 

' Ibid., lib. III., cap. Ixxxii., Ixxxiii., cxxxii., and cxl. 

* Plutarch, Apothegm., p. 172. * Esther, chap. I., v. 13-15. 

• Vol. I., p. 89. ' See above, vol. I., p. 85. 


Coiouies of narchy, the merchant princes of Africa were extending their 
Carthage. possessions, by means of conquest, in the Mediterranean, and 
by their enterprising fleets elsewhere. Mercenary warriors, 
furnished by the African and European colonies of Carthage, 
secured her dominion in Sicily, Sardinia, &c. ; while numerous 
and well-organized fleets were employed in establishing other 
agricultural and trading settlements. 

Keverting to the latter, for which Tyre and Carthage had 
been so remarkable, two maritime enterprises appear to have 
taken place about this period which are deserving of notice, 
both on account of their importance, and also as having been 
probably the last undertaken previous to the Punic wars. 
Voyage of According to a fragment preserved by Ruftis Festus Avienes, 

Bru/sh islands. Himilcon, a distinguished citizen of Carthage, conducted a 
fleet with settlers from that city, and having passed through the 
Pillars of Hercules to Gadira, he made his way from thence to 
the so-called Holy Island, which lies expanded on the sea, and 
is the dwelling of the Hibernian race : at hand, it is added, 
lies the Isle of Albion.' 
Hanno Of the Other undertaking, commanded by the celebrated 

^^esteiTcoatt Hauuo, a fuller account has been preserved by an inscription 
of Africa, and ^^j^j^.}^ }^g placed ou his rctum, in the Temple of Cronus, at 
Carthage. About 30,000 Libyo-Phoenician men, women, and 
children, were conveyed in sixty vessels, of fifty oars each, to 
settlements on the western shores of Africa ; these successively 
extended to the Island of Cerne, the situation of which is sup- 
posed to have been either near Mogador or Santa Cruz ; that is, 
between 30F to 31 F south latitude. The second part of the 
reaches the expedition appears to have been merely a voyage of discovery, 
Gambia rivers, which, froui a passagc in Hcrodotus, may be inferred to have 
reached the Gold Coast, at the mouths of the Senegal and 

The death of Darius Hystaspes had the efiect of showing 

' Heeren's Historical Researches, &c., Africa, Appendix, vol. I., p. 
502, 504. 

* Herod., lib. IV., cap. cxcvi., compared witli Heeren's Historical Ee- 
searches, Africa, vol. I., pp. 92, 175, and Appendix, 475, &c. 


that the recollection of upright conduct may survive the indi- 
vidual, particularlv when the interests of a nation are concerned *,^ 
for the memory of Cyrus being reverenced throughout Persia, 
the son of Darius, by the daughter of that monarch, was Accession of 
naturally preferred to his brothers, and Xerxes in consequence son^of Cyrus." 
obtained quiet possession of the empire about 486 B.C. 

This prince commenced a reign which, although comparatively 
short, was remarkable for great events ; and the first year was 
employed in perfecting the preparations for war, which were al- 
ready far advanced. In the course of the following year, Xerxes 
completed one of his father's objects, which was the recovery of 
Egypt ; and leaving his brother Achsemenes governor of that 
country,^ he returned to Susa. The same year was made still 
more remarkable by the birth, at Halicarnasfeus,^ of the cele- Herodotus 
brated historian who has recorded these events ; and from his earnassus.^ '' 
account of this reign, Xerxes appears to have been willing to 
forget the grievances of his father against Greece. The flames Xerxes con- 
of his ambition were however kindled by the interested advice prg^arltions 
of Mardonius,* which prevailed against the better judgment of ^f i^is father. 
Artabanes ; and those mighty preparations were commenced, 
which put in motion probably the greatest armament ever 
assembled in the world, on any occasion. Every nation from 
Bactria to Carthage' sent its quota of infantry and cavalry, 
furnished with flour and other provisions ; additional supplies 
being placed in suitable depots for the intended operations by 
vessels furnished by the maritime states of his dominions. To He places a 
facilitate the movements by land, a bridge was ordered to be HeuSpo^m, 
placed across the Hellespont, and to render those by water more 
secure than before, Xerxes employed the Persians, Bubares and 
Artaches, to cut a canal through Mount Athos, so that his and cuts a 
galleys might pass from the Gulf of Contessa (Strymonicus So^t aS. 
Sinus), to that of Monte Santo (Singiticus Sinus), without 
risking such a loss as was experienced by Mardonius in doubling 
the promontory. Doubts have long existed regarding this 
extensive work, which, however, is not only mentioned by 

' See Appendix (B.) to this volume. * Herod., lib. VII., cap. vii. 

' Aul. GelL, lib. XV., cap. xxiii. Herod., lib. VII., cap. v., vi. 

* Ibid., cap. Ixxi., Ixxxvi- 



Xerxes quits 
Susa, and; 

the liberality 
of Py theus. 

The bridge 
over the 
Hellespont is 
destroyed by 
a storm, and 

Account of this 

several authors/ but what appear to be its remains may still be 
traced in parts of the peninsula ; moreover, its object, and the 
manner of its construction, are so particularly detailed by 
Herodotus,^ that we can from thence scarcely doubt the fact. 

These and other preparations being completed, Xerxes put 
his army in motion towards the spring of the year 481 B.C., by 
marching from Susa to Critales in Cappadocia,^ where all the 
levies from the regions lying to the eastward were assembled : 
he proceeded from thence to Lydia, where he was joined by the 
levies from Arabia and the rest of the territory lying to the 
westward : here the boundless wealth and liberality of Pytheus 
were exercised in maintaining, for a time, the whole of the army.* 

This vast concentration appears to have been conducted with 
the utmost regularity, owing to the accuracy of the combi- 
nations, and the care taken in providing supplies throughout 
the extensive line between the capital of Persia and that of 
Lesser Asia. During the winter's halt at Sardis, heralds were 
despatched to make the usual demands of earth and water from 
the Grecian states,^ whilst workmen were employed in replacing 
the floating-bridge across the Hellespont, which had been 
destroyed by a storm at the moment when it was almost com- 
pleted.* Early in the spring, Xerxes continued his march 
towards Abydos, where he found not only a prodigious fleet 
assembled,^ according to his orders, to facilitate the contemplated 
invasion of Europe, but the means were likewise prepared for 
passing thither without embarking his legions. This surprising 
bridge, connecting Asia with Europe, is described as being double; 
one portion was formed by means of 360 fifty-oared boats, and 
the other of 314 triremes, in a line parallel to the former: 
each vessel was firmly anchored in a slanting direction, so as 
best to resist the effects of the current on one side, as well as 
the strong winds to which it was exposed on the other.^ Two 

* Thucydides, lib. IV., cap. cix. ; Plato, De Leg., lib. III. 
lib. II., cap. ii. 

* Lib. VII., cap. xxi., xxii., xxiii. 

' Herod., lib. VII., cap. xxvi. * Ibid., cap. xxvii. 

* Ibid., cap. xxxii. " Ibid., cap. xxxiv. 
' Ibid., cap. xlv. • Ibid., cap. xxxv. 

Diod. Sic, 


enormous reed cables, and two others of hemp, well secured at and method of 
the extremities, were passed over each line of boats from side tiou. 
to side of the Hellespont. Across these cables, trunks of trees 
were laid to support a platform, on which a deep covering of 
earth was placed ; while barriers at the sides, to protect the 
horses and other animals,^ completed this gigantic undertaking. 
Although one part of the bridge afforded a passage for the 
troops, whilst the baggage and the numerous camp followers, 
which always accompany an Asiatic army, had the use of the 
other, seven days and nights were consumed in passing into 
Thrace. The fleet then proceeded westward through the The army 
Dardanelles in order to rendezvous at the Sarpedian promon- D^rdanefies. 
tory, whilst the army proceeded north-eastward by the Cherso- 
nesus, and along the Gulf of Melas to the plain of Doriscus. 
Here Xerxes halted, and the fleet, consisting of nearly 3000 Xerxes nam- 
vessels, being drawn up on the beach," the number of his on the plain of 
followers was ascertained by the novel proceeding of causing *^"^'^^* 
the whole multitude to pass in succession through a walled 
enclosure, which was of the necessary size to contain exactly 
10,000 men.' 

The graphic details given by Herodotus are admirably adapted 
to place before the imagination the grandeur of the spectacle 
exhibited on the plain of Doriscus : when, mounted on a 
splendid car, the monarch visited in turn the contingents fur- 
nished by the several nations within his dominions;* and subse- 
quently, from a throne raised on a Sidonial vessel, reviewed his 
fleet,^ which for this purpose was ranged in order of battle. 
On land, the Persian troops, wearing close-grained felt caps. Armament 
wide trousers, many-coloured tunics with sleeves, steel cuirasses, m"ent^of't^e 
bucklers, bows, quivers, and poniards in the girdle, some of ^^^J'^j^'j"^' 
them also displaying gold, others silver pomegranates,* led the Assyrians, 
M^ay.'^ The Medes followed, similarly equipped ; then the 
Assyrians, and next the Chaldeans, both wearing linen cuirasses 
and brass helmets of an extraordinary form ; these were armed 

' Herod., lib. VII., cap. xxxvi, - Ibid., cap. lix. 

' Ibid., cap. Ix. ■* Ibid., cap. c. 

* Ibid. "^ Ibid , cap. xli. 
'' Ibid., cap. Ixi. 


Arabs, &c. 

Numbers of 
the assembled 

advances to 

the pass of 

with javelins, poniards, and wooden clubs bristling with iron 
spikes.^ After them came the Bactrians, the Indians, the 
Parthians, the Ethiopians, the Armenians, the Lydians, and 
others ; the Arabs, wearing girdles and ample dresses,^ being 
last, that their camels might not frighten the horses.^ 

The numbers were found to be 1,700,000 infantry,* and with 
the addition of cavalry, marines, &c., there probably was an 
aggregate of upwards of two millions and a half of fighting men ; 
the women, eunuchs, and camp followers, being estimated at an 
equal number •,^ but, as the result proved, Xerxes had very few 
soldiers,^ for although there was a regular gradation of command 
from the chief of 10 up to the commander of 10,000,^ the 
invaders of Greece can only be regarded as a tumultuous assem- 
blage, which, like a cloud of locusts, covered and devastated the 
country as they advanced ; and the forced labour of the inha- 
bitants for several months scarcely sufficed to grind the vast 
quantities of corn which had been collected at the different 

From the plains of Doriscus this multitude advanced towards 
the river Strymon in three bodies ; one of these kept towards 
the interior; the centre was led by Xerxes himself, who 
forced the people to accompany him onward ; whilst the third, 
under Mardonius, followed the coast line, keeping near the 

The land forces reached the entrance of the celebrated pass 
of Thermopylae without meeting any interruption ; but the fleet 
was less fortunate in the voyage thither, for it encountered a 
storm by which 400 vessels were lost on the coast of Magnesia.*" 

The invading army found 4,000 Greeks, including 300 
Spartans, under Leonidas, occupying that strong pass ; the fleet, 
in which consisted the principal strength of the defenders, being 
stationed on the neighbouring coast of Eubcea. Xerxes made 
several attempts to force the pass, which were successively 
defeated, and he found his whole host totally inadequate to 

' Herod., lib. VIL, cap. Ixiii. 

" Ibid., cap. Ixxxvii. 

* Ibid., cap. clxxxv., clxxxvi. 

' Ibid., cap. Ixxxi. 

' Ibid., cap. exxi. 

* Ibid., cap. Ixix. 

* Ibid., cap. Ix. 

* Ibid., cap. ccx. 
® Ibid., cap. cxix. 
'" Ibid., cap. cxc. 


that object, till Epialtes showed a path by which the hill might 
be gained, and the pass turned : this object was at length 
effected by Xerxes, after having suffered the loss of 20,000 

At the moment when Leonidas and his gallant band perished 
so gloriously, a well-contested action was fought between the 
two fleets near Artemisium." This proved to be a drawn battle ; Battle of 
but the Persian flotilla was destined once more to suffer from ■^5*^™^^"°*- 
the effects of a violent tempest, which immediately succeeded 
the fight,^ and greatly lessened the superiority of the Persians 
over the Greeks in the more important contest then at hand.* 
Xerxes being at this juncture in possession of Thermopylae, 
sent one portion of his troops to pillage the temple of Delphos,^ Xerxes 
whilst he proceeded at the head of the remainder to besiege the citadel of 
citadel of Athens, which he captured and burnt.'' The city ^ ^^^* 
itself had been almost entirely abandoned on the approach of 
Xerxes, it being resolved to make the principal stand on board 
the fleet' All possible care and attention had been bestowed 
on the latter by Themistocles and Aristides ; who had advan- 
tageously placed 380 well-manned vessels* in the straits of 
Salamis. Here the shock took place, and a glorious victory Naval victory 
was gained over the remainder of the Persian fleet, notwith- 
standing the encouragement given by the presence of the 
sovereign, who witnessed the bravery and self-devotion of the 
queen of Halicarnassus (Artemisa) and the other combatants, 
from a commanding spot near the foot of Mount ^galeos.^ 

The loss of this battle immediately caused that sort of de- 
spondency which is common with Asiatic princes when a reverse 
is experienced ; and forgetting that he was still at the head of 
his victorious legions, Xerxes determined to make a retrograde Result of the 
march forthwith to the Hellespont ; whither he despatched the ^^"^^' 
remainder of his shattered fleet in order to secure and protect 

' Herod., lib. VIII., cap. xxiv. ^ Ibid., cap. xi. 

* Ibid., cap. xii. * Ibid., cap. xiii. 

* Ibid., cap. XXXV. ^ Ibid., cap. lii. and liii. 
^ Ibid., cap. xli. 

® Ctesias says there were 700 opposed to upwards of 1,000. — See Photius, 
History of Persia, cap. 26. 

* Herod., lib. VIII., cap. Ixxxix, xc. 

o 2 



Retreat of 
Xerxes, and 

sufferings of 
his army. 

killt^d at the 
battle of 

the bridge.' These arrangements having been made, Xerxes 
retraced his steps by the same route along which he had ad- 
vanced from Thessaly, M'here, agreeably to his previous plans, 
the self-confident Mardonius was left with the immortals, the 
cuirassiers, and other chosen troops, to the number of 300,000 ; 
this chief having undertaken to finish the war satisfactorily.^ 
Xerxes now made forced marches with the remainder of his 
troops, and reached the Hellespont in forty-five days, after 
having suffered a severe loss from plague, dysentery,^ and 
scarcity of provisions ; which, owing to his unexpected march, 
could not be provided at the different stations, as had been the 
case when advancing. The bridge having been again carried 
away by a tempest, the remnant of the army crossed the 
Hellespont in the fleet, and accompanied Xerxes to Sardis.'* 
During the terror-stricken haste of the king, the Athenians 
having refused to submit, the operations of his general com- 
menced in his rear. Mardonius marched through Boeotia into 
Attica with his whole army, and burnt everything, sacred as 
well as profane, that had escaped the fury of his master in the 
preceding year ;^ particularly at Athens and its vicinity. He 
then returned into Bosotia, and encamped on the river Asopus, 
whither he was followed by Pausanius and Aristides, \vith all 
the forces they could muster. 

After continued manoeuvres for ten days, a feigned retreat of 
the Greeks brought about a glorious battle near the temple of 
Ceres at Plataea, in which, after a protracted and bloody 
contest, Mardonius was killed ; and the greater part of his army, 
which, including the auxiliaries, amounted to about 350,000 
men," was destroyed by the Grecian forces, scarcely mustering 

The same day on which the troops of Xerxes were destroyed 
in Europe, the remainder of his expeditionary fleet and army 
experienced a similar fate in Asia. Leotychides, who was 
invited by the lonians, left Sparta with a fleet for the purpose 

' Herod., lib. VIII., cap. cvii. 
^ Ibid., cap. cxv. 
* Ibid., lib. IX., cap. xiii. 
'' Ibid., cap, xxix. 

Ibid., cap. c. 
Ibid., cap. cxvii. 
Ibid., cap. xxxi. 


of liberating the Grecian cities in Asia. Being unable to meet The Persian 

^ T-» • 1 -1 ^^'-'^ ^^^ army 

and cope with him at sea, the Persians sought protection by 
beaching and entrenching their ships near the promontory of 
Mycale, where they had the support of about 60,000 men, who 
had been left by Xerxes, under the command of Tigranes, to 
defend Ionia.* Just at the moment when the Athenians and 
Lacedcemonians were preparing to make a double attack, Leoty- 
chides resorted to the stratagem of causing a courier to spread 
amongst the Greeks, a report of the destruction of the Persians destroyed 
by their countrymen in Boeotia. Being thus encouraged, and ^^^^ Mycale. 
their ordinary rivalry increased to the utmost, they advanced 
to the attack, and at length carried the position which, after the 
lonians took flight, was nobly defended by the Persians till 
they were all killed, fighting hand to hand behind the entrench- 

The immediate result of this victory was the deliverance of Xerxes retires 

to SllSSL 

the Ionian cities from the Persian yoke ; for, instead of endea- 
vouring to regain his lost ground, Xerxes, on learning the fate 
of his forces in Europe, after giving orders for the destruction 
of the Greek temples in Asia, with the intention of substituting 
those of Persia, sought his safety by proceeding with haste from 
Sardis to Susa; leaving Phoenicia and the other maritime 
provinces to defend themselves. The remnant of his prodigious 
forces either remained in the European provinces of the empire, 
or returned as scattered fugitives to different parts of Asia. In 
the mean time, pursuing their successes, the Greeks under 
Aristides and Cimon, drove the Persians from Cyprus as well 
as from the Hellespont and Propontis : Byzantium itself was 
mastered by Pausanius after a short siege. 

On reaching his capital, Xerxes abandoned himself to a life 
of pleasure, which continued till he was murdered at the insti- His murder, 
gation of Artabanes one of his officers. 

Thus ingloriously terminated, about 470 b.c, a reign of 
nearly twenty-one years, which in the commencement was 
remarkable for excessive vanity and ambition, mixed with 
cruelty and thoughtless profusion ,• and towards its close, for 
degradation and despondency. The character and the life of 
Xerxes present the most opposite extremes. The concentration 

' Herod., lib. IX., cap. xcv. ' Ibid., cap. ci., cii. 



[chap. VII. 

Character of froiii the remotest parts of his dominions of a large fleet, and a 
vast army, with the abundant supplies provided for the voyage 
of the one and the marches of the other ; the formation of bridges 
and the excavation of a canal for the passage of the fleet through 
Mount Athos, all undoubtedly indicate an enlarged mind ; 
while his Egyptian campaign, and even the first part of the 
expedition to Greece, claim for him the title of warrior, which 
his name was intended to signify. Besides these circumstances, 
the conduct of this prince, in bestowing upon Pytheus heaps of 
gold in return for his splendid hospitality and his presents to his 
father Darius,^ bespeaks generosity. But, on the other hand, he 
was guilty of the utmost barbarity in putting to death the son of 
that citizen ;" he disgraced himself by his treatment of the remains 
of Leonidas ; and he showed his despondency and cowardice in 
quitting the army, and abandoning his projects against Greece, 
while the almost unbounded resources of the empire were still 
at his command. The principal events of this monarch's reign 
are recorded on the monuments of Persepolis.^ 

As the Medo-Persian custom of naming a successor had not 
been followed, Artaxerxes, third son of Xerxes, after murdering 
Darius his eldest brother, usurped the throne ; Hystaspes the 
second son being then in charge of the distant satrapy of Bactriana. 
Artaxerxes, or Ahasuerus, who is also called JMacrochir or 
Longimanus, soon put an end to the civil war which had been 
fomented at home by Artabanes, and this chief was put to 
death (b.c. 470). The prince was equally successful afterwards 
against his brother in Bactriana, whom he defeated, and whose 
party he entirely ruined. Having thus secured quiet possession 
of the empire, Longimanus applied himself to its consolidation 
by the reformation of abuses on the one hand, and on the other, 
the removal of such functionaries as were likely to be favourable 
to the two factions which he had overcome. He commemorated 
the establishnient of his power by feastings and rejoicings, which 
continued at Susa for 180 days,* and concluded by a great 
fofist of seven days, for all the people that were present in 
Shushan : in the same way Vashti the queen entertained the 
women in the harem. 

' Herod., lib. VII., cap. xxvii., and vol. I., p. 277. * Ibid. cap. xxxix. 
* See Appendix (C.) to this volume. * Esther, chap. I., v. 4. 

usurps the 

Banquet at 


The grand banquet took place in the garden of the king's 
palace ; the court opening into it being adorned with white, 
green, and blue hangings, fastened with cords of fine linen and 
purple, to silver rings and pillars of marble.^ On the last day 
of the entertainment, while under the influence of wine, the 
king, wishing to display the attractions of his royal partner 
before the assembled guests, commanded the presence of the 
beautiful Vashti : but as this would have been a violation of The queen 

. Vashti 

eastern customs, as well as an outrage on her delicacy, the queen divorced, 
refused to appear,^ and a divorce was the consequence of the 
wounded dignity of the monarch. 

The attractions of Esther caused her to be chosen to succeed Esther 
Vashti, and it is more than probable that her influence over throne. 
Ahasuerus produced for her countrymen a favourable change 
in the sentiments of the prince, who liberally supported Esdras 
and Nehemiah ; not only in the commencement of their labours, 
but likewise at a later period, when the decree was issued for 
rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem.^ The former received from 
Ahasuerus, in the seventh year of his reign, a very ample com- Ahasuerus 

1 • *, , , T 1 "J permits Esdra8 

mission, empowering nim to return to J erusalem accompanied fo return to 

by all the people of his nation who were so disposed, with Jerusalem. 

liberty to restore the temple of the Jews. At the same time, 

it must be observed, the attention of the king was directed at 

home to the maintenance of the religion of Zoroaster. The 

early part of his reign was distinguished by the hospitable 

reception and generous friendship bestowed by Artaxerxes on 

his enemy Themistocles ; whose banishment was not, however. Friendly 

unconnected with events which soon embroiled Persia, once TheEtodes. 

more, in a war with Greece. 

The government of Artaxerxes had been gradually acquiring 
strength since his accession ; and hoping to recover some of the 
authority of his predecessors over the maritime provinces, the 
king assembled, on the coast of Pamphylia, a fleet and an army, 
which were to be reinforced by eighty triremes from Phoenicia. 

' The courts of the Persian palaces usually open into a spacious garden, 
•which would only require a splendid tent equipage, such as that of the late 
monarch, with its extensive enclosures of various-coloured canvas, to complete 
the preparations for the guests. 

^ Esther, chap. I., v. 12. 

* Esdras, chap. VIII., v. 21 ; Neh., chap. I., v. 2. 





Forces of 
defeated by 

The Greeks 
assist the 

B. C. 463. 

makes peace. 

Death of 

Darius Nothus 

Intelligence of these preparations determined Cimon, the 
distinguished rival of Themistocles, to attack the Persians before 
thev could be joined by the expected squadron, and he accord- 
ingly proceeded with a fleet and a body of land forces to the 
river Eurymedon on the coast of Pamphylia, where he gained 
a brilliant double victory over the Persian fleet and army on 
the same day, in the year 4/0 B.C. 

This success induced the Athenians to send Charetimis with 
their victorious forces to assist the revolt of the Egyptians 
under Inarus. In consequence of this support, that prince 
maintained his ground till a second and more powerful army 
was sent thither by Artaxerxes, under the command of Mega- 
byzus, who succeeded in reducing the country to subjection after 
a protracted war of six years ; during which the Athenians lost 
two fleets. But these losses were amply repaid by the successful 
wars carried on both by sea and land by the illustrious Cimon ; 
who at length reduced Artaxerxes to the necessity of making 
peace on the most disadvantageous terms. The Athenians not 
only secured the freedom of the Grecian cities in Asia, but 
likewise obtained other conditions of importance, which were 
peaceably preserved during the life of Artaxerxes. This prince 
died suddenly, at a time when he was about to arbitrate between 
two of the civil powers in Greece, on the subject of the Pelopo- 
nesian war. Xerxes, his only son by Esther the queen, suc- 
ceeded him ; but he was almost immediately afterwards murdered 
at the instigation of his illegitimate brother, Sogdianus, who in 
consequence gained the throne about the year 425 B.C., from 
which, however, he was deposed two years later by Ochus. 

This prince, called by historians Darius Nothus or the 
Bastard, being the illegitimate son of Artaxerxes, reigned from 
423 to 404 B.C., without any other remarkable events than the 
successive revolts of the Egyptians, Medes, and Lydians, which 
were soon suppressed. 

A short time before his death, Darius confided to his younger 
son Cyrus the government of the western part of Lesser Asia ; 
and this circumstance led to an important chain of events which 
endangered the safety of the empire.^ 

' See Appendix (D.) to this volume. 

( 201 ) 



Nature of Eastern Governments. — Cyrus appointed Satrap of Lesser Asia. — 
Origin of his Kebellion. — His Government and Armaments. — Cyrus 
advances tiirough Asia Minor. — His Marcli from Myriandrus to the 
Rivers Chains, tlie Daradax, and Euphrates. — Advance from Thapsacus 
to the River Araxes and Towns of Corsote and Carmandse. — March from 
the Pilae towards Babylon. — Battle of Cunaxa, and Death of Cyrus. — 
Commencement of the Retreat. — The Greeks reach the Median AVall, 
and cross the River Tigris. — March to Opi.-', Larissa, Mespila, and .Jebel 
Judi. — Advance through Kurdistan to the Rivers Centrites and Teleboas. 
— Passage of the Rivers Euphrates, Phasis, and Harpasus. — Advance to 
Gymnias and Mount Theches. — March to Trebizonde and Cerasunt. — ■ 
The Mossynojci, Chalybes, and Tibarenians. — City of Cotyora. — Voyage 
to Harmene, and thence along the Coast of Paphlagonia to Heraclea. — 
Separation and Defeat of the Greeks. — The Greeks re-unite and Defeat 
the Troops of Pharnabazus, — The Greeks join Seuthes, and take service 
under the Lacedaemonians. — Xenophon resigns the Command. — State of 
Greece and Asia at the close of the King's Reign.— Character and Death 
of Artaxerxes. 

The events connected with the close of the reign of Darius 
Nothus, and the commencement of that of his successor, are of 
the greatest interest to the inquiring mind, on account of the 
graphic illustrations which they furnish of the principles as 
well as of the practical workings of eastern monarchies. These Regenerative 
possess, on the one hand, the power which in the abstract eastern 
belongs to despotism, and, on the other, the mild and rege- ^**^^'^"™^°*^' 
nerative principles, inseparable from the patriarchal system on 
which they are based. It is true, that an eastern sovereign is 
absolute, and frequently tyrannical ; but whilst the fascinations 
of unlimited power must tend to foster this feeling, he cannot 
altogether forget that he should be the father of his people ; 


B. C. 408. and this, as a redeeming point, appears to be the chief cause 
that those monarchies are upheld, and even restored, under 
very adverse circumstances. 

Darius Nothus Darius Nothus, partly to lessen his cares by the subdivision 

empire, * of his gigantic empire, but chiefly to gratify his queen, confided 
the satrapy of Lesser Asia to her favourite son Cyrus. This 
arrangement, if permanent, would still have left, on the decease 
of Darius, the extensive empire of Eastern Asia, as the share 
of the elder son. Such appears to have been the intention of 
the monarch, whilst the object of Parysatis was to enable her 
younger son to obtain the empire of Cyrus the Great; to 
which, by the laws of Persia, he was entitled, in consequence 
of having been born after his father's accession to the throne. 
His brother came into the world previously to that event. 

Cyrus extends The territory westward of the river Halys comprised 

in AsiaViuor. Phoenicia, Cilicia, Caria, and other maritime dependencies, 
and its ruler was enabled to exercise a powerful control over 
the Athenian, the Lacedaemonian, and other Greek States, 
which had then recently acquired political importance ; and 
great as was the power thus obtained by the youthful Cyrus, it 
was much increased by his generous disposition, and the ample 
funds at his disposal. He strengthened himself by his alliances 
with the Greek governors in Asia Minor ; and by subsidizing 
Lysander, he enabled the Lacedaemonians to overcome the 
Athenians, and terminate a war of twenty-seven years duration. 

He is recalled He had not, howcvcr, been long in Lesser Asia, when he 
^ ^ ° ' >yvas summoned to his father's court, nominally on account of 
the king's illness, but in reality, either because he had put to 
death two noble Persians, relatives of Darius, for some want of 
respect shown to him as viceroy, or because some intimation 
had transpired of those designs, which he afterwards carried out. 
The prince obeyed the summons with much reluctance ; and 
either from misgivings concerning the reception he might 
experience, or merely to swell the pomp of his journey, he 
took with him Tissaphernes, and 300 heavy-armed Greeks,^ 
with other portions of the forces he was levying, and pro- 

B. c. 404r ceeded slowly towards Susa. 

' Xenoph., Anabasis, lib. I., cap. i. 


Parysatis succeeded in reconciling the dying monarch to her 
favourite son, but her entreaties failed to accomplish the greater 
object for which she interceded, and instead of declaring Cyrus 
his successor, Darius merely bequeathed to him the continua- 
tion of his present satrapy, under his elder brother Arsaces. 

On ascending the throne, this prince took the name of Artaxerxes 
Artaxerxes, and by his extraordinary memory, obtained from Darius.^ 
the Greeks that of Mnemon.^ AVhilst being inaugurated at 
Pasargada, he was informed by one of the priests of Bellona, 
that Cyrus intended to murder him in the temple." The latter cyrus resumes 
was in consequence seized, and sentenced to death, but the ^e^t?^*^'^'^' 
entreaty of Parysatis saved his life, and preserved his govern- 
ment, to which he was permitted to return. 

The desire of revenge being now added to ambition, the 
young prince lost no time in making extensive preparations for 
war ; his design appeared to be favoured at this moment by a B.C. 4oa. 
fresh rebellion in Egypt, and by the disaffected state of the 
greater part of Lesser Asia, more particularly of the Grecian 
colonies, over which Cyrus had great influence. Even at Susa 
itself he had a strong party, for his emissaries did not fail to His liberal 
prepare the people for the intended change, by telling them measures ?o 
that the empire required a liberal-minded sovereign such as ^w™"^ ^^ 
Cyrus, who loved w?.r, and would not only shower his favours 
upon those who served him, but support and augment the glory 
of the throne. 

Such were the circumstances under which the armaments of 
the prince were commenced, avowedly against Tissaphernes, 
and the revolted cities in Caria, Lydia, Ionia, &c., but in 
reality for the purpose of dethroning his brother. The du- Projects to 
plicity of Cyrus appears to have been successful, for the king ting/^ ^^® 
sanctioned his request to be allowed to add Ionia to his 
government : instead, however, of adopting decided measures 
to crush the rebellion, Cyrus encouraged the existing dis- 
content, and fomented a mutual opposition amongst the western 
provinces ; especially those which were either nominally or 
really subject to Tissaphernes. 

' Xenoph., Helleii., lib. I. 

^ Plutarch, in Artaxerxes, vol. VI., p. 251, ed. Langhorne. 


^yrus ingra- This satrap being unpopular, the lofty character and profuse 
purthe™''^ generosity of Cyrus carried the day, and nearly the whole of 
SSlphemes. ^^^6 citics ccascd to acknowledge the orders of Tissaphernes, 
giving homage and tribute willingly to the prince ; who had, 
in consequence, almost the whole territory of Ionia at his 
le makes Cyrus is Said to have told the people of Persia, that he was 

o'thepSrs! better versed in philosophy, as well as in the tenets of the 
Magi, than his brother ; that he could drink more wine; and 
that he possessed a greater and more royal heart than the 
king : in the figurative language of his countrymen, he added, 
that he would give horses to the foot soldiers, and chariots to 
the horsemen •, also, that he would bestow villages instead of 
farms, and cities instead of villages ; and that he would pay 
by measure, instead of counting out the money.' 
Revolts, Revolts similar to that of Cyrus still occasionally take place 

)f™Cyrus, in the East, where the satraps or pashas, except in respect of 
the annual tribute which they pay, may be considered inde- 
pendent of the sovereign at Constantinople. In 1831, the 
pashas of Albania, Baghdad, and Egypt, from some dissatis- 
faction, took arms against the sultan. The two first, though 
very powerful, failed; but the last, proceeding with more 
caution, entered Syria, under the pretence of punishing the 
pasha of Acre. The sultan, however, hoping the latter would 
successfully resist, lost the opportunity of giving timely assist- 
still take place ance *, and the fall of that fortress led to the temporary loss of 

Syria and a part of Asia Minor. 

The Ephori In retum for the assistance formerly given to them by Cyrus 

sendThdr'"''" against the Athenians, the Ephori of Lacedsemon sent their 

**-'^*' fleet under Samius to join that of the prince,^ whose army 

consisted of 70,000 Asiatics chiefly from Persia, and about 

13,000 Greeks under Clearchus, and other influential chiefs ; 

amongst these was Proxenus, a distinguished Theban, who 

was accompanied by Xenophon,^ the celebrated historian, of 

the campaign. 

' Plutarch, in Artaxerxes, vol. VI., p. 254, ed. Langliorne. 
* Xenopli., Hellen., lib. III., cap. i. s. 1. 
^ Anab , lib. III., cap. 1., s. 4, 7. 


Leaving his relatives and friends in charge of the govern- and Cyrus 

/• T T -r»i • T • o r^ J i.1 commences his 

ments ot Lydia, 1 hrygia, lonia, &c., Cyrus commenced the march from 
inarch from Sardis in April, and displayed admirable judgment 
in taking the more circuitous route along the great plains, and 
through the principal cities of Asia Minor, in preference to 
that by Avhich Xerxes advanced through Cappadocia ; since it 
gave him the support of his fleet, by which he could receive 
supplies and reinforcements from time to time, besides having 
a fair chance of concealing for a longer period his bold design. 

Hoping to deceive his brother, Cyrus gave out that he was Ostensibly 
going to punish the Pisidians, but his real object being no Pisidiaus.'^ 
longer doubtful, Tissaphernes, with an escort of 500 horsemen, 
proceeded to Susa ; and on communicating the intelligence in 
person, the king commenced his defensive preparations.^ 

The direction of Cyrus' march appears to have been parallel Cyrus' march 

11- 1 1 T^T 1-1 to Chouos. 

to the Cogamus,^ and having passed the Maeander on a bridge 
of seven boats, probably above the junction of the Lycus, he 
advanced to the well-peopled town of Colossse, the site of 
which, near Chonos,^ is about seventy-seven geographical miles 
from Sardis : and the thirty parasangs of Xenophon (taken at 
2 • 6 miles each) give seventy-eight geographical miles. 

After a halt of seven days, during- which the army was Being rein- 
joined by 1,500 heavy-armed veterans and targeteers, under advances to 
Menon of Thessaly, Cyrus advanced twenty parasangs to Ceisenae. 
CelaenjE, whose site, as well as that of the later city of 
Apamea Cibotis, appears to have been near the present town of 
Dinei'r,'* and about forty-eight geographical miles from Chonos, 
or fifty-two geographical miles, if estimated at 2*6 miles the 
parasang. At this city, which was no less magnificent than the 
former, there was a palace of the king, and one of the prince, 
both situated on the Mseander, with the much-prized Persian 
luxury of an extensive park full of wild beasts:^ here, Cyrus 

' Anabasis, lib. I., cap. ii. * See route on Index Map. 

' Afterwards Chronas, on the Lvcus. — W. J. Hamilton's Researches, &c., 
vol. I., pp. 501-510; Rennell's Illustrations of the March of the Ten 
Thousand Greeks, p. 23, London, 1826. 

* Rennell, pp. 22 and 24, and W. J. Hamilton, vol. I., pp. 497, 499, 505, 
and vol. II., p. 366. 

* Anabasis, lib. I., cap. ii. 


Halt of thirty 
days, and 

its seei'et 

Advance to 
Peitae, and 

;hence to 



Cyrus rounds 
I portion of 
.ha Taurus, 

and gains the 
plain of 

spent thirty days by a halt, which is the more unaccountable, 
as the army had remained a week at the previous station. The 
energetic character of the prince forbids the belief, that the 
temptations of the chase could have been allowed to interfere 
with his ambitious project; and as the reinforcements from 
Greece could have joined more easily at either of the two 
halting-places to which he proceeded, delay on this account vras 
unnecessary. Reasons, however, may be found in the deceptive 
policy of Cyrus towards his brother, and in his desire to keep 
his troops in ignorance of his designs. The concentration of 
his army and the halt itself, being for the time in accordance 
with the supposed purpose of extirpating the Pisidians. 

An additional force of Asiatics, with the levies brought from 
Thrace and the rest of Greece, under Clearchus, having been 
reviewed in the park, and a census taken, the troops in two 
days performed a march of ten parasangs to Peltse, a well- 
inhabited city ; which, being the last on the road to Mysia, 
probably was a little way westward of Ishekli, or Eumenia,^ 
and about twenty-five geographical miles from Dineir, the 
distance according to the parasangs, at 2 * 6 miles, being only 
twenty-six geographical miles. After halting three days to 
celebrate the Lupercalian sacrifice, Cyrus advanced twelve 
parasangs to Ceramorum Agora (the market of the Cramians), 
whose site, according to the back distances from Koniyeh, would 
be a little east of 'Ushak, and about thirty-one geographical 
miles from Ishekli, the parasangs giving but 3 1 ' 2 geographical 
miles. Having by these two almost retrograde marches^ ad- 
vanced sufficiently far to the N.N.W. to round a diflficult 
portion of the Taurus, he resumed the easterly direction, and in 
three marches or thirty parasangs,^ having passed through the 
great mountain barrier, probably near the present town of 
Afiyiim Kara-hisar, he reached the city called the plain of 
Caystrus ;'' the position of which may have been about Chai* 
Keui, near Eber Gol, and seventy-four geographical miles from 
'Ushak, the parasangs giving seventy-eight geographical miles. 

' AV. J. Hamilton's Researches in Asia Minor, &c., vol. II., p. 203. 

* See Index Map, ^ Anabasis, lib. I., cap. ii. 

* Or a city on the Plain of Caj-strus. Anabasis, lib. I., cap. ii. 


The difficulties regarding the positions of this and the two The ancient 
preceding sites have been removed by researches recently made pared">uth"^" 
in the country by Mr. W. J. Hamilton, and also Mr. AV^illiam 
Ainsworth, during the Euphrates Expedition/and in his Travels 
in the Track of the Ten Thousand Greeks.^ The former, from 
a mean of the two marches eastward, viz., from Sardis to 
Colossa?, and from Iconiuin to Dana (Tyana), concludes the 
value of the parasang to be about 2-455 geographical miles.^ 

The modern farsang, or farsakh, of Persia, varies according the farsakh of 
to the nature of the ground, from three and a half, to four ^^^^^' 
English miles per hour ; and being almost ahvays calculated for 
mules, or good horses, under favourable circumstances it fre- 
quently exceeds four miles. The ancient parasang appears to 
have been fixed at thirty stadia,^ which at 202 "84 yards would 
give three geographical miles. But this being also a road 
measure, it no doubt varied as at present, and was regulated 
according to the nature of the country ; and fortunately we 
have the means of ascertaining this difference wuth considerable 
precision. A line, drawn along the map so as to touch the Distance from 
river, at short distances, from Thapsacus to the river Araxes, is ThapLcus 
about one hundred and five miles, which, for the fifty parasangs ^^^^^^t^^' 
of Xenophon, give 2*10 geographical miles each. By the 
route followed from Sardis to Thapsacus, it is eight hundred and 
fifty-three geographical miles, which will give 2 " 608 geogra- 
phical miles for each of the three hundred and twenty-seven 
parasangs. Again, from Thapsacus to the mounds of Miiham- 
med, thirty-six miles from Babylon, w^here, for the sake of 
water, the route constantly follows, and almost touches the river 
Euphrates, it is four hundred and twelve geographical miles, and thence to 
thus giving 1 "98 geographical miles for each of the two hundred 
and eight parasangs, or 2 • 294 geographical miles for the mean 
of both. This scarcely differs from the result obtained by the 
laborious and discriminating geographer Major Rennell, who, 
without our present advantages, estimated the parasang at 
2*25 miles; which, in fact, approaches an average of the 

' Parker, London, 1844. 

* W. J. Hamilton's Researches, &c., vol. II., pp. 199, 200. 

' Herod., lib. II., cap. vi. ; lib. V., cap. liii. ; lib. VI., cap. xlii. 


whole march of Cyrus. We find that the distance from Sardis 
to Cunaxa, or the mounds of Muhammed, cannot be much under 
or over 1,265 geographical miles, making 2-364 geographical 
miles for each of the five hundred and thirty-five parasangs 
given by Xenophon between those places.^ 
Arerage From the preceding calculations, it appears that we are 

parasang. ^ Warranted in taking the average value of the parasang, at 
2 • 608 geographical miles throughout the march to Thapsacus, 
and at 1 * 98, or almost two miles from thence to Cunaxa ;^ but 
subsequently, it is less than two geographical miles. The 
greater speed in the first part of the march, was the natural 
consequence of moving during the most favourable season of 
the year (April and May), with the additional advantage of 
roads. The want of the latter must have been a serious im- 
pediment to the carriages during the next fortnight ; for, 
Difficulties although the marches were pressing, the heavy-armed men, with 
Meso'oTamia° their wcapous, would have been greatly retarded by the almost 
and Armenia, insupportable heat of the summer months : in the subsequent 
retreat, the mountains, the rivers, and unknown tracts, as well 
as the snow on the ground, must have caused still greater 
Epyaxa, queen But to return to the march itself. During a halt of five days 
v[ i^' c'^Tus °^^ ^^^ plains of Caystrus, Cyrus received Epyaxa, the queen 
of Cilicia; whose mysterious visit and opportune supply of 
treasure enabled him to appease the Greeks by giving them 
three months' arrears of pay. Accompanied by Epyaxa, he 
advanced ten parasangs to Thymbriuni, on the borders of 
Lycaonia, probably at, or a little south-eastward of the present 
town of Ak-Shehr, and twenty-four or twenty-five miles from 
Chai Keui. In two days more he advanced ten parasangs to 
Tyriacum, a populous town, probably represented by I'lghiin, 
which is twenty-five or twenty-six miles from Ak-Shehr (the 
ten parasangs give twenty-six miles in each case). Here he 
Review of his remained three days, and delighted his guest by a splendid 
Tyriacum. display of his Greek forces, uniformly clothed, and armed with 
brazen helmets, scarlet tunics, greaves, and burnished shields, 

' Anabasis, lib. II., cap. ii., s. 6. 

* The country hereabouts is called Abu Jada. 


at the same time astonishing her, by causing the phalanx to The phalanx 
charge in their usual manner, shouting aloud to terrify the ™^°°^"^''^- 
enemy as they advanced, running with their long spears pro- 

Epyaxa and her escort accompanied the army, moving, and 
encamping with the prince. In three marches of twenty para- 
sangs, the army reached Iconium, a distance, bv the route of 
Kadun Khan and Ladik,^ of forty-nine or fifty geographical miles. 
After halting five days at that place, it advanced thirty para- 
sangs in five marches along the plains of Lycaonia, and halted, 
probably near or westward of the now small town of Kara 
Biinar, (Barathra,) which is sixty or sixty-one miles from Epyaxa quits 
Koniyeh. From thence, Epyaxa returned to her husband Bamhra. 
Syenncsis, the king of Cilicia, probably crossing the Taurus by 
Ivizil Che'smeh, 'xVlan Biizuk, Mizetli, Soli (or Pompeiopolis), 
and onward to Tarsus, It may be inferred, from what subse- 
quently passed in Cilicia, that the object of this remarkable Supposed 
mission, and the timely supply of treasure, was to induce Cvrus visf^. ° 
to take another route, that Syennesis might not be embroiled 
with Artaxerxes, by permitting the march through his territory ; 
and it is not improbable that, from her peculiar intimacy wdth 
the prince, the queen believed she had been successful. Cvrus 
availed himself of her return, to send a body of Greeks under 
Menon, nominally as a guard of honour, but in reality to turn 
the Cilician gates, the only pass which was practicable for an 
army through this part of the Taurus ; he then advanced 
twenty-five parasangs in four days to Dana, now^ presumed to 
be Tyana, "which is forty-nine or fifty miles from Kara-biiiiar. 

Cyrus had been informed that Syennesis in person, with a Cyrus turns 
powerful body of troops, occupied the heights commanding this Tau?S^ "^ ^^^ 
almost impregnable passage ;' but during a halt of one day at 
the entrance, making the necessary dispositions to force his 
way, the videttes brought the satisfactory intelligence, that the 
heights had been abandoned by the Cilicians, on learning that 
Menon had reached his destination, and turned the pass, after 
plundering Tarsus, and opening a communication with the 

' Anabasis, lib. I., cap. ii. ^ See Index Map. 

' See above, vol. I., pp. 293, 354 




is visited by 

Lacedaemonian galleys. The opportune arrival of the latter, 
added to the belief that the negotiation of Epyaxa had been 
successful, seems to have prevented the intended resistance of 
reachesTarsus, Syennesis, and four days' march through one of the longest 
and most difficult passes in the world, ^ brought Cyrus to 
Tarsus ; which city is sixty-eight or seventy geographical miles, 
(called twenty-five parasangs), from the farther side of the pass 
near the Kolu Kushla.~ 

At first, Syennesis refused to obey the mandate of Cyrus to 
appear at Tarsus, but Epyaxa induced him to quit his fastness 
in the mountains, and the Cilician prince made his peace by 
presenting large sums of money for the army : he received 
from Cyrus, in return, a Persian robe of honour, a golden bit, 
and other royal presents, in addition to a guarantee that his 
territories should not be plundered. 

The halt of twenty days at Tarsus, was rendered memorable 
by a circumstance which threatened to terminate the enterprise, 
at the moment when the requisite funds had been so unexpect- 
edly obtained. The Greeks, chiefly the followers of Clearchus, 
perceiving that they had been entrapped, loudly demanded to 
return, instead of proceeding against Artaxerxes ; a service for 
which, as alleged, they had not been engaged.^ After lengthened 
discussions, the oratory of Clearchus prevailed, and by judiciously 
placing before the turbulent soldiery, on the one hand the 
The discontent difficulties and dishouour of a return, contrasted with the pros- 
is appeased, pect of glory and rewards before them on the other, he induced 
them to advance. The object now avowed by Cyrus, was the 
punishment of his enemy Abrocamas, the satrap of Syria ; who 
was, he said, encamped on the banks of the Euphrates, at the 
distance of twelve marches.'' 

An additional half-daric being promised per month, Cyrus 
advanced ten parasangs, in two marches, and crossed the river 
Sarus, now the Saihiin, where it was three plethra wide. Here 
the direct distance is seventeen geographical miles, but that by 
the road is rather more than twenty-nine miles between those 

Events at 

Cyrus ad- 
vances, and 
crosses the 
rivers SaVhiin 
and Jaih^D, 

' See above, vol. T., pp. 293, 354, and Anabasis, lib. I., cap. ii. 

* See No. 1 of Euphrates' Maps. ^ Anabasis, lib. I., cap. iii., s. 

* Ibid., s. 20. 


places.' In another march of five parasangs (actually seventeen 
to nineteen miles), he reached the Pyramus or Jaihan, Mhich 
was one stadium in breadth ; and fifteen parasangs, made in 
two marches from thence, brought him to Issus, the last city of 
Cilicia," which is thirty-three to thirty-four miles from the 
town of Misis. The widths given by Xenophon, indicate that and reaches 
the passage of the Sarus was effected somewhere about the ^^^'^' 
place now occupied by the city of Adanah, and that of the 
Pyramus, in the vicinity of the present town of Mallus or 
Misis ; and neither of the rivers being fordable, it may be 
presumed that they were, as in the case of the Mseander, 
crossed on some kind of temporary bridge.^ Cyrus found his where he finds 
fleet anchored near the city of Issus, and with it came a re- rebforcer^'^^ 
inforcement of 700 heavy-armed men under Cheirisophus, ^^'^ts. 
besides 400 others who had quitted Abrocamas, that they 
might take service against the king,^ making it evident that 
the object of the expedition was now well known in this part of 
the country. Keeping between the mountains and the sea, one The amy ad- 
march of five parasangs brought Cyrus to the gates of Cilicia ^hecoas^t""^ 
and Syria. Here a rocky spur, covered with brushwood, 
descends from the Amanus into the sea, leaving, as described 
by Xenophon, a narrow pass. This has been since washed 
away by the sea, and a paved road has been substituted for it. 
The latter is carried over the spur itself, and through the ruins 
of a marble gateway on the southern declivity. The gateway, 
now bears the European name of Jonas' pillars, and the 
Turkish name of Sakal Tiitan (Beard Catcher). A little way 
northward of the pillars, on a hill perhaps nearly 300 feet high, 
stands the castle of Merkez (Centre), which commands the 
pass. Half a mile beyond the castle there is a wall, which Nature of the 
terminates at the sea with a tower ; a little farther is the ^°'^*'7- 
Merkez-sui, and again, beyond, a small pile of ancient ruins. 
There are also other ruins higher up the river ; and at the 
distance of two miles from the sea are traces of a double wall 
on each side, where the stream issues from the mountains. 
The Merkez-sui, or ancient Kersus, determines the sites of the 

' See Map No. 1. * Anabasis, lib. I., cap. iv. 

* Ibid., cap. ii. ■* Ibid., cap. iv. 

p 2 



[chap. YIII. 

pass of Syria 
and Cilicia. 

so-called gates or fortresses, Avhich were erected to defend the 
ground ; the one being in Cilicia, and the other in Syria, the 
river flowing between them.^ 

The limited width of the pass along the borders of the sea, 
added to the diflaculty of turning it by keeping along the lower 
part of the Amanus, gave to it great importance and strength, 
especially when approached from the side of the Issus. Aware 
of this difficulty, and under the impression that it would be 
Cyrus tarns, strongly occupied, Cyrus caused his fleet to land his heavy- 

d.iid carries tli6 * i •* 

armed veterans both within and Avithout the Syrian fortress, to 
secure a passage for his army ; but Abrocamas, not wishing 
to oppose a prince who might eventually take away his satrapy, 
had already retreated at the head of a force, estimated at 
300,000 men, and Cyrus, without opposition, completed the 
next march, which was to the commercial city of Myriandrus. 
Each of these marches was of five parasangs, that is eleven or 
twelve miles. 

During a halt of seven days at this place, Xenias and Pasion, 
two men of some importance, stealthily departed by sea, but 
the judicious conduct of Cyrus in sending their effects, as well 
as their wives and children after them, prevented others from 
following an example which might have been fatal to his under- 
taking; and even those Greeks, who had been hitherto back- 
ward, became zealous followers, believing that so magnanimous 
a commander would not fail to be still more liberal to those who 
were faithful.^ 

The important pass of Be'ilan, as well as the gates of Cilicia 
and Syria, having been abandoned by Abrocamas, the army of 
Cyrus made twenty parasangs, in four marches, to the river 
Chains. Proceeding through the pass in the Beilan chain, 
and advancing north-eastward, keeping quite clear of the lake 
of Aga Denghiz and the surrounding marshes, it is about sixty- 
one geographical miles to the upper part of the Baluk-sii or 
Bciluklii-su'* (Fish River), and about sixty-eight or seventy 
miles from the town of Beilan, if a greater sweep be made 
northward along the slopes of the hills.'' As there were three 

Events at 

March to the 
river Chains, 

Anabasis, lib. I 
See Map No. 1 . 

, cap. IV. 


See above, vol. 

L, p. 412. 


rivers to cross, namely, the Kara-sii, the Aswad, and the 'Afrin, 
four days would certainly be required for this part of the march. 
In advancing first in an easterly direction along the Baluk-sii, 
then southward by the banks of the same stream, and again 
eastward, quitting the latter when opposite to the fountain of 
El Bab, near the source of the stream called Dhahab or Dabb, 
it is about sixty-one miles to the last, the presumed Daradax :' 
and if the windings of the Kowe'ik be followed in the earlier from thence to 

the riv€r 

part of the march, it would be seventy or eighty miles ^ from Daradax. 
the higher part of the Chalib or Chains, which, as in the time 
of Xenophon, still abounds in fish.^ The distance (thirty para- 
sangs) given by Xenophon between the rivers Chains and 
Daradax, which was accomplished in five marches,^ agrees with 
the nature of the intervening country; for whether the wind- 
ings of the upper part of the Koweik were followed, or the 
stream forded two or three times in preference, a fifth march 
would be requisite as already mentioned.^ 

Having wantonly destroyed the palace and park of Belesis, Palace of 
the late governor of Syria, Cyrus, in three days' pressing stroyed. 
marches,'' following and constantly touching the Euphrates from 
Balis, reached the river Euphrates at Thapsacus,^ which, as 
has been shown,® is about sixty-four or sixty-six miles from the 

Here Cyrus fulfilled his promise, by plainly telling the At Thapsacus, 
Greeks, through their commanders, that he intended to proceed known ThV*^^ 
to Babylon and against the king. At first the soldiers were "^•''^'^f °^ '^^^ 
angry, and for some days it was doubtful whether they could 
be induced to proceed. Abrocamas had destroyed the boats 
by which he had crossed, but the river happened to be fbrdable 
that year,^ and Menon having persuaded his division to set 
the example by fording, the water coming up to their breasts, 
the rest of the contingents speedily followed. The whole army 
being then put in motion along the left bank of the great river, 

' See above, vol. 1., p. 41o. 

* Anabasis, lib. I., cap. iv. 

'- Vol. I., p. 416. 

" See Maps Nos. 1 and 3. 

» Ibid., p. 416. 

- Ibid., p. 412. 

* Ibid. 

* Anabasis, lib. I., cap. iv. 

" See above, vol. I., p. 417. 


He advances 
to the river 

and from 
thence to 

Distance of 
the Pylge from 

City of Car- 
mandse, and 

disputes of 
the Greeks. 

they advanced a distance of one hundred and five geographical 
miles, or fifty parasangs, in nine days, to the river Araxes,^ and 
entered the desert of jMesopotamia, after making the necessary 
provision for the coming march. 

In five marches, at times occupied in hunting ostriches, roe, 
deer, wild asses, and bustards, they accomplished a distance of 
thirty-five parasangs to the river Masca and the town of Cor- 
sote ; the position of which seems to correspond with the ruins 
of Al Erzi, whose site is sixty-three miles from the river 

There has been some little difficulty about the termination 
of the succeeding march of ninety parasangs ; but as it appears, 
by the subsequent movements, that the Pylse were about twenty- 
four miles short of the Median wall, the pass in question may 
safely be placed about twenty-seven miles below Hit,^ or nearly 
opposite to the village of Jarrah, from which, by the map, there 
are about one hundred and seventy-five, or one hundred and 
seventy-seven geographical miles to represent the ninety para- 
sangs from Corsote to the Pylae, which, at 1'98 each, give 
1/8 "2 geographical miles. 

Some time during the previous march they halted opposite 
to a large and magnificent city called Carmanda?,* from which 
panic, palm-wine, and other supplies were obtained; crossing 
the river for this purpose on rafts made with the skins of their 
tents stuffed with rushes. It was in the vicinity of this place 
that the serious dispute occurred between the followers of 
Clearchus and those of Menon, which, after some difficulty, 
Cyrus settled with that tact and knowledge of mankind for 
which he was so remarkable. 

Not long after the army had marched from this place, that 
is, probably, during the first day from the Pylae, the dung of 
the horses, and other traces of a body of horsemen, supposed 
to be about 2,000, were perceived, who had probably been em- 

' Anabasis, lib. I., cap. iv., v. * See Map No. 3. 

^ See Maps Nos. 5 and 7. 

* As there is no otlier site on the right bank of the river, tlie position 
alliuled to may have been near Jibbah, an island, opposite to which, on that 
bank, there are some ruins at fifty-eight miles from 'A'nah, and thirty or 
thirtv-two from Hit. 


ployed in destroying the forage. Under pretence of preventing 
this operation, but in reality to communicate with Artaxerxes, 
Orontas, a Persian nobleman, vohmteered to pursue them ; but 
his real purpose having been ascertained, by a letter prepared 
to be sent to Artaxerxes, and having been pardoned on two 
previous occasions, Cyrus ordered that there should be held a 
court-martial of his countrymen, who sentenced him to death, ^ Orontas 

- . sentenced to 

and he was not seen subsequently ; but whether privately death, 
executed or not, did not then appear. 

Having in three days advanced twelve parasangs through Cyrus reviews 
Mesopotamia, Cyrus reviewed his forces, and put them in nJfdn'ight! ^ 
order of battle at midnight." Expecting to engage the king on 
the following day, the prince, with his usual tact, addressed his 
followers in the most animated and, to soldiers, the most encou- 
raging language. They were told that the satrapies of an 
empire, which extended so far south as to be uninhabitable 
through heat, and so far north, that the people perished from 
cold, would soon be at his disposal, and that he would adorn 
the brows of the generals with the coronets of princes, his only 
apprehension being, lest he might not have a sufficient number 
of friends to fill the other situations.^ 

The census taken, showed that the various levies raised in 
the maritime and Greek states amounted to 10,400 heavy- 
armed men, and 2,400 targeteers, with nearly 20 scythed 
chariots, in addition to a mixed force of 100,000 Asiatics. The 
army of Artaxerxes, according to some deserters from it, was 
reported to be 1,200,000 infantry, 6,000 horse, and 200 armed 
chariots ; large bodies of this force being commanded by Abro- 
camas, Tissaphernes, Gobryas, and Arbaces. But as the first 
was not present with his contingent, the actual number was only Estimate of 

, the contendin&r 

900,000 men, and 150 armed chariots,* or 400,000 horse and foot, armies. 
according to the more moderate estimate of Diodorus Siculus.^ 
The position of the king was admirably suited to cover the 
capital, for, in addition to an army, which according to the 
lesser estimate (allowing three followers for each soldier) 

' Anabasis, lib. I., cap. vi. "^ See Map No. 7. 

^ Anabasis, lib. I., cap. vii. ^ Ibid., cap. viii. 

' Lib. XIV., cap. ix. 


mustered 100,000 fighting men, and which would, independently 

The king's of the chariots, form a line two deep extending twelve miles ; 

entrenched, the I'sa/ the Nahr Sersar, and other canals, were so many 

"* successive lines of defence, the whole constituting a splendid 

position, which, being in a plain, was suited for the chariots 

as well as for the cavalry. 

Not satisfied with these advantages, and the additional line 
of the Median wall, Artaxerxes formed an entrenched camp 
along the Euphrates, in the rear of the whole, to cover his 
baggage," and also cut a wide and deep ditch as an advanced 
line of defence. With the exception of a passage left near the 
bank of the Euphrates, the latter work appears to have been 
carried from the river at a spot a few miles north-westward of 
the I'sa canal, till it joined the ISIedian wall, probably about 
the centre. 
abandon their ^^q doubt Artaxerxcs intended to have made a stand for his 

position on the . , ,. ,. nip i i- 

approach of empire at this and the succeeding lines or defence, but during 
t e ree s. ^^^ advaucc of three parasangs next day, in order of battle, 
Cyrus found the first line and the Median wall abandoned. It 
is evident that on the approach of the prince something like a 
panic niduced Artaxerxes to lose sight of all his advantages, 
and he continued in full retreat towards Babylon, till the oppor- 
tune arrival and entreaties of Teribazus inspired him with fresh 
courage.^ The flight was now changed into an advance, and 
the invaders were met under circumstances which proved 
favourable to an extent that could not have been anticipated. 
Cyrus passes Previously to reaching the new entrenchment, Cyrus had ad- 
advances. ^" vanced with great regularity, but on finding that the works had 
been abandoned, and that the royal army had fled, he put faith 
in the previous prediction of the soothsayer, to whom he gave 
the promised reward of 3,000 darics or 10 talents; and be- 
lieving that the empire would be his without a struggle, the 
The royal luarch became exceedingly careless. About noon, on the third 
advYnclTin ^^Y^ ^^^^ invadcrs found themselves almost in presence of the 
order of battle. Persian army, at a moment when they were in great confusion, 
some having their armour, and even their arms, carried in 

> See Maps Nos. 7 and 8. * Diod. Sic, lib. XIV., cap. ix. 

' Plutarcli, in Artaxerxes, vol. VI., p. 255, ed. Langhorne. 


waggons, or on suinpter horses.^ The situation is not men 
tioned, but taking the moderate estimate of about fifteen miles 
for a whole day, Cyrus was probably near the mounds of 
Miihammed," that is about thirty-six from Babylon, and as 
many from the Median wall, when Petagyas, a Persian, in 
whom he confided, came at full speed, crying out, in Greek as 
well as Persian, that the whole of the king's forces were at 
hand in order of battle. Cyrus hastened to arm, and his chariot 
being exchanged for his horse, he issued those orders, which 
probably would have secured complete success, if Clearchus 
had not failed in his duty ^ at this critical moment. The The Greeks 
Greeks under this general occupied the right of the prince's prepare, 
army, and the Asiatics formed the rest of the line, which neces- 
sarily was greatly outflanked by that of the king. KnoAving 
that, agreeably to Persian custom, Artaxerxes would be in the 
centre of his army, Cyrus determined to attack this point with 
the chariots and the Greeks, who were the elite of his force; 
but these, or rather their commander, although professing 
obedience, determined not to lose the advantage of leaning on 
the river with his right flank, and Cyrus proceeded to the post 
of danger under the impression that his orders would be obeyed. 
The battle was commenced by the Greeks, singing the psean, and be<;arae 
as they advanced against Tissaphernes, who commanded the ^ ^ ^""^^ ^^' 
enemy's left wing. On seeing this, the Persian infantry fled, 
and not being supported by the cavalry, the drivers of the 
chariots having also fled, the expectation of breaking through 
the Greek phalanx with these machines was at an end, and 
the left wing being thrown into disorder by the Greeks almost 
without loss,^ some already complimented the prince on being 

But Cvrus perceiving that there was still much to do advanced 
impetuously to charge the centre which still remained firm ; 
when, though without the expected support of the Greeks, he 

. ' Plutarch, in Artaxerxes, vol. VI., p. 256, ed. Langhorne, compared 
with Anabasis, lib. I., cap. vii. 

* See Map No. 8. 

* Plutarch, in Artaxerxes. vol. VI., p. 2-57, ed. Langhorne, compared 
with Anabasis, lib. I., cap. viii. 

* Anabasis, lib. I., cap. viii. 



Cyrus is killed 
■whilst making 
an impetuous 

causes the 
loss of the 

The Greeks 
retire to the 
camp of 

routed the guard of 6,000, which preceded the king, and killed 
their commander. At this moment, when the king thought 
all was lost, C}tus rushed heedlessly forward, and just as he 
had reached and wounded his brother in the midst of his g-uards, 
a dart brought him to the ground at his feet, and he perished 
covered with wounds.^ The success of Artaxerxes was how- 
ever limited to this event, and to some trifling advantages over 
the left of Cyrus, which enabled him to plunder the tents, &c., 
for, on the other flank, Clearchus was quite successful." It is 
therefore evident, that if Clearchus had obeyed the orders of 
Cyrus, the Greeks would have broken the centre as easily as 
they forced the left of Artaxerxes' army. 

Being for some time ignorant of the death of their chief they 
thought the- victory had been completely won, and such was 
their impression till the following day, when they received a 
message from Ariaeus, that he would wait for them a short 
time in his former encampment previously to returning to 

The Greeks immediately sent to offer the crown to Ariseus, 
as the fruit of the victory, which they believed they had 
achieved ; but, before they received his answer,^ a message was 
delivered from the king, commanding them to lay down their 
arms. To this, notwithstanding his extremely precarious situa- 
tion, Clearchus replied with much dignity, that it was not usual 
for conquerors to deliver up their arms.^ 

After nightfall, 40 horse and 300 Thracian foot, under 
Miltocvthes, deserted to Artaxerxes ; and about midnight, the 
remainder of the Greeks, under Clearchus, reached the camp 
of Ariseus,^ which was probably a short distance in the rear, 
and not far from the river, as the baggage had been directed to 
follow the stream.® A consultation immediately followed, and 
the Persian chief gave the benefit of his local experience, by 
pointing out for their retreat a route preferable to that by 
which they had advanced, on account of its affording a better 
prospect of obtaining provisions and protection from the cavalry 

' Anabasis, lib. I., cap. viii. 
^ Ibid., lib. 11., cap. ii. 
* See Map No. 7. 

* Ibid., lib. I., cap. x. 

* Ibid., cap. i. 

' Anabasis, lib. II., cap. ii. 


of their pursuers. These observations had due weight with The Greeks 
the Greeks, and it was determined to commence that retreat ; their way 
the accomphshment of which coristitutes an event unrivalled in ^^^"leward. 
military history, and first demonstrated the weakness of the 
Persian monarchy. Previously to setting out there was made, 
under the oaths of the leading Greek and Persian officers, 
who dipped their swords and spears in the mingled blood of 
a bull, a wolf, and a ram,' a compact, in which the barbarians 
engaged faithfully to conduct the Greeks on their homeward 
route. The troops were then put in motion, it being intended, 
agreeably to the recommendation of Ariseus, to substitute for 
the exhausted line near the Euphrates, one through the villages 
along the Tigris. The Greeks were to make very long marches The line of 
through Mesopotamia, and thus get well in advance, in order chosen for 
that the king might be unable to attack them with a large a^^mpt!"^ 
force ; a small one they had no reason to fear.~ 

Accordingly, in the presence of overwhelming numbers, the 
daring attempt to force a passage northwards, through pro- 
vinces and territories more or less subject to the king, was 
commenced. The first march ^ proved so far inauspicious that The retreat 
the Greeks went to rest supperless, in consequence of finding 
the villages, which they reached that night, without supplies, 
having been recently occupied by the enemy, whose cavalry 
was at hand, and even in their front.'' 

In taking a northerly direction from the presumed position Obstractions 
of the camp, it would be necessary to cross the Nahr Malka ; second march, 
and on account of this obstruction, as well as the presence of 
an enemy, the distance made would scarcely exceed ten miles. 
Fatigued by the march, and without sustenance, a slight cir- 
cumstance M^as sufficient to cause a tumult and almost a panic 
among the Greeks. The panic was however speedily calmed 
by the ingenuity of Clearchus, and at day-break he marched 
with the intention of becoming the assailant. This bold ma- 
noeuvre led to a negotiation with the king on equal terms, and 
guides were in consequence appointed to conduct the Greeks 
across the Nahr Sersar, and its affluents, which intersect this 

' Anabasis, lib. II., cap. ii. - Ibid., sec. o. 

* See Map No. 7. * Anabasis, lib. II., cap. ii. 


part of the country. These cuts appear to have been filled 
with water, but the difficulties were overcome by cutting down 
the palm trees to make bridges, in which operation Clearchus 
set the example, and the army reached the intended halting- 
place in some villages probably not more than ten miles from 
the preceding station. These were abundantly supplied with 
The Greek coHi, vincgar, and wine made from dates.^ After spending 
^ffihe°°^ about twenty-three days in negotiations, having made engage- 
Persians fail, ments to be faithfully conducted homeward, and obtained 
supplies, the Greeks, the troops of Ariseus, and those of the 
king under Tissaphernes, commenced what seemed a peaceable 
march, although certain circumstances attending it gave rise 
to suspicion, and some precautions were adopted in conse- 
They continue queucc by the Greeks. In three days, probably taking, as in 
the'Medlan ^ the preceding march, a westerly direction, in order to round 
^'*'^- the marshes and inundations near 'Akar Kiif," the armies came 

up to, and departed from, the Median wall into the interior.^ 

' Anabasis, lib. II., cap. ii. * See Map No. 7. 

^ The translation of this passage of Xenophon, afitcor-o Trpog to Mrj^lag 
reTxpQ, K-at TrapfjX^oy avrov eiau), Anabasis, lib. II., cap. iv., lias been much 
discussed and variously rendered. In Allpress's Xenophon, p. 80, the 
army is made to arrive at and pass along within tiie Median wall, which ■ 
translation is also given in the Anabasis of Xenophon, by Charles Antlier, 
LL.D., William Tegg and Co., Cheapside; by the Rev. Dr. Butcher, 
Fellow of Trinity College. Dublin ; as well as by Schneider, who, in a note 
on this passage, condemns Halbkardt for translating it : " Kamen sie zur 
Medischen Mauer, und setzten nun jetiseit derselben ihren Marsch fort." 
Viger, in his Greek Idioms, also quotes an instance from Xenoplion, where 
the verb occurring in the passage in question joined with a substantive in the 
genitive case, signifies "departure from" or deflection; and Donnegan's 
Greek Lexicon gives cWw as an adverb, with the signification of " in the 
interior," '' inside," or w ithin, which renderings of the passage are in con- 
formity with the relative geograpliical positions of tlie Median wall and 
Sitace. On the other hand, Hutchinson, in his edition of Xenophon, p. 139, 
and Mitford, History of Greece, vol. IV., p. 189, state that the Greeks came 
up to and pa.ssed through the Median wall ; and this interpretation has been 
followed 'by Bishop Thirl wall, in his History of Greece, vol. IV., p. 335, ed. 
London, 1847, since he conceives, in accordance with Passow, in his Greek 
Lexicon, that when joined witli a verb of motion £t<7w must bear tlie sig- 
nification of to the inside, not on the inside. The Bishop of St. David's 
considers that Schneider's condemnation of Halbkardt arises solely from the 
gual difficulty of reconciling his translation with the geographical position 


This wall, whose remains are described by Xenophon,' was of 
bricks, and once 100 feet high and 20 feet thick : it is still to 
be traced, with its towers and ditch, running south-westward 
from the Tigris, nearly opposite Kadisiyeh, to the Euphrates, 
near Feliijah, a distance of forty-two or forty-three miles." 

In two marches of eight parasangs, apparently in an easterly 
direction, and crossing two canals coming from the Tigris, they 
encamped near a handsome park, close to the once magnificent 
city of Sitace, which was situated about fifteen stadia from the 
river Tigris. The next morning they crossed the river on a Thence they 
bridge of thirty-seven boats, without being molested by the Ti^gris, and 
enemy ; and making twenty parasangs in four marches, they ^"^-^^^^ *° 
reached the river Physcus, where stood a large and populous 
city named Opis.'^ 

In taking the distance backward at the average rate of the 
march through Asia Minor, or 2608 geographical miles per 
parasang along the Upper Tigris (at the favourable season of the 
year), from the known point of the river Zab, there would be 130 
geographical miles for the fifty parasangs to Opis, which places 
that city a little above Kai'm/ and close to the head of the 
Nahrawan, instead of being, as before supposed, some miles 
lower down near the river 'Adhim.^ Twenty parasangs or Position of 
fifty-two geographical miles from the latter along the ancient ^jace'^'^ 
bed of the Tigris, would place Sitace about ten miles north- 
west of Baghdad, near Sheri'at el Beidha, the presumed site of 
the Sitace of Xenophon.'' The circuit made to the Median 
wall in going thither can be partly accounted for, by the 
necessity of avoiding the marshes and inundations, which at this 
season, the period of floods, would have intervened in a direct 
line from the first halting-place. 

of Sitace, but that the philological difficulty thus raised by Schneider, is 
quite as great as the geograpliical difficulty of the other. The same opinion 
appears to be held by other Grecian scholars : the Right Kev. Dr. Wilson, 
Lord Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, and the Rev. Dr. MacDonnell, Senior 
Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, among the number. 

' Anabasis, lib. II., cap. iv. 

* See above, vol. L, 29, 30, 118, also Geographical Journal, vol. IX., 
pp. 446, 472, and 473, and vol. XL, p. 130. 

^ Anabasis, lib. II., cap. iv. * See Map No. 6. 

^ See above, vol. L, p. 30. * Anabasis, lib. IT., cap. iv. 


The Greeks Keeping parallel to the river Tigris in advancing from Opis, 

ret°reatT pass' six marches brought the Greeks to some villages belonging to 

Ae^iesser Zab, ^y^^ queen-mother, Parysatis ; which, at 2-608 geographical 

miles for each of the thirty parasangs, or 78-24 geographical 

miles, would place the villages in question about three miles 

beyond the Lesser Zab. 

Continuing the march through the Median desert, the army 
halt opposite halted on the evening of the first day opposite to Caense, 
^^"^' which at 15-648 geographical miles for the six parasangs, 

would place this large and opulent city on the right bank, at the 
ruins of U'r of the Persians, which are three or four miles below 
Sherkat, or To-prak Kal'ah-si. In four more days making 
twenty-four parasangs, it halted on the river Zab ; where the 
enemy was prepared to oppose their passage.^ Here a nego- 
tiation was most imprudently entered into with Tissaphernes, 
who, having by these means got Clearchus, Menon, Proxenus, 
Agias, and others, into his power, carried them to the king, 
Clearchus and by whose Order they were beheaded.^ After the calamity of 
hl^S^^" losing their principal leaders by this treachery, the manage- 
ment of the retreat devolved upon Cheirisophus and Xenophon, 
but more particularly on the latter, owing to his talents and 
courage. Having, by an animating address, prepared the 
Greeks for difficulties and dangers, the carriages were burnt, 
and the baggage being reduced as a necessary preliminary, the 
army passed the river Zabatus, probably in boats, and then 
advanced in order of battle with the remainder of the baggage 
in the centre ; but they were so much harassed by the Persian 
horse under Mithridates, that the Greeks scarcely advanced 
three miles during that day. Ever fertile in expedients, 
Xenophon Xcnophou immediately organized 200 Ehodian, or other 
Greeks^^^'^ slingers, and fifty cavalry clad in buff coats and corslets; 
and the whole being mounted on the baggage horses, not only 
repulsed Mithridates on the following day, but subsequently 
to the ruins of covered the march to the large uninhabited city called Larissa, 
Lanssa, and ^j^-^|^ ^^le army reached in the evening.^ The remains of a 
vast pyramid, and extensive walls, go far to show that Ashur 

' Anabasis, lib. II., cap. iv. '■^ Ibid., cap. vi., sec. 16. 

* Ibid., lib. III., cap. iv. 



or Nimrild represents the place in question ; and, as already 
observed, its situation between Nineveh and Calah, justifies the 
supposition of Bochart, that this was the llesen, or Al llesen of 
the Scriptures.' The succeeding march of six parasangs, to the 
Median city of Messila or Mespila, makes the latter agree with onward to 
the site of Nineveh, which is about sixteen miles from the Kiueveh!"^ 
preceding ruins at the nearest point. 

The difficulties of the Greeks were now increased, owing to 
the presence of a very large army, consisting of the troops of 
Aria^us, those of Orontas, and some under a natural brother of 
the king, in addition to a portion of the royal army under 
Tissaphernes. On the following day, the Persians, with this 
prodigious force, menaced both flanks as well as the rear of the 
retreating army, but failed in making any serious impression ; 
and having completed the march of four parasangs, the Greeks 
encamped in some villages abounding in corn. The distance Halt at : 
of about ten miles and a half would bring them to the small ^^"^^'^®" 
Chaldean town of Tel Keif, ^ a site of much interest.^ 

On the following day the disadvantages of marching in a From thence ' 
square, without being covered, having become manifest, par- advan'crto^ 
ticularly when passing a defile or bridge, six companies of one ^°^'^ villages. 
hundred men each, in subdivisions of fifty and twenty-five men, 
were formed into a moveable column, which not only protected 
the rear, but was always ready to act on emergencies when any 
detached duties were required.* 

Having failed to make an impression, another and more Difficulties 
promising project was adopted by the Persians, who, by making °,';g^5^j°°t3„g^s 
a rapid march, succeeded in placing themselves in advance ofoft'ie enemy. 
the Greeks. In proceeding steadily over the plain at some 
distance from the Tigris, the latter were cheered on the fourth 
day with the sight of a triple range of hills, beyond which, 
there was a palace with many villages around it, and these 
were their intended halting-place. The Greeks had reached 
the first eminence, and were descending to gain the second, 

' See above, vol. I., pp. 21, 22. ^ See Index Map. 

^ TV. F. Ainsworth's Travels in tlie Track of the Ten Tliousand Greeks, 
p. 141. 

* Anabasis, lib. IT I., cap. iv. 



The Greeks 
arrive at 

They are 



The Greeks 
force their 
•way to 

some -villages 
on the Tigris. 

when a shower of darts, stones, &c., announced that it was in 
possession of the Persians ; but after a stout resistance they 
succeeded in forcing this, as well as the subsequent position, 
and with some loss finally reached a village at the foot of the 
mountain. Here they found an abundance of provisions, par- 
ticularly wheaten flour and wine, with barley for the horses ; and 
during a halt of three days, arrangements were made for the 
care of the wounded by establishing a medical department con- 
sisting of eight surgeons for this purpose.^ 

The four preceding marches of six parasangs each, or from 
forty-eight to fifty miles, as well as the distance from Tel 
Keif, and the nature of the Jebel 'Abyadh, or Cha Spi, of the 
Kurds, make the position of Zakhu," or Zakkd, on the Khabiir, 
answer the description of this halting-place of Xenophon.^ 

During the succeeding day's march over the level country 
beyond Zakhii, the Greeks were so much pressed by Tissa- 
phernes, that it became necessary to halt at the first village. 
A skirmish succeeded, in which the Persians were worsted and 
forced to retire. The latter encamped, as they Avere accustomed 
to do, at the distance of sixty stadia, as a security from night 
attacks, which cause so much alarm to the Persians, owing to 
the manner of picqueting their horses. On perceiving that the 
Persians were clear off, the Greeks decamped, and in two 
marches, probably passing over the plain of Zakhu in the line 
of the present Chaldean village of Tel Robbin, without seeing 
the enemv, they gained the winding mountain valleys of Kur- 
distan. A superior knowledge of the country, and the greater 
speed of their horses, had however been turned to account by 
the Persians in the meantime, and the Greeks, to their astonish- 
ment, found the enemy in possession of the heights (probably 
near the ruins of the castle of Rahabi) over which they neces- 
sarily must pass, whilst the troops of Ariaius and Tissaphernes 
pressed upon their rear.'* The skill and courage of Xenophon, 
however, soon triumphed over this difficulty, for by making a 

' Anabasis, lib. III., cap. iv. * See Index Map. 

^ Anabasis ; and Ainsworth's Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand 
Greeks, p. 144. 

* Anabasis, lib. III., cap. iv. 


flank movement at the head of a select body of troops, 
the defenders were turned, and the pass being forced, the 
Greeks proceeded in their march and encamped at one of the 
well-stored villages in the plain near the Tigris ; now, doubt- 
less, the tract round Jezireh-ibn-'Omar.^ 

The lofty barriers of Jebel Jiidi being in front, as well as on 
one flank, and an almost impassable river on the other, or 
western side, the pass leading to the plain being moreover 
occupied by a numerous army, an individual, whose name well Proposed 
deserved to have been recorded, offered to extricate the ten river.^^ ° 
thousand from their perilous position by enabling them to pass 
the river ; the project was to form for the troops a bridge con- 
sisting of 10,000 inflated skins of sheep, goats, and other 
animals, covered with hurdles and turf" 

This ingenious contrivance was however declined, from an The Greeks 
opinion that the troops might be attacked during the passage, ^untry, and 
and the Greeks made a retrograde, or rather a flank movement, 
penetrating, or more properly exploring, a valley running in an 
easterly direction into the mountains ; probably along the vale 
of Mar Yuhannah, now the seat of a Chaldean bishop.^ In 
the villages of this valley, the Greeks not only obtained supplies, 
but also intelligence almost of equal importance, since it enabled 
them to decide on the best means of accomplishing their 
hazardous enterprise. 

Besides the route westward to Lydia, Ionia, &c., and that determine to 
which they had partly followed from Babylonia, also a third une^of march, 
going eastward to Susa and the Persian Ecbatana, they learnt 
from some prisoners that there was a fourth leading northward 
over the Carduchian mountains, by which the march might be 
continued without either crossing the Tigris, or being so much 
exposed as before to the enemy's cavalry. 

Having decided on scaling the mountains to follow the last 
route, a rapid night-march not only carried the Greeks some 

' Ainsworth's Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand Greeks, p. 148. 

* An account of such bridges will be found in the Chapter on Arts and 
Sciences at the end of this volume. 

^ Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand, by "W. F. Ainsworth. 
Parker, 1844. 



distance from their pursuers, but enabled them to master one 
of the most defensible passes in the country, before the Kurds 
were prepared to offer anything like serious opposition. In 
this remarkable opening-, no doubt that which passes by the 
They regain castlcs, and through the flourishing gardens of the village of 
e igris,an p^'j-^j]^ (Phoenica),^ the Greeks found the houses, as in the 
present day, well supplied with copper utensils," 

The Greeks having dismissed the slaves lately taken, and 
reduced the baggage and horses to the utmost, quitted the river 
for a time, when, proceeding by the ravine of Zawiijah and over 
the highlands of Finduk, they regained the great stream at a 
difficult pass, probably the present Chelek, where there is a 
after a harass- rapid and a ferry. With much difficulty and some loss, the 
reach the river Greeks gained this pass, partly by detaching a force to turn it, 
Centrites. ^.^^ partly by a direct attack ; and after being exposed for a 
time to similar warfare, they reached the river Centrites or 
Buhtan-chai, which falls into the Tigris above the ancient 
Armenian village of Til.^ The march from the vale of Mar 
Yuhannah occupied seven days of harassing warfare, and it was 
Formidable SO judiciously couductcd, that the Kurds only had time to occupy 
the Kurds. the passcs in small numbers : here, however, they rolled down 
fragments of rocks on the Greeks whilst passing the more diffi- 
cult roads and narrow defiles/ The latter were often very 
steep and commanded by precipices ; from which, with much 
difficulty, the mountaineers were driven, either by a direct 
attack, or by being turned, in the manner now practised. 
Fresh difficui- The proooscd quict halt of the Greeks in an abundant plain 

ties of the . . 

Greeks. was cut short by their unexpectedly finding a body of horse and 
foot, who proved to be Armenian, Mygdonian,* and Chaldean 
mercenaries in the pay of the Persians, advantageously posted 
to dispute the passage of the Centrites. 

In addition to this difficulty, the Greeks found that it was 

' Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand, &c., p. loo ; and Anabasis, 
lib. IV., cap. i. 

^ Ibid. ' See above, vol. I., p. 18. 

* Anabasis, lib. IV., cap. ii. 

* Possibly from the valley of Belicha. There are it appears two Chaldean 
districts, those of Milan and Batan, in that neighbourhood. Ainsworth's 
Travels in the Track of the Ten Tliousand, p, 168. 


almost impracticable to cross, owing to the water being up to 
the breast, with a rocky bottom and a rapid current ; and they 
were the more discouraged, on turning round, and perceiving 
that the Carduchians occupied the encampment which they had 
just quitted.' 

Chance, however, made known to the Greeks a crossing- Passage of the 
place which does not appear to have been sought or thought of, 
and owing to the masterly disposition of Xenophon, they passed 
without serious loss, notwithstanding the opposition in front, and 
the annoyance to the rear from the Carduchians and Persians, 
who suffered some loss, the latter especially, from Xenophon's 

Leaving the Persian forces and undisciplined Kurds behind, 
the Greeks, without serious opposition from the mercenaries, 
advanced five parasangs through the hills and gentle acclivities 
of this part of Armenia, to a village with the palace of the 
satrap, and many elegant houses, each having a turret at the 
top. At this place, which seems to be represented by the town 
of Se'rt, they found provisions in abundance, although it was. The Greeks 
like the preceding part of the country, deserted.^ -^^"^i"© Sce^of the 
refreshed themselves here, two days' march of ten parasangs, satrap, 
brought them above the springs of the (eastern) Tigris, and 
in ten additional parasangs, they reached the banks of the and advance to 

m 1 1 the river 

river ieleboas. Teieboas. 

It is considered to be a journey of thirty-eight hours from 
Se'rt to Mush by the shortest route ;"* but as the Greeks ap- 
proached the source of the Tigris, theirs must have been rather 
longer. About twenty hours would be consumed in their 
march to the high ground in question ^^ and about twenty hours 
more, in reaching the supposed Teieboas or Kara-sil, at the 
village of Arisban, near Mush.*' As the trunk of the Murad-sii, 
into which the latter falls, is not usually fordable in this part of 
its course, it became necessary for the Greeks to proceed higher 

* Anabasis, lib. IV., cap. ii. * Ibid. ^ Ibid., cap. iv. 

* Lieut.-Col. Shiel's Journey from Tabriz through Kurdistan, vol. VIII., 
p. 77, of Royal Geographical Journal. 

' Near Bitlis, which is above fifty miles from Se'rt. Ibid. 

* See Index Map. 

Q 2 


up, that is, in a north-easterly direction, between this stream and 
A compact the slopes of Nimriid and Sapan Taghs : this was facilitated in 
Teriba^us, is consequencc of a compact proposed by Teribazus, that the 
march through Armenia should not be molested, and that the 
Greeks should be permitted to take provisions, provided they 
abstained from useless devastation.^ 

Agreeably to an arrangement which was highly advantageous 
to those, who, in the month of December, were to encounter 
the severe cold and deep snow of this elevated country without 
tents or the means of carrying provisions, the Greeks recom- 
menced their march ; and in three days, follov/ed and watched by 
the Persians at the distance of ten stadia, they advanced fifteen 
parasangs over a plain, when they arrived at another palace 
surrounded by many beautiful villages full of provisions.^ 

Whilst sheltering themselves in these villages from a deep 
fall of snow, some suspicion about the hostile intentions of the 
Persians, which appears to have been the consequence of their 
broken by the owu excesscs, induced the Greeks to make an attack ; and in 
Greeks, ^j^jg^ ^-^^ ^g^-^^^ ^]^g silver-postcd bed, and some of the domestics 

of Teribazus were taken. After breaking the compact by this 
act of hostility, the Greeks hastened onward, and having passed 
a difficult defile without experiencing any molestation, in three 
marches through snow, without perceiving habitations, they 
reached and forded the Euphrates or Murad Chai, at no great 
distance, according to report, from its springs, the water only 
reaching to the middle of the body.^ 
Great difficui- Having accomplished the passage, the Greeks marched 
by the snow, fifteen parasaugs from thence in three days, over a plain covered 
to the depth of six feet with snow, from which, and from a bleak 
northerly wind, the soldiers suffered exceedingly, especially in 
the third and fourth marches ; some of the men experiencing 
that craving species of hunger called Bulimy.'' The last day 
at night-fall, Cheirisophus found himself at a village only one 
parasang from that which was occupied by the satrap himself; 
and here many of the Greeks who could not obtain cover 
perished from cold. Being ignorant of the advantages of 

' Anabasis, lib. IV., cap. iv. * Ibid. 

' Ibid., lib. v., cap. v. * Ibid. 


lessening the rigour of an Armenian winter, by clearing 
away the snow at their bivouac, they suffered in the most 
deplorable manner,' and many more must have perished, had it 
not been for Xenophon, who, by his authority and encouraging Encouraging 
example, checked the Persians, and subsequently succeeded in xenopbon. 
joining his coadjutor Cheirisophus.^ As at present, the Ar- 
menian villages generally consisted of subterraneous apart- 
ments, which being entered either by a sloping descent, or by 
means of a ladder from an aperture resembling the mouth of a 
well, they were found to contain horses, cows, goats, sheep, and A.rmenian 
fowls, in addition to one or two families, who resorted to this descnbed. *^' 
protection from the severity of the winter, with an ample stock 
of provisions and fodder,^ Under the faith of their confident 
assertion that they were the king's troops, the Greeks remained 
eight days in these villages, enjoying an abundance of fowls, 
lamb, kid, pork, and veal, with plenty of wheaten bread, and 
barley-wine (beer), which the people drank out of jars by 
means of reeds ;* they proceeded three days through a deserted 
country, and in seven other marches, performed without a 
guide, ^ they found themselves on the river Phasis, where it is a 
plethron wide. 

Agreeably to the intention of fording the great rivers towards The Greeks 
their sources,^ the Greeks v/ould necessarily proceed from the march rea'ch'^^ 
Teleboas in a north-eastern direction through a very mountain- 
ous tract, till they could cross the Murad Chai :" this could not 
have been the case before they reached 39° 10' north latitude, 
or somewhere about seventy miles from the Kara-sii, which, 
under existing circumstances, would require the seven marches 
given by Xenophon. 

From hence, in a north-western direction to a point where the upper part 
the river Aras or Phasis "^ of Xenophon is generally fordable, oJ ArL^^^''^ 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XIV. cap. x. * Anabasis, lib. IV., cap. v. 

^ Ibid, * Ibid., cap. vi. 

* After conducting the army for three days, the bailiff left it on account 
of the ill usage he experienced from Cheirisophus. Anab., lib. IV., cap. vi. 

* Anabasis, lib. IV., cap. i. "^ See Index Map. 

® Supposed to be from the plain or district of Pasiani or Piisin, which is 
traversed by the Aras in this part of its course. See D'Anville's Anc. Geog., 
vol. I., p. 361, London, 1810, and Mr. Brant's Map, vol. VI., of Royal 
Geographical Journal, and vol. X., pp. 341-430. 



difficulties of 
the retreat. 

The Greeks 
force their 
■way through 
the country of 
the Taochians. 

Cattle, &c. 
contained in 

namely, at the junction of the Hasan Kareh-su and the Bin-gol- 
sii, near Kopri Keui, it cannot be less than from seventy to 
eighty miles ; since the shorter distance from the latter point 
to the upper part of the Murad-sii, near l^ara Kilisa, is sixty- 
six miles.^ 

It has just been seen, that the distance in question occupied 
thirteen marches, or, including four days not particularly 
mentioned, about sixty-nine parasangs. But as it is to be 
observed, that these were intended to be road distances answer- 
ing to one hour, it may fairly be presumed, that an army could 
not accomplish much more than about one mile in each, es- 
pecially through snow so deep that the whole of the specified 
time must have been consumed between the rivers Euphrates 
and Araxes ; even the pressing marches through Mesopotamia 
were less than two miles per hour. We are told, that it even 
became necessary to tie bags stuffed with hay to the horses' 
feet to prevent their sinking.^ 

On the second day after crossing the latter river, the Greeks 
discovered the inhabitants of the surrounding countries, namely 
the Chalybeans, the Taochians, and the Phasians, assembled 
to dispute their passage, and occupying strong ground pro- 
bably between the territories of the two last. 

Here, as when difficulties of the same kind previously oc- 
curred, the eminences were gained by an attack made in the 
flank by volunteers; and the disheartened defenders having 
fled with loss, the Greeks got possession of some well-stored 
villages in advance. 

During the succeeding five marches of thirty parasangs, 
made through the territory of the Taochians,^ provisions were 
scarce, it being the custom of the country people to place their 

' Mr. Brant's Journey, vol. X., p. 424 to 430 of Royal Geographical 

* Anabasis, lib. IV., cap. vi. 

^ Presumed to be part of the mountainous tract stretching northward of 
the upper part of the Araxes. Traces of the name are supposed to be found 
in the Taok of the Turks, and Tuchi or Taoutchie of the Georgian dis- 
tricts. — Aper^u des Possessions Russes au-dela du Caucase, sous le Rapport 
Statistique, Ethnographique, Topographique et Financier. St. Petersburg, 
1836. 4 tomes en 8vo., avec une carte. M.S. traduit par M. le Capitaine 



supplies in secret fastnesses, probably wattled enclosures such 
as those still in use in the little Kabarda and district of 
Tuchi.^ One of these entrenchments, containing a number of 
oxen, asses, and sheep, was, however, taken after a prolonged 
resistance ; during which, the women chose to perish rather 
than fall into the power of the Greeks. 

The latter now proceeded a distance of fifty parasangs The Greeks 
through the territory of tlie Chalybeans to the river Harpasus, Sf hos'tn? ' 
which they accomplished in seven marches ; ^ notwithstanding Chalybeans. 
the difficulties caused by the most warlike, and the most 
troublesome people hitherto encountered. The system of 
hostilities pursued, chiefly consisted in constantly harassing 
the rear ; but when pressed in turn, they retreated to fast- 
nesses in which their provisions were secured : so that the 
Greeks would have been starved by their systematic and per- 
severing opposition, had it not been for the supply of cattle 
taken from the Taochians. 

The difficulties experienced by Rennell, Ainsworth, and 
other commentators in following this part of the retreat of the 
ten thousand, will be greatly lessened, if it be borne in mind, 
that the daily marches, through the deep snow in January,^ 
the army being also harassed by the Chalybeans, must have 
been very short. From the supposed crossing-place on the Difficulties of 
Aras, keeping a little way northward of the direct line, it is JtroS*^^ 
about 1 10 miles to the Tchdriik-sii (Jorak) or Acampsis, near Armenia. 
Kara Aghatch, which would coincide with the fourteen marches 
given by Xenophon,'* as does also the position of the river in 
question, with the Harpasus ; the last seven marches being, as 
we are informed, through the country of the Chalybeans, the 
Chaldeans of Strabo.^ 

This probably was the southern part of the district of 
Tchildir ; for the Chaldeans, as a separate people, occupied a The Greeks 
tract next to the Colchiaiis, which was, however, afterwards m^rch'through 

' See above, vol. I., pp. 154-159. - See Index Map. 

^ The writer found it very deep in this part of Armenia, both in De- 
cember, 1831, and in January, 1832. 
* Anabasis, lib. IV., cap. vii. 
Lib. XIT., p, 549. 


extended to Pontus, and formed a considerable kingdom mider 

Quitting the river Harpasus,^ twenty parasangs, made in 

four marches, brought the Greeks to a halting-place at some 

villages, possibly near the present town of Baibiirt, in which 

they remained three days to obtain provisions. From hence, 

the country of apparently proceeding towards the western pass through the 

the Scythians, gj.g^|. northern chain, they made twenty parasangs in three 

additional marches, to the rich and well-inhabited city of 

Gvmnias.^ Possibly this place may now be represented by 

the small town of Gemeri on the Kara-su, an affluent of the 

river Frat ; in which case the distance thither being about 60 

miles, would occupy seven or eight marches along the slopes of 

the Paryadres, a branch of the Taurus,* or, as is stated, through 

reach the city the country of the Scythinians. This appears to be the only 

ofGymnias. ^^.^^^ ^f ^j^g^^. ephemeral power, which commenced with the 

Sacae or Scythians,^ on the banks of the Araxes ; from whence 

the people extended their name and authority over Imiretia, 

Colchis, Georgia, the Caucasus, Media, Persia, and even 

Palestine; according to Herodotus^ the same people ruled 

Asia during twenty-eight years. 

The sea On leaving Gymnias, the guide furnished by the satrap of 

from Mo^iiit *^^ district, delighted the Greeks by saying that he would 

Theches. forfeit his head if he did not show them the sea in five 

marches ; and accordingly on the fifth day, on ascending the 

holv mountain of Theches, the Greeks gave a tremendous shout 

of surprise and delight on finding his promise realized. The 

mountain alluded to may be the present Gaiir Tagh ;" and 

from thence to Tarabuziin, although the direct distance is not 

great, the journey occupied five days with good horses. This 

' Compare Stephanus de Urbibus, pp. 101, 749, with Adelung's Mitliri- 
dates, vol. I., p. 315, and Athenaous, vol. VI., p. 13, according to Kicholas 
of Damas. et Orell, p. 136, and above, pp. 36, 55. 

* See Index Map. ^ Anabasis, lib. IV., cap. vii. 

* See above, vol. I., pp. 286, 287. 

^ Compare Diod. Sic, lib. II., cap. xxvi,, with Herod., lib. I., cap. cv., 
and Ouseley's Oriental Collections, vol. II., p. 143. 

* Lib. I., cap. evi. 

' From the summit of this mountain the writer saw the sea in 1831. 


was owing to the necessity of passing along what in reality is Distance from 
more a winding chasm than a mountain valley in the ordinary Tarlbuzun.^^ 
acceptation of the word ; and it is scarcely necessary to 
observe that the marches through the mountains of Kurdistan 
and Armenia often must have presented difficulties and caused 
delays susceptible of the same kind of explanation. 

Gaiir Tagh is not, however, the only mountain in this part 
of the country, from which the Euxine may be seen, for the 
guide informed the author that it is also visible from three 
other peaks, namely, the Zigani mountain, two hours N.W. Theseais 
of Godol ; again, with a more extensive view, from Fililein, three other 
two hours on the other side of Godol towards Giimish Khanah ; fr'omVaragui 
and, lastly, at the higher peak of KaragiiV three hours south- 
ward of the latter. 

The name of the first, " Infidel Mountain," and its position 
with respect to Tarabuziin, claim for it the honour of repre- 
senting the holy Theches ; the localities also appear to corre- 
spond to the description. Xenophon tells us that on the first 
day they came to a river separating the Macronians from the 
Scythinians ; and on this, which disembogued into another The Greeks 
river, the Macronians were drawn up to dispute the passage, by theXmS^^- 
A negotiation, followed by a treaty, produced however friend- J^^^ns, 
ship with that people.^ 

Eleven or twelve miles N.N.W. of Gaiir Tagh (visible 
from thence) is the village of Damajula, which is situated near 
the meeting of four valleys and two rivers. One of the latter 
coming from the N.W. has remarkably steep banks rising 
fifteen or twenty feet, with hills above, of difficult ascent on 
the eastern side, and a chain of more accessible shoulders on 
the opposite ; both are covered with firs, and silver poplars 
of small size. This valley would have been met during the 
first day's march from Gaiir Tagh, and troops posted on the 
opposite sides would be within speaking distance, although they 
must have been completely separated by the difficult nature 
of the ravine. Peace being concluded, the Greeks were con- enter into a 
ducted by this people during the succeeding three marches ^'^^^^^' 
through the remainder of their territory ; no doubt follow- 
' See above, vol. T., p. 287. * Anabasis, lib. IV., cap. viii. 


ing the valleys of Damoulee and Godol, till at the termi- 
nation of the latter, and about thirty-one miles from Damajula, 
they entered that of Giimish Khanah, a little northward of the 
town of this name. 
TheCoichians The great and deep valley in question runs northward from 
to^oppose""^ thence along the foot of the Colchian mountains for about 
twelve miles, when an abutment of the latter, called Karakaban, 
crosses it near Zigaui, at an elevation of about 5300 feet, and 
the pass thus formed was occupied in force by the Colchians.^ 

Being in a state of hostility with the latter, the Macronians 
returned to their own country, a distance of about forty-three 
miles, which would correspond with the three marches made 
in a more favourable season (February), than the preceding 
part of the march. It is difficult to imagine a stronger barrier 
or a more formidable position than that M'hich here presented 
itself, to exercise the talent, and display the unshaken intre- 
the Greeks pidity of the Grecian chief. Owing to the nature of the 
igaua. gj.Q^jj^^ ^g ^y^Yi as the numbers by which it was occupied, the 
Greeks, even could they have passed the latter unbroken, 
would have been outflanked had they attacked in line. But 
Xenophon, without hesitation, turned this circumstance to his 
own advantage, by a masterpiece of tactics hitherto un- 
By means of a The Greeks were formed in eleven columns, three of which, 
attack°the ^ach Consisting of 600 targeteers and archers, occupied the 
pass IS earned, £^j-i],g ^^^ centre; thesc ascended the hill at such dis- 
tances from one another that Xenophon not only outstretched 
the flanks of the Colchians, but was also prepared to attack 
them in rear, if, contrary to expectation, they had stood the 
shock and maintained their ground. At first the Colchians 
advanced, but before they closed with the Greek columns, they 
opened right and left, and eventually fled in disorder, abandon- 
ing the well-stored villages in their rear.^ 

After three days' halt, sufiering from the quantity and nature 
of the honey, which, from the abundance of the Azalea pon- 
tica, the Rhododendron ponticum, and the hellebore in this 
fine country, affects the brain for a time, the Greeks, in two 

' Anabasis, lib. IV., cap. viii. * Ibid. 


marches of seven parasangs, reached the villages near Tara- 
buzun (Trebizond). Here they halted for a space of thirty 
days, doing sacrifice, celebrating gymnic games, ^ and occupied 
with the double object of endeavouring to provide shipping 
through the Greek admiral in the Euxine (Anaxibius), and in 
foraging or rather plundering the rich valleys in the vicinity, 
in order to lay in a supply of provisions for their march, in 
case of failing to collect vessels ; for, agreeably to the Grecian and the Greeks 
law, without an express compact, men were bound to no reci- buzun.' 
procal duties." In one of these excursions, the Drilloe de- 
fended their capital with such determined valour, that the 
Greeks were repulsed, and it required all the talent and 
presence of mind of Xenophon, who was summoned to their 
assistance, to extricate the troops from their critical situation : 
this he effected by interposing a barrier of burning houses 
between his troops and the enemy .^ 

When the supplies furnished by the surrounding country 
were nearly exhausted, and only a portion of the necessary 
shipping was obtained, the Greeks embarked their women and The woinen 
children, with the sick and the aged, under the two oldest are sent by sea! 
generals, Philesius and Sophsenetus, while the remainder pro- ^^ 
ceeded by land ; and in three marches they reached the Greek 
city Cerasus, now Kerasunt. The site of the ancient city is 
presumed to have been on the Kerasiin Dereh-sii,* about eight 
miles from Cape Yoros, and from Trebizond not quite forty 
miles. And considering the difficulties of the country, it is 
not likely that a greater distance could have been accomplished 
in three days. Here they halted ten days, still mustering 
8,000 men,^ and with the exception of one-tenth, which they 
dedicated to Apollo and the Ephesian Diana, every man 
received his share of the prize-money produced from the sale 
of the slaves ; who appear to have been taken on every occa- 
sion that offered itself throughout the march. 

' Anabasis, lib. IV., cap. viii. 

* Mitford's Greece, chap. XV., sec. iv. 

' Anabasis, lib. V., cap. iii. 

^ W. J. Hamilton's Asia Minor, vol. I., p. 250. 

^ Anabasis, lib. V., cap. iii. 


the Greeks Thos6 who had come thus far in vessels, continued their 

mrrcMnto the voyage along the coast, whilst the remainder marched to the 
iiosch? °^^^^ borders of the MossyncEci or Moschi, whose territory was mari- 
time, and appears to have stretched from a little distance west- 
ward of Tarabuziin, to the district of Pharnacia, or upwards 
of seventy miles along the coast. These are described as a 
savage people, living in the eastern part of Pontus, subsisting 
on the flesh of wild animals and the fruit of the oak, and in- 
habiting trees and turrets, from which they take their name of 

Having made an alliance with one tribe or section of this 
people, who came by sea to join them, the Greeks entered the 
territory, and marched against the others, which had given 
them umbrage. This last, then occupied a fort or citadel 
within what was considered the metropolis, which appears to 
have been in the neighbourhood of Kerasunt. This fortifi- 
cation had been the cause of the present war, for being strong, 
the district which happened to possess it for the time being 
was considered to be supreme, and it was seized by one of the 
belligerents, contrary to a stipulation, that it should be common 
to both. 
The Greeks The MossynoBci, making their usual dancing gestures, ad- 
suffer a defeat, y^jj^jg^j ^q i\^q attack of their countrymen, who were supported 
by a portion of the Greeks, both were however repulsed with 
considerable loss, and pursued till they were covered by the 
main body of the latter. Next morning, after an eloquent 
exhortation to recover the disgrace of having for the first time 
shown their backs to an enemy, Xenophon moved to the attack 
in columns, having his allies on the left, and the intervals 
occupied by the light-armed troops, in order to prevent those 
of the enemy from getting between, and pelting the Greeks 
afterwards with stoncs. After a determined defence, the place was taken, 
sn-onphoid^of and the king and his attendants allowed themselves to be 
the Moschi. ]^^j.^^ rathcr than abandon the wooden tower which served as 
his palace. The Greeks now sacked the remainder of the 
city, and having delivered it over to their new allies, in eight 
days they completed their march through the rest of the Mos- 
' Strabo, lib. XII., p. 547. 


synoecian territory,^ and traversed that of the Chalybes. The 
latter were subjects of the former, and far from being nu- 
merous, they lived by the manufacture of iron,^ and were 
mixed with the Tibarenians.^ It was with some reluctance 
that the Greeks consented to march through the territory of 
the latter ; they did so, however, keeping near the coast till 
they reached Cotyora, now probably Ordou, and originally a Cotyora and 
Sinopian colony. The distance to this city from the field of cunTxa. 
battle near Babylon is estimated by Xenophon at six hundred 
and twenty parasangs,^ which, at the presumed average of 1 • 9 
mile per parasang, would be but 1175 '8 miles, and this was 
performed in one hundred and twenty marches. This gives 
9 • 79 miles each day, which, considering the difficulties of the 
season and the encumbrances of buff-coats, shields, and some 
baggage, would scarcely be, if at all, exceeded. 

Here this distinguished band met an unkind reception, for, inhospitaiity 
instead of exercising hospitality, the Cotyorians refused to °;ais! °'^°' 
receive the sick into the town, or even to provide a market 
without the walls. The Greeks, however, remained there occupations of 
forty-five days, which were employed in making processions, ^^ Greeks. 
in celebrating the gymnic games according to the manner of 
their respective states, and in supplying themselves with pro- 
visions, which was done partly at the expense of the Cotyo- 
rians, and partly by plundering the neighbouring Paphlago- 
nians : this gave great umbrage, and the Sinopians would have 
retaliated had it not been for the firmness displayed by Xeno- 
phon. Afler discussing the question of forming a Greek 
settlement on the Euxine, as well as the relative advantages of 
a homeward voyage by sea, and a march thither by land, the 
former course was adopted ; and the Cotyorians having pro- 
vided the necessary shipping to get rid of their uninvited The Greeks 
guests, a fair wind carried the Greeks rapidly along the coast cotjor™ 
of Paphlagonia, when, passing in succession the rivers Ther- 
medon (Thermeh-sii), Iris (Yechil Irmak), and Halys (Kizil 
Irmak), they landed at Harmene or Armene, a port five miles land at 

Harmene, and 
' See Index Map. 

* Xen., Anabasis, lib. V., cap. v. ; Apollon. Rhodius, 11., v. 375. 

* Bochart, in Phaleg., p. 207. * Anabasis, lib. V., cap. v. 


from the flourishing city of Sinope, once a Milesian settlement.^ 
Here they halted five days, and Xenophon having declined the 
honour, after consulting the gods by sacrifice, Cheirisophus was 
elected sole commander/ the army preferring this to continuing 
as heretofore under an oligarchy of military chiefs, who were 
not considered so likely as a single general to enable the soldiers 
to acquire booty as they approached Greece. Next day, the 
wind being fair, the Greeks proceeded along the remainder of 
the coast of Paphlagonia, and, continuing to follow that of 
again at Bithyuia, the army disembarked near Heraclea at the close 
of the second day's sail. By a strange mistake, Xenophon 
mentions the rivers Thermedon and Halys,^ as having been 
passed in this, instead of in the preceding voyage from Cotyora 
to Harmene.* 

At Heraclea discord not only caused Cheirisophus to lose the 
chief command, but led, for a time, to the army being divided 
into three separate bodies.^ The Arcadians and the Achseans, 
mustering about 4,500 heavy armed men, proceeded by sea 
under ten generals or chiefs, and disembarked at Calpse on the 
coast of Asiatic Thrace, confidently expecting, by preceding 
their comrades, to obtain much booty. The heavy-armed men 
and the Thracian targeteers, who amounted to about 2, 1 00 men, 
Separation of Under Chcirisoplius, marched along the coast to Thrace ; and 
into^hree^ the third, under Xenophon, consisting of 1,700 heavy armed 
corps. yf[i]^ 3Q0 targeteers and 40 horsemen, landed on the confines 

of Thrace, and marched towards Calpse,® in a direct line. In 
the latter part of this march through the heart of the country, 
the commander, by means of his cavalry, learnt that the Ar- 
cadians had at first been successful, by taking numerous slaves 
and a quantity of cattle, but afterwards the Thracians had 
Perilous sitiia- nearly destroyed the detachment under Hegesander, annihilated 
body'ofthe another under Smicres, and surrounded the hill occupied by 
Arcadians. ^^^ remainder of the Arcadians.'' 

In a moment, the ingratitude and wrongs experienced from 

' Anabasis, lib. V., cap. v. * Ibid., lib. VI., cap. i. 

8 Ibid. " See Coast of the Black-Sea, Index Map. 

' Anabasis, lib. V., cap. ii. " Ibid., lib. VI., cap. iv, 

' Ibid., cap. iii. 


his countrymen were forgotten by Xenophon, and after making 
a feeling appeal to them, he put his troops in motion, hoping 
not only to extricate the Arcadians, but likewise by concen- 
tration to reorganize the army once more. " Let us there- 
fore press on," said Xenophon, " resolved either to die on the 
field, or save our countrymen." The Greeks did not fail to Courage and 
respond to this generous feeling, and the able generalship of xjiophon. 
Xenophon accomplished the object without even the necessity 
of fighting a battle.^ 

The sudden extinction of the numerous fires lighted by 
Xenophon's troops, induced the Thracians, as well as the Ar- 
cadian Greeks, to decamp, the former supposing that a night junction 
attack was intended ; this belief gave time for a junction with consequence 
the latter to be effected next day near Port Calpae, now Kiepe' 
or Ke'fken 'Adasi.- This place is on a neck of land about 
seventy miles eastward of Byzantium ; and here Xenophon 
also found the forces which had marched under Cheirisophus, 
but the general himself was just dead of fever. 

The late discord produced a salutary lesson; and having 
buried the dead, including Cheirisophus, the Greeks resolved The Greeks 
to continue the march under the same generals, and subject to separTteTn *° 
the regulations which previously existed. Having also decreed f^^^^re. 
that the man, who might again propose to divide the army, 
should suffer death, preparations were made for a movement, 
beginning, as usual, with sacrifices.^ 

For some days, the omens continued unpropitious, when the 
soldiers becoming suspicious of Xenophon, and very impatient, 
about 2,000 of them proceeded to collect provisions under 
Neon, an Asinsean, the successor of Cheirisophus : being 
attacked, whilst dispersed in the villages, by a body of horse 
under Pharnabazus, they were driven to an adjoining hill, after 
the loss of 500 men, the greatest calamity hitherto expe- 
rienced.* From this perilous situation they were relieved by 
a select body of troops under Xenophon; who, in order to 
prevent alarm or despondency, took the precaution of securing The Greeks 
the position of the Greeks by running a fosse and a strong curedEr 

* Anabasis, lib. VI., cap. iii. ^ Index Map. 

" Anabasis, lib. VI., cap. iv. ■* Ibid. 



assume the 

makes a com- 
bined and 

attack on the 

The Greeks 
advance from 

palisade from side to side of the neck of land which joins the 
promontory to the continent. The baggage being thus pro- 
tected, and a vessel having arrived most opportunely from 
Heraclea with corn, wine, and live cattle,^ the moral courage 
of the Greeks was in some measure restored, and Xenophon 
assumed the ofiensive. He found the enemy's forces regularly 
disposed in line under Pharnabazus, Spithridates, and Kathines, 
and formidable from the numbers both of the Persian horse 
and Bithynian foot." 

The main body of the Greeks advanced to the attack in line, 
having in reserve three divisions, of about 200 men each, 
supporting the flanks and centre, keeping at the distance of 
about one hundred paces from the principal line. 

The troops in this line, owing to some difficulties in crossing 
a wide valley, hastily concluded that the movement was im- 
possible, and halted in consequence. Xenophon, as usual, 
hastened to the post of danger, and put himself at the head of 
the intended attack ; this was successful after repeated charges 
had been made, and the Greeks returned to their encampment, 
having gained a complete victory.^ 

The immediate result of the action was the retreat of the 
Persian forces, so that the army obtained the command of the 
surrounding country and its supplies. It may here be observed, 
that when the whole body made an excursion, the booty became 
common property ; but at other times parties of soldiers, with 
their slaves, made marauding excursions on their private 
account, on which occasions, agreeably to a general vote of the 
array, the acquisition of each individual was considered to be 
his own '^* arrangements which naturally gave rise to constant 
disputes. The country people now furnished certain supplies 
in order to save their farms and villages, and as the Greek 
cities also sent provisions, the camp abounded in every- 
thing necessary.^ Owing to an opinion that Port Calpae 
was to be a permanent colony, the hopes of a profitable 
trade brought merchants there, and deputations arrived from 

' Anabasis, lib. VI., cap. v. 
" Ibid., cap. V. 
' Ibid. 

* Ibid., cap. vi. 
■* Ibid., cap. vi. 


some of the Bithynian tribes to solicit alliances with the 

The next halt was at Chrysopolis, a city situated almost at toChrysopoiis, 
the western entrance of the Bosphorus, which place the Greeks gy^a^tl^m^ 
reached in six days, having taken a vast quantity of slaves and 
cattle during the march. From hence Anaxibius, the admiral 
at Byzantium, at the instigation of Pharnabazus, who hoped to 
save the rest of his satrapy from being plundered, induced the 
Greek generals and captains to visit that city, promising to take 
the Greeks into regular pay if they passed over for this pur- 
pose. This took place accordingly ; but finding themselves 
deceived and sent out of Byzantium on a false pretence, the 
soldiers re-entered, and would have seized and retained the city, 
if Xenophon had not managed to induce them to proceed to 
some villages in the vicinity, whither he followed, after being 
almost expelled from the city which he had just saved. After- 
wards, agreeably to a treaty concluded at a great banquet, and 
on the faith of large promises, the Greeks marched to assist 
Seuthes, son of Maesades, in recovering his patrimony as one They serve in 
of the independent kings of Thrace.^ '^^'^'''' ^"'^ 

A joint night march was then made, and, agreeably to the 
practice of the Greeks, the heavy troops of both forces were put 
in advance, as the surest means of regulating the rest of the line. 
The result of the first attack was the capture of many slaves and 
cattle. Another trifling affair brought about a peace ; but 
Seuthes failed in the promised payments. 

During an expedition which followed into Upper Thrace, the then under the 
Laceda3monians, who had entered into an alliance with Pharna- nians. 
bazus, offered pay to the Greeks if they would serve against 
Tissaphernes. This they accepted, and having received some 
cattle from Seuthes in lieu of the payment due from him, 
Xenophon led the Greeks across the Dardanelles to Lamp- 
sacus f from whence they proceeded through Troas, then 
crossed Mount Ida to Antandrus. Subsequently the army 
marched to the plain of Thebe, thence through Adramyttium, 
by Certonium, Aterne, and the plains of Caicus, to Tergamus, a 
city of Mysia. In a second excursion made in this neighbour- 

' Anabasis, lib. VII., cap. iii. * Ibid., cap. viii. 



After a snc- hood, the first having failed owing to the height of the walls and 
Tcainstthe^ Strength of the castle, Xenophon captured the wife, children, 
Persians, ^^^^ ^l^^ chief part of the riches of the Persian chief Asidates, 
with which booty he returned to Pergamus ; and soon after- 
wards Thimbron, the admiral, arrived with proposals to enter 
the Lacedaemonian service. Having, in addition to their pay, 
the prospect of continuing the same freebooting warfare in a 
more promising field, the offer was accepted, and Xenophon 
Xenophon delivered over the troops whom he had so long and so ably 
fomniand! ^^^ conductcd, and with whom he had braved so many dangers. 
The military The Celebrated formation of the Greeks consisted in a portion 
oFthe Grfc'eL. of bowmcu and horsemen being added to the light or middle- 
armed and heavy-armed infantry •, the latter, embodied in the 
dense order of the phalanx, being the chief dependence. The 
soldier found his own arms according to his means, and in a 
great measure after his own taste ; but his discipline was regu- 
lated bv the institutions of the state to "which he belonged. An 
individual not provided with armour, and unacquainted with 
the discipline of the heavy armed, was put among the more 
Heavy and ignoblc or liglit-amied troops; in which he had less pay, no 
troops!'^™^ allowance for a servant, and, above all, his name was not en- 
rolled amongst those who fell in battle.^ 

But the force thus organized laboured under the disadvantage 
of being employed only in an annual tour of service ; and, owing 
to the jarring interests of the different states, their contingents 
carried with them the still more serious evil of discord, which, 
although smothered for a time in the midst of dangers and 
when exposed to incessant exertions, was at other times ready 
to break out and compromise the safety, if not the very exist- 
ence, of the army. On the other hand, the narrative of the 
events in question exemplifies the principle that strength is 
gained by combination ; it shows also what may be effected by 
troops acting under the salutary restraint of discipline. Xeno- 
Advantagcsof phon has proved to the world not only that dense bodies are 
a euse mass, ^^^^ suited to forcc their way through an enemy, but that they 
can retreat with comparative safety, even in the presence of a 
greatly superior force. In such a movement, more particu- 

' Mitford's Ilistorj' of Greece, chap. XXIV., sec. iii. 


larly through a mountainous country, the line is shorter than 
that of the pursuing force, which of necessity covers more 
ground, so that, when halted to repel an attack, the former at 
once becomes superior on the ground which it occupies. There- 
fore, although an enemy may overtake, he dare not attack with in attack and 

when retreat- 

a small force - and whilst he is concentrating sufficient strength ^^ 
to operate with advantage, the retreating columns will have 
gained a considerable distance. It was simply on this prin- 
ciple, skilfully carried out, that the ten thousand Greeks were 
enabled to continue their march, alternately forcing the passes, 
occupied by hostile Kurds, Chalybeans, &c., and with in- 
domitable valour showing an irresistible front to their pursuers. 

The Anabasis, therefore, has been in a great measure the A knowledge 
guide of commanders in subsequent times ; and it has done acquired from 
more to advance military tactics than any other portion Qf ^ ^ ^"^^^asis. 
ancient or modern history. Even before the events in question 
could be recorded, a decided improvement in the art of war 
took place throughout Greece ; and this continued to increase 
till it caused the overthrow of the ponderous empire wielded 
in Asia by the Persian monarchs. The invasion of the 
younger Cyrus first made the real state of this vast territory 
known, and those who had so successfully braved the power of 
the great king were ready to do so again. 

When the Greek troops took service for this purpose under Mildness of 
the Lacedaemonians, the different provinces of Persia continued, government. 
as in the time of Darius Hystaspes, to preserve their institu- 
tions, and were governed by their own laws. Then, as now, if 
the satrap sent his tribute to the great king at the stated 
time, he was in other respects almost unfettered, for the Persian 
laws were both few and simple, and the treatment of the con- 
quered was mild and liberal.' But frequently, as it is in modern Some of the 
times also, several inferior governments were placed under a ^^c'lujJd 
pow^erful satrap. The Pontic and Hellespontic provinces, for j"j^"^' ^^'^°' 
instance, were governed by Pharnabazus, whose territories bore 
indifferently the name of the Bithynian, or Hellespontine 
satrapy. The seat of the government was at Dascylium, a 
rich city, in which there was a sumptuous palace, having parks 
' Heron., lib. VI., cap. xlii. 

R 2 



[chap. VIII. 

based on 

and Tissa- 

to expel tbe 
Greeks from 

and open chases, with fish and game of every kind.^ Some of 
the satrapies included kingdoms, as that of Tissaphernes, under 
whom were Lydia, Caria, Ionia, and, in fact, most of the tract 
westward of the river Halys. 

Except that the power of the chiefs was derived from the 
sovereign instead of being hereditary, the working details of 
the Asiatic districts were based on feudalism ; and as the effi- 
ciency of the latter in a great measure depended on the fidelity 
of the chiefs who were raised to the government of provinces, 
the actual power of the king over his distant dominions was 
imperfect; the empire, as a whole, not only being unwieldy 
from its extent, but weak, owing to the intrigues, jealousies, and 
contending interests of the satraps. These rulers were easily 
moved to take arms one against another, or failing an open 
rupture, they were ready to invade the territory of a rival, or 
to provide another state with the funds for this purpose ; some- 
times, even, they made war upon their sovereign himself. As 
an elucidation of this state of things, it may here be mentioned, 
that when the Lacedaemonians determined to make war on the 
Persians in Asia, Dercyllidas, the successor of Thimbron, suc- 
cessfully invaded the satrapy of Pharnabazus, and secured the 
independence of the Ionian and ^^olian colonies '^ having for 
this purpose at least, the tacit assistance of Tissaphernes, who 
gladly contributed funds in order to keep the Greeks at a 
distance from his own districts. 

But the advantageous position, which, with a small force, 
enabled Dercyllidas to attack one great satrapy, and keep the 
other in check, was lost by the ill-advised orders issued by the 
Ephori of Lacedsemon, to carry the war into Caria ; for, being 
thus released from the presence of the Greeks, Pharnabazus 
made a proposal to Tissaphernes to unite their forces, in order 
to expel them from Asia. 

With this view, the two satraps proceeded into Caria, and 
by a treaty subsequently made near the Marauder, Dercyllidas, 
M'ith his forces, agreed to quit the continent ; the Asian Greeks 
were to be considered free ;' and as the Greek cities already 

' Xen., Hel., lib. IV., cap. i. * Ibid., lib. III., cap. ii. 

» Ibid. 


enjoyed their own institutions, each party gained the leading 
object almost without a sacrifice. 

Ere this treaty was ratified by the Persian king, a report that Agesiiaus pro- 
he was making preparations induced the Lacedaemonians to send EphLus!' ""^ 
a fierce under Agesiiaus to Ephesus. The events which followed, 
though not strongly marked, are well calculated to show the 
nature of the Persian government in Lesser Asia, and were, in 
the sequel, of vast importance to that empire. The nominal 
object of the armament being the independency of the Greek 
cities, Tissaphernes professed his willingness to accede ; but covert pre- 
during a truce to obtain the king's sanction for that object, he Thsaphemes. 
collected an army, and then announced to Agesiiaus that if his 
forces were not immediately withdrawn from Asia, he must 
expect the vengeance of the great king.^ 

On the other hand, the Grecian commander assembled the 
Ionian, ^^olian, and Hellespontine forces, and feigning an 
attack on Caria, he unexpectedly fell upon and plundered the 
satrapy of Pharnabazus ; but on the repulse of his cavalry by 
an inferior body of horse near Dascylium, he retreated to the 
coast, where, having organized a fresh army, he defeated Tissa- 
phernes and took the Persian camp on the river Pactolus." 

Defeat seldom finds excuse or even palliation in any country, Tissaphernes 
still less in the east, and the renewed influence of Parysatis ^^ superceded. 
over the king being thrown into the scale,^ Artaxerxes com- 
missioned Tithraustes to supersede and behead Tissaphernes. 

More influenced by his personal interests than the desire to Tithraustes ■ 
wipe away the late disgrace, the new satrap told Agesiiaus that ^^^^^^ ^ 

, ^ •' II- 1 •• separate peace. 

his predecessor had justly suffered for his misconduct, adding 
that the king consented to the freedom of the Asian Greek 
cities on the payment of the ancient tribute for the land ; and 
he proposed that the European army should be withdrawn."* 
In furtherance of this object he advanced about 6,000/., or 
30 talents, to defray the expense of the march, and gave a hint 
that Pharnabazus might still be considered an enemy of the 

' Xen., Hel., cap. iv. ; Plutarch, in Agesiiaus. 

* Xen., Hel., lib. III., cap. iv. 

^ Plutarch, in Artaxerxes, vol. YI., p 273. 

* Xen., Hell., lib. Ill , cap. iv. 



Agesilaus con- 
tinues the 

The Greeks 
invade, and 
then abandon 

The Persians 
are victorious 
at sea. 

The Persians 
defeated near 

Proposals of 
the LacedsE- 
monians to 

Greeks. Accordingly, Agesilaus proceeded northward, when 
some towns voluntarily surrendered and others were taken by 
assault. Being reinforced by 1,000 Paphlagonian horse and 
2,000 targeteers, he plundered Bithynia and took its attractive 

At times, however, the Persian cavalry maintained its supe- 
riority, and 700 Greeks were routed by 400 under Pharna- 
bazus. In return, the camp of the latter was surprised ; ^ but 
afterwards a personal conference led to a better understanding, 
and believing that he had gained his object of detaching Pharna- 
bazus from his allegiance, Agesilaus led his army out of 

Whilst Agesilaus, encouraged by his successes, was making 
preparations for the dismemberment of the Persian empire, a 
fresh combination of Athens, Bceotia, Corinth, Argos, &c. 
against the Lacedaemonians, obliged the latter to recall their 
forces. Pharnabazus seized this opportunity, and assisted by 
a Phoenician fleet, he completely defeated that of the Lacedae- 
monians near Cnidus. The misfortune was partially redeemed 
almost immediately by the battle gained by Agesilaus over the 
confederates in the vale of Coronea;^ and this appears to have 
been the last victory either won or shared by the Grecian troops 
which had accompanied Cyrus. 

The result of the battle of Cnidus, aided by a profuse libe- 
rality on the part of the Persian satrap was fatal to the Lace- 
daemonians ; and the power of Athens being in a great degree 
restored by the money and fleet of Pharnabazus, the Lacedae- 
monians despatched Antalcidas to Susa, hoping, in conjunction 
with Boeotia, Corinth, kc, to renew their alliance with Arta- 
xerxes, through Teribazus, the satrap of Lydia. 

The terms proposed, namely, to acknowledge the king's 
sovereignty over the Greek cities in Asia, the islands, as well 
as the Greek cities in Europe being at the same time indepen- 
dent were acceptable to the satrap; but tbe latter portion being 
opposed by one of the parties, the negotiation failed as regarded 
peace. Teribazus, however, was so far gained, that forgetting 
the late hostility of the Lacedaemonians to his sovereign, he 

[ Xen., Ilel., lib. IV , cap. i. * Ibid. * Ibid., cap. iii. 


secretly furnished money to equip their fleet,' and hostilities 
were renewed by sea and land without any very decided result. 

In this state of things, the LacedsBmonians despatched An- 
talcidas once more, as ambassador to Teribazus, who had re- 
sumed his command in Lesser Asia. This satrap was not 
only found to be favourable, but provided with the necessary 
authority from Susa. 

Teribazus immediately appointed a congress to be held, and Rescript of 
the ministers of the belligerent republics having in consequence, 
assembled, he produced a rescript under the royal signet to the 
following effect : — " Artaxerxes, the king, holds it just, that all 
cities on the continent of Asia should belong to his dominion ; 
also the islands of Clazomense and Cyprus ; and that all other 
Grecian cities, small and great, should be independent ; Lem- 
nos, Imbrus, and Scirus to remain, as before, und r Athens :" 
to which was added, " the king will join in w^ar with those who 
accepted, against those who refused these terms."" 

Although as an assemblage of disciplined military commu- Disimion cf 
nities they were irresistible whilst united, that never-failing 
source of discord, separate independence, made it far otherwise, 
and all acceded to the rescript of the Persian king as a mediator, 
that he might terminate the destructive quarrels, assassinations, 
and massacres, existing among themselves. 

Momentary tranquillity in Greece enabled the king to send B. c. 382. 
300,000 men, under Teribazus and his son-in-law Orontas, to Artaxerxes 
Cyprus, where Evagoras, who had carried war into Phoenicia, ^nt'o Cypr^? 
taken Tyre, and formed an alliance with Acoris, the ruler of 
Egypt,^ was in open rebellion. Unable to resist, Evagoras 
determined to become an obedient satrap ; and by a timely 
submission, he not only preserved the original government of 
Salamis, but Cyprus was made a separate dependency of the 
empire, a feudal vassalage; or, as it is expressed in the treaty, Evagoras is 
" it was made subject to Artaxerxes, as one king is to another :"* ins post. 
so that Evagoras was rewarded rather than punished. 

' Xen., Hel.. lib. IV., cap. viii. 

* Mitford's Greece, chap. XXV., sec. vii., compared with Diod. Sic, 
lib. XIV.. chap, xxvii. 

' Diod. 8ic., lib. XV., cap. v. * Ibid. 


Teribazus being recalled at the instigation of Orontas, who 
succeeded to the satrapy of Lydia with the general direction of 
public affairs in that quarter, the former accompanied Arta- 
xerxes with 300,000 foot and 20,000 horse, to punish the 
revolted Cadusians.^ A warlike people and a sterile country 
reduced the troops to the greatest extremity, from which, how- 
ever, the ingenuity of Teribazus delivered them. He made a 
treaty by which the two sovereigns of that country were brought 
Teribazus is Separately to submit to the king: and as a reward for this 
eminent service, he was restored to his former government and 
B. c 376. The recovery of their citadel by the Thebans led to those 

contests in Greece which preceded the battle of Leuctra; but 
The Thebans the war Seeming endless, ambassadors were sent with Pelopidas 
p^rsk. ° from Thebes, Argos, and the other states, to solicit the de- 
cision of Persia. Pelopidas returned from Susa, accompanied 
B.C. 367. by a person of rank, bearing another rescript; in which man- 
reTcript of date, as if still all-powerful in regulating the affairs of Greece, 
Artaxerxes. ^j^g j^jjjg pronouuced that Messenia should be independent of 
Lacedsemon, that the Athenians should lay up their fleet, and 
that war should be made on the state which refused to comply. 
It was also provided that if any Greek city denied its contingent 
for the latter purpose, it should be attacked forthwith ; all who 
complied being considered as the friends, and those who refused 
as the enemies of the king.'' A congress was held at Thebes ; 
but as unity only prevailed in time of danger from without, a 
civil war almost immediately followed. 
Temporary The doubtful battle of Mantiuea, and the death of Epa- 

minondas, led to another temporary peace; from which, how- 
ever, the Lacedaemonians were excluded.'' 
Agesiiaus Agcsilaus was about to proceed against Messenia, when a wider 

undeVradhos. ^^^^ offered itself to his ambition ; and in his eightieth year, 
forgetting his dignity and reputation, he quitted the throne of 

' A people near the south-western extremity of the Caspian Sea, and also 
called Geles. — Plin., lib. VI., cap. xvi. ; Strabo, lib. XL, p. 507. 

* Died. Sic, lib. XV., cap. v., and Plutarch, in Artaxerxes, ed. Lang- 
home, vol. VI., pp. 274, 275. 

^ Diod. Sic, lib. XIV., cap. xxvii. * Ibid., lib. XY., cap. xxi. 


Sparta, hoping to receive the command of the forces of Egypt 
then in rebellion. On his arrival, Tachos the satrap, being 
disappointed in the personal appearance of the mighty king of 
Sparta, when he beheld a diminutive and aged man, reserved 
for himself the chief command of the forces by sea and land, 
with which he proceeded against the Phoenicians, confiding to 
Agesilaus only the mercenaries.' 

On the departure of Tachos, his cousin Nectanabis attempted Xectanabis 
to seize the government of Egypt, and both having applied to throiu;! 
the Lacedaemonians, Agesilaus was enabled, with the sanction 
of that people, to place Nectanabis on the throne. Tachos, 
being expelled, fled to his master Artaxerxes, who not only 
pardoned his rebellion, but conferred on him the command of 
the Egyptian army." 

The conspiracy of the self-appointed satrap of Egypt was 
very formidable to the king, who was at the same time em- 
barrassed by the rebellion of Orontas, satrap of Mysia ; Arior- 
bazus, satrap of Phrygia ; Autophrades of Lydia ; Datames of 
Cappadocia, and i\Iausolus of Caria ; and besides these, he was 
at war with the Lycians, Pisidians, Pamphylians, Cilicians, 
Syrians, Phoenicians, and all the Asian Greeks.^ 

Orontas was appointed general of the Asiatic confederacy ; 
but either being insincere at first, or subsequently a traitor, he 
betrayed their purpose, and the whole fell to the ground at the 
very moment when the long-cherished object of Agesilaus, the 
dismemberment of the empire, seemed about to be realized. 
He died whilst on his return to Greece, in his eighty-fourth Death of 
year.* Lesser Asia having returned to its allegiance, the king 1,^^^' ^"^' 

J . , . . . ^ ^ B. C. 360. 

made another attempt to recover his dominions m Egypt, but 
did not live to see it completed. 

Hoping to put an end to the intrigues and contentions of his Artaxerxes 
three sons, Artaxerxes declared Darius, the eldest, his sue- successor. 
cessor, and allowed him to assume the title of king ; but not 
being satisfied with his position, the prince formed a conspiracy, 
in which Teribazus joined. Both were put to death, however, 

' Plutarch, in Agesilaus, vol. IV., pp. 212, 213, ed. Langhorue. 

* Diod. Sic, lib. XV., cap. x.xii. ' Ibid. 

* Plutarch, in Agesilaus, vol. IV. , p. 21o, ed Laiighortie. 


and Ochus, having got rid of his other brother Ariaspes, suc- 
B. c. 360 or ceeded to the throne on the death of Artaxerxes, then in his 


ninety-fourth year and the sixty-second of his reign.^ 
Precept given His father, Darius Nothus, had left him, together with his 
Ncthus/ immense empire, the valuable precept: "Act justly in all 
things towards God and towards man ;" and, addressing him 
on his death-bed, added that he, himself, had governed suc- 
cessfully, because he had ever done, to the best of his know- 
ledge, what religion and justice required, without swerving 
from either." 
Artaxerxes' Being of a mild and affable disposition, with moderate desires, 

racter!^ ^ it appears that, in the outset of his reign especially, Artaxerxes 
followed his father's last instructions so faithfully, that he secured 
the affection of his subjects. But on the other hand, he caused 
the person to be put to death who robbed him of the glory (for 
such he chose to consider it) of having killed his brother f and 
and later con- he Sanctioned, if he did not originate, , the treachery by which 
the Greek generals perished. Later in life, the queen-mother 
prevailed upon him to put Tissaphernes to death, and committed 
other atrocities in his name ; and on mere suspicion he put 
many of his grandees to death after his expedition against the 
Cadusians. The inmates of his harem are said to have num- 
bered 360 ;'' and finally he outraged the laws even of Persia, by 
marrying two of his own daughters, Atossa and Amestris. 

* Plutarch, in Artaxerxes, vol. VI., p. 282, ed. Langhorne. 

* Athenaeus, lib. VII. : Dipnosophist. Justin, lib. V., cap. viii. and xi. 
' Plutarch, in Artaxerxes, vol. VI., p. 263, ed. Langhorne. 

* Ibid. 

( 251 ) 



Resources of Macedonia, and lier Constitution. — Philip's Accession and 
Wars. — Battle of Cliseronea. — Assassination of the King and succession 
of Alexander. — Appointed Leader of the Greek Confederacy. — Civil and 
Military state of Macedonia. — Alexander's Campaigns on the Danube 
and against the Illyrians. — Preparations and Invasion of Asia. — Situation 
of Persia under Darius Codomanus. — Government and weakness of the 
Satrapies when invaded.— Alexander crosses the Hellespont, trusting to 
success for his resources. — Battle of the Granicus. — Advance to Sardis 
and Ephesus into Caria. — Winter there. — The Married Soldiers visit 
Greece. — Telmessus and other cities of Lycia taken. — Alexander passes 
Mount Climax, and marches to Celjense and Gordium. — Asia Minor 
submits. — Cilicia, Campestris, and rugged Cilicia invaded. — Approach of 
Darius. — Battle of the Issus. — Visit to the Captives. — Darius' Baggage, 
«S:c. taken at Damascus. — Invasion of Phoenicia. — Capture of Tyre and 
Gaza. — Subjection of Egypt. — Visit to the Oasis of Ammon. — Settlement 
of the Government of Egypt. — March to Thapsacus and through Meso- 
potamia. — Passage of the Tigris. — Preparations of Darius. — Battle of 
Arbela. — March to Babylon and Restoration of the celebrated Temple. 

The campaigns which have been followed in the preceding The invasion 
chapter, more particularly the retreat of Xenophon and his She youiljr 
followers, no doubt led in some degree, to the still more ^^^"^ 
eventful period of history now about to be noticed; from 
which not only very great geographical knowledge but ex- 
tensive commercial benefits were derived. The campaigns of 
the army raised by Cyrus demonstrated what might have been 
the power of the Grecian republics, had they been united as 
well as free ; but owing to the weakness caused by the divisions 
arising from an excess of liberty, the Grecians became subject led to the 
to, or rather merged in, the bordering and comparatively new of Akx^ndlJ. 
kingdom of Macedonia ; whose prince, profiting by the geo- 
graphical knowledge acquired during the expedition to Baby- 


Ionia, and the experience then gained in the art of war, 
executed those mighty achievements which led to the conquest 
ofthe Old World. 

Great battles and extensive conquests have belonged to 
every period of the vrorld, and extraordinary campaigns, such as 
that of the ten thousand Greeks may have taken place from 
time to time ; but the brilliant victories, the unparalleled sieges 
and vast conquests, above all the wonderful marches of Alex- 
ander the Great, will, in all probability, stand alone for ever ; 
more particularly when considered in connexion with the 
limited means at his command. 
Geographical Situated bctwecu Thrace, Thessaly, and Epirus, Macedonia 
position an ^^ -^^ south-castcrly prolongation forms a peninsula terminating 
with three capes, namely, the Nymphseum promontory, now 
Mount Athos, the Ampela? promontory, now Cape Drepano, 
and that of Canasteerum, now Cape Pailhuri ; but although it 
has a rugged mountain barrier on the remaining sides, namely, 
advantages of qh the uorth-east, on the north, the west, and the south, the cul- 

Macedonia. . , , • • • ^ ^ i- n i -r> 

tivatable territory is more extensive than that oi any oi the Ke- 
publican states, ^loreover, it possesses a better soil, and is, on 
account of the facilities of communication, more valuable, and, 
at the same time, stronger ; for, owing to its being less broken 
and separated, its defenders can be more readily united than 
those of Greece. 
Herpatri- In addition to these advantages, Macedonia derived others 

tution. of greater importance from her ancient patriarchal constitution, 

in the maintenance and defence of which the community at 
large had the greatest interest ; and, as will presently be seen, 
it was at the same time the source of great strength in offen- 
sive as well as defensive warfare. 

Enjoying the actual freedom of a limited monarchy, rather 
than that which existed nominally in the democratic states of 
Greece, the people of Macedonia were greatly attached to the 
constitution, and to their sovereign. The king, it is true, was 
nominally supreme, being both the commander of the army 
and the administrator of justice ; but this double authority was 
regulated by certain principles and established laws. 
Limitedpower In the latter capacity, for instance, he onlv condemned or 

of the king. l ./ ' 


acquitted in concurrence with the assembled representatives ; 
and in the former, high treason and other grave matters were 
determined by him in a council of the whole army. 

The princes of Macedonia, three brothers, were originally Common 
from Argos ; ^ the speech, the manners, and the religion of the Macedonians 
Macedonians were also those of the Greeks;^ their common ^''^ ^'■^'^'^"^• 
origin goirig back to the time of the arrival of Danaus from 
Egypt. It would appear that the Pelasgians occupied Argos, 
Epirus, Macedonia, and the whole of Greece,^ at the period in 
question ; the name of that people having been previously 
applied to the whole territory/ Instead of having fortified 
cities like the Greeks, the Macedonians chiefly occupied open 
agricultural villages, and the necessity of being always pre- 
pared, rendered them a nation of warriors. But at a later Warlike pro- 

. 1 , . /. , . . '11 1 1 pensitiesofthe 

period certam frontier provinces were considered as advanced Macedonians, 
posts, which were usually entrusted to the younger sons of the 
reigning family. 

But the advantages of thus keeping war at a distance were 
counterbalanced by the jarring interests which arose, as these 
appanages became partly hereditary ; particularly, as in the 
instance now to be mentioned, when the chief became a com- 
petitor for the throne. 

Hearing that Perdiccas had fallen in an unsuccessful battle Philip, son of 
against the lUyrians, Philip, son of Amyntas, left one of these pires"to^tiir 
governments and hastened to Pella, hoping to succeed his government, 
brother. Although hereditary, the Macedonians were not 
very strict as to the succession, provided it continued in the 
royal house. On this occasion, one party favoured a child, the 
son of Perdiccas, another Pausanias, who was supported by the 
Thracians ; and a third, assisted by the Athenians, espoused the 
cause of Argaeus. Moreover, confusion and dejection prevailed 
amongst the people owing to the recent defeat, added to the 
apprehension of a fresh invasion of the Illyrians. 

Superior talents, enlarged by education in the school of 

' Herod., lib. VIII., cap. cxxxvii, 

* Mitford's Greece, cliap. I., sec. 1 and 34. 

^ ^schyl., Danaid, p. 316, ed. H. Stephen, and Mitford's Greece, chap. 
I., s. 2; Strabo, lib. YIL, p. 321. 

* Herod., lib. VIII.. cap. xliv. 


Philip's education and accession. [chap. ix. 

By his talents 
and capacity 

he gains the 
army and 
leading men 
of the country, 

Origin of the 



Subjection of 
the lllyrians. 

B C. 357. 

Pythagoras, Mheii the guest of Epaminondas at Thebes/ and 
possessing at the same time elegant and winning manners, 
Philip was eminently qualified to take the lead in Macedonia. 
Although arduous, his situation was promising; for the 
working powers of government being distributed amongst the 
people,^ the eloquent master-spirit of the prince could not fail 
to lead his subjects, securing their affection, and commanding 
their admiration at the same time. Professedly as guardian of 
his nephew Amyntas, Philip first gained the army, and next 
succeeded in bringing the leading men to his interest, by ex- 
pressions of confidence on the one hand, and large promises on 
the other ; at the same time, by the secret and judicious use of 
gold, he put a stop to the plundering invasions of the Paeo- 
nians and lllyrians.^ Confidence being now in some degree 
restored, Philip gave his earliest attention to the state of the 
army, endeavouring to perfect the organization of Archelaus, 
and grafting on it the more modern tactics of the Greeks. 
With the latter, as well as with the experience gained by the 
Cyrean army, he was well acquainted, and from him originated 
the celebrated Macedonian phalanx, which it is supposed he 
had already introduced into his former government. It con- 
sisted of 375 men in front and 16 deep armed with spears from 
14 to 16 feet in length, in addition to a long shield, a short 
sword, a headpiece, and a breast-plate of quilted linen.* 

With troops thus formed and armed the king overcame the 
Athenians; and his competitor Argseus having been killed, 
the peace which ensued enabled him to reduce the Illyrian 
tribes to submission.^ The Macedonians now assisted the 
Athenians in taking Potidaea, with the intention of seizing the 
neighbouring territory of Olynthus also. But before there 
was time to accomplish the latter object, an unprovoked descent 
made on Pydna by the Athenian fleet put an end to the 
alliance ; and satisfaction being refused, the Macedonians and. 
Olyntheans, with united forces, marched against the Athenians, 
recovered Pydna, and captured Potidaea. A successful expe- 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVI., cap. ii. * Ibid. 

^ Ibid. •* Potter's Archaeol., vol. II., chap, xvii. 

» Diod. Sic, lib. XVI., cap. iii. 


dition into Thessaly having followed, Philip married Olynipias, Philip defeats 
the daughter of the king of Epirus, and professed himself and marries 
ready to imitate Archelaus by cultivating the arts of peace ; y"P'^- 
but the restless spirit at Athens brought about a formidable 
confederacy of the kings of Thrace and lUyria, assisted as 
they were by the principality of Pseonia.' 

Alike prepared to meet and to surmount such difficulties, Philip's sue- 
the energetic Philip despatched Parmenio, his ablest general, 
against the Illyrians, and, having overcome his opponent in B.C. 354. 
Paeonia, he marched into Thrace, Avhere he was equally for- 
tunate. These last successes were scarcely completed, when a 
courier announced a great victory gained by Parmenio over 
the Illyrians ; a second messenger brought intelligence that his 
horse had gained the Olympian race ; and a third made known 
the birth of a son and heir to his kingdom, which now extended Birth of his 
from the Euxine sea to the Adriatic. 

Philip's election to be general of the Amphictyons gave 
fresh vigour to his enemies, and Demosthenes induced the 
Athenian people to declare that they did not admit the claim 
of the king of Macedon to be an Amphictyon : troops and ships 
were accordingly sent into Boeotia; and, for this purpose, con- 
ceding the precedency to the Thebans, they marched to 

Philip, as general of the Amphictyons, carefully avoided Campaign 
being the aggressor ; and having fruitlessly repeated his desires Athenians and 
of peace to the Athenians and Thebans, marched at the head 
of 30,000 foot and 2,000 horse into the Boeotian province,^ 
then occupied by 50,000 Athenians and Thebans.^ 

Philip retained the command of the right wing, and en- 
trusted that of the left wing to Alexander. The Athenian 
forces were commanded by Chares, and the Thebans by 
Lysicles; the latter being remarkable for his rashness, and 
the former for his ignorance as a commander. The battle 
continued doubtful till about mid-day, when Alexander, anxious 
to signalize himself in his first battle, attacked, and with great 
difficulty overcame the sacred battalion of the Thebans. Nearly 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVI., cap. xi. * Ibid., cap, xxiv. 

» Ibid. 



Battle of 

Philip's mode- 
ration after 
the victory. 

Philip elected 
autocrator of 

B. C. 336. 


perishes by 
the hand of 

at the same time Philip gained some advantage over the 
Athenians on the left. But at this moment Lysicles pene- 
trated the centre of the Macedonians, crying out, " Let us pursue 
them to Macedonia !" Perceiving the mistake made by ad- 
vancing thus incautiously, instead of attacking the phalanx in 
flank, Philip coolly remarked, "The Athenians do not know 
how to conquer," and causing the phalanx to fall back and 
re-form under the cover of a height, put the Athenians to 
flight, when the whole army was routed with the loss of 1,000 
Athenians and as many Thebans.^ Demosthenes himself nar- 
rowly escaped, throwing away his shield as he fled.~ 

Philip's moderation after this victory, both at Thebes and 
Athens, was great. No individual was allowed to suffer in 
person or property ; and his magnanimity and generosity at 
the latter city excited the admiration of the whole of Greece, 
with the exception of the implacable war party. 

Peace was offered on the same terms as before, and a con- 
gress being assembled at Corinth, Philip was elected general 
autocrator of Greece, which appointment was particularly 
opportune, by favouring the changes that had taken place. 
The fascinations of the late great victory took the place of 
nobler objects. The peaceable improvement of Macedonia was 
postponed, and Philip sent two of his generals in order 
to attempt the conquest of Asia, whither he had previously 
sent Attalus and Parmenio to prepare the way, by exciting 
revolt.^ The divorce of Olympias soon followed, and next 
year their daughter was married to her uncle the king of 

It was during the festivities on the latter occasion, and as it 
is believed, to revenge an insult received from Attalus, that 
Philip perished by the hand of Pausanias, a Macedonian youth 
of rank." 

Being the popular king of a free people, and, at the same 
time, head of the Greek republics by their free choice, Philip 
was in a position to extend to the latter the benefit of a limited 
monarchy, with all the happiness and independence that are 

' Diod. Sic, lib XVI., cap. xxiv. 
^ Diod. Sic, lib. XVI., caj). xxv. 

* iEsch. de Cor., p. 545. 

* Ibid. 


compatible with the interests of the community at large. But 
the details of the intended improvements, as well as those con- 
nected with the Persian M'ar, were lost by the untimely fate of 
the king. 

On his accession, Macedonia was but an ordinary state Power of 
weakened by war and dissensions, but on the death of this compare"d with 
gifted monarch it was, next to Persia, the most powerful king- P'^^^^^- 
dom existing ; and having now become the centre of arts and 
civilization, its influence was nmch greater than the latter king- 
dom. The vast physical power which descended to Darius 
Codomanus was thus, in a great measure, counterbalanced, and 
the successor of Philip was placed in a position no less com- 
manding than that of the Persian monarch himself. Happily, 
notwithstanding his extreme youth and inexperience, Alex- By hisjudi- 
ander was gifted with the necessary talents to grapple with Alexander^' 
the complicated and diflBcult circumstances in which he was 
placed. Previously to the funeral obsequies, the prince told the 
assembled Macedonians that, though the name was changed, 
they would find that the king remained.^ The able statesmen 
and generals of his father, therefore, were continued ; the friends 
of Philip became those of Alexander ; and the machinery con- 
tinuing the same, none of his personal friends being raised to 
distinguished ofiices, civil or military, it is not surprising that 
the energy of Alexander was suflScient, on the one hand, to 
stifle the plot which had caused the catastrophe at home,^ and, 
on the other, to maintain the ascendancy as chief of the 
Grecian republics, notwithstanding the unremitting exertions of 
Demosthenes and the rest of his enemies. 

At Corinth, the states, with the exception of Lacedaemon, is elected 
decreed that the youthful Alexander should be head of the oTetk^coa! 
confederacy, and that the unquiet spirits should be occupied by ^"^^eracy. 
carrying the war into Asia *, for which, as will be seen, there 
were ample means at command. The surface of Macedonia 
Proper nearly equalled that of republican Greece, but, owing 
to circumstances, its power was infinitely greater. The people 
enjoyed equal rights ; and since all might be called upon to 
serve, they were a nation of men uniting the civil and military 

• Diod. Sic, lib. XYII., cap. ii. * Anian, lib. I., cap. xviii. 



Military and character, for which they were prepared by an appropriate 
leges of ^he cducatioii. Ill fact, the laws for the city and the camp were 
Macedonians. -^^ evcry Tcspcct similar ; the army exercising jurisdiction 
abroad, and the people at home. But the disadvantages arising 
from the leader of the army being controlled, were counter- 
balanced by the enthusiasm which that leader inspired, and 
they ceased altogether under such generals as Philip and 
Alexander, whose appeals to the affections of the soldiers were 
superior to mere commands, and rendered the courage of the 
army irresistible. 
Alexander's Dangers at home, however, delayed the contemplated attack 

first campaign. -n • it> •!• i'iiir> i? 

on rersia, and Jrarmenio being entrusted with the deience oi 
Macedonia against the Illyrians, Alexander proceeded against 
the rebels ; by a rapid march he not only covered Amphipolis, 
but drove them into the mountains. Here, conjointly with 
the Thracians, they took up a strong position between steep 
precipices on the verge of a quick declivity, having in front a 
barrier of waggons ready to be rolled down, in order to break 
the Macedonian phalanx as it advanced. 

Perhaps on no occasion throughout a military career replete 
M'ith the most daring achievements, were more skill and cool 
intrepidity displayed, than by the youthful prince in this 
hazardous attack. On seeing the waggons put in motion, as 
they advanced, those Macedonians who could not shelter them- 
selves behind rocks, were commanded to lie down under a cover 
formed by means of their compacted shields. This project 
succeeded, and the machines having passed over them almost 
Defeat of the harmlessly, the phalanx re-formed and advanced. Being at- 
Tif"^r^°^ tacked at the same time in flank by the Hypaspists led by 
Alexander, the enemy fled with such precipitation that they 
left their families and slaves in the hands of the conqueror.' 
The line of march from Pella by Amphipolis indicates that 
this affair took place on the southern slope of Mount Hemaeus, 
near the principal pass through the Balkan, and northward of 

A victory over the Triballians or Bulgarians followed, and 
in three days, traversing Mount Hemaeus, Alexander reached 

' Arrian, Jib. I , cap. i. 


the river Ister, or Danube, no doubt below the present town of 

Widdin. Here he experienced a slight check in attacking the 

island of Pcuce,' but he speedily effected the passage of this Passage of the 

considerable river, partly by means of vessels dragged up the 

stream from the Euxine for this purpose, and partly on the 

skins of which the tents were formed, stuffed with straw.^ 

The great w^ater barrier, which had been their chief depend- Subjection of 

the GetiE and 

ence, being thus overcome, the Getse or Goths hastily fled, 
leaving their capital and much booty at the mercy of the 
Macedonians. Alexander was now obliged to retrace his steps, 
and as the best means of repelling the inroad of the Illyrians 
and Taulantians into Macedonia, he made a rapid march and 
gained a battle over the former near their capital, Pellion, 
before their allies had time to render assistance ; the latter 
were therefore beaten in detail, and a peace having been dic- 
tated in consequence to the Illyrians and Taulantians, Alexander other tribes. 
was free to attend to other objects of importance. ^ 

Owing to a combination of the republics, which had been Return of 
brought about by Demosthenes, the conqueror hastened towards subjection of 
Greece ; but the report of his death led to a revolution before '^^^•^^^^• 
he reached Thebes, and the city was stormed in consequence: 
6,000 of the inhabitants perished in the assault, and 30,000 
of the survivors being condemned to be sold, Alexander 
returned to his kingdom to celebrate the Macedonian Olympic 
games in the city of Dia, previously to commencing his gigantic 

With the exception of the opposing Lacedaemonians, the The invasion 
invasion of Asia was popular throughout Greece; and the by the Greeks, 
meeting at Corinth has been aptly called by Rollin, a Diet of 
the Western, deliberating on the destruction of the Eastern 
world. A force of 7,000 Greeks and 5,000 mercenaries were 
therefore readily placed at Alexander's disposal, and the 
exhausted treasury left by Philip having been replenished by a 
loan of 800 talents, he crossed the Hellespont in the spring, at B.C. 334. 
the head of a force, according to Anaximenes, of 43,000 foot 

' The Danube forms several islands below Widdin. 

* Arrian, lib. I., cap. iii. * Ibid., cap. v., vi. 

* Ibid., cap. xi. 



Alexander's and 5,500 liorse, or with little more than 34,500 infantry and 
preparations, ^^.qq cavalrv, according to Arrian and Plutarch;' and with 
the riches of Asia as a temptation to his followers, he ventured 
to invade an empire whose power was but little diminished since 
the time of Xerxes ; notwithstanding its serious reverses, and 
some changes which it had undergone : these may now be briefly 
State of Asia It has already been seen that after his failure in Egypt, 
ff°XeSes™^ Ochus took the command of Lesser Asia in person ; and the 
renewed allegiance of Sidon being followed by the collection of 
a powerful fleet, that of Cyprus also followed, and nine govern- 
ments having been formed under as many vassal kings, the army 
proceeded through the territory of Sidon ; and the ulterior 
object, the subjection of Egypt, was completed by these skilful 
combinations. Extremes belong to the Asiatic character, and 
in this case three brilliant campaigns were succeeded by a state 
of inactive luxury.^ In order that this might be as little inter- 
rupted as possible, Ochus, partly following out the intentions of 
the second Darius, divided his vast territories into two great 
governments ; that of the eastern provinces was entrusted to the 
eunuch Bagoas, as a reward for his great services during his 
command in Egypt ; and on Mentor, whose services in the 
same part of the world had given him an equal if not a greater 
claim, that of the western districts was conferred. This satrapy 
extended from the Euxine to Upper Egypt; it was, conse- 
quently, larger than the territory of the younger Cyrus^ and 
was ably conducted. Indeed, everywhere good government 
and prosperity prevailed throughout both viceroyalties. 

Ochus having been poisoned, and his successor. Arses, like- 
wise having met the same fate after a reign of three years, 
Codomanus, the satrap of Armenia, and a descendant of the 
to the acces- second Darius, was raised to the throne.^ Some preparations 
Codomanus!"^ had been made by his predecessor to avert the hostile intentions 
of Philip, which were largely increased when he learnt from his 
emissaries, particularly in Athens, after the termination of the 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xvii. ; Plut. de fort. Alex., p. 327. 
* Diod. Sic, lib, XVI., cap. xlvii. and lii. 
=> Ibid., lib. XVII., cap. ii. 


Illyriaii war and the capture of Thebes, that the threatened 
invasion of the father was about to be realized by his victorious 

Darius had been distinguished not only as a warrior against 
the bordering nations, but still more for his judicious govern- 
ment of a large tract of country ;' and perhaps at no time since 
the hosts of Xerxes marched into Greece, was the empire more 
capable of being formidable, than when the satrap Codomanus 
appeared as the sovereign of Asia, under the well-known name 
of Darius. 

Averse from war, and of a mild, equitable, and amiable dis- Character and 

• p 1 • 1 1 • • 1 • z» 1 1 1 1 disposition of 

position, we are justified in believing, that ii he had been per- Darius. 
mitted to carry out his plans, or had his circumstances been less 
trying than having such a powerful enemy as Alexander, the 
reign of this prince might have been as much distinguished for 
the equity and justice of a flourishing government as it now is 
remarkable in the page of history, for the greatest calamities 
and reverses. 

The two earlier sovereigns of the same name, more par- 
ticularly Hystaspes, followed the Median, or rather the still 
more ancient system of government, and the third equally 
endeavoured to carry out the paternal arrangements ; making 
in practice as well as in theory, little or no distinction between 
born subjects, and those who had become so either from choice 
or by the rights of conquest. 

The vast territory of Darius, which comprised numerous The nature 
provinces, or, more properly, kingdoms, having different manners, governments, 
languages, laws, customs, and interests, presented at best a dis- 
jointed mass, without any common interest in supporting the 
supreme government ; or any tie whatever beyond that of tem- 
porary subjection. Therefore, one decided victory carried with 
it the allegiance of many satraps, who, in the East, are at all 
times ready to transfer to the conqueror those services which 
they had previously rendered to the legitimate sovereign ; to 
whom they consider such services due only as long, to use the 
phraseology of the East, as it is God's will that he should retain 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVII, c. 2. 


Weakness of This souFce of inherent weakness existed in the empire on 
the invasion of another prince, whose talents and daring were 
scarcely inferior to those of the great conqueror himself The 
younger Cyrus was well aware that a single victory would have 
placed at his command the empire for which he contended, and 
ensured for him the same services from Abrocamas, Tissapher- 
nes, Teribazus, and the other satraps, which they had previously 
rendered to his brother. And if it be borne in mind, that had 
it not been for the disobedience of Clearchus this object would 
have been accomplished with a force of only 12,000 veterans to 
assist the Asiatics, the nature and comparative power of the 
great enterprise now about to be described will be better under- 
stood. In following the steps so ably traced by his prototype, 

Advantages Alexander conducted into Asia at least triple the number of 

possessed by _ r ^ 

Alexander, experienced troops, who were entirely devoted to their leader, 
and raised to the highest pitch of enthusiasm by his personal 
example, and the additional temptation of the great wealth of 
Asia : in the distribution of this, it will be seen that he realized 
the promised liberality of Cyrus. The funds on which he 
relied to carry out his momentous undertaking were the fruits 
of his victories. 

Alexander was no doubt as well acquainted M-ith the political 
state of the territories about to be invaded as he proved to be 
with their geographical state. The mutual jealousies of the 
satraps, as evinced by Tissaphernes, in assisting the Greeks to 
overcome his rival, and the limited authority of the great king 
over these feudal chiefs,^ could not have escaped the penetration 
of the Macedonian monarch. 

His admirable Well kuowing how to tum such advantages to account by con- 
tinuing the satraps in their governments ; and, at the same time, 
holding out incentives, almost princely, to every chief in his 
army, Alexander felt that the zeal of his officers as well as the 
discipline of his troops must necessarily prevail, and bring in its 
train the defection of some, or perhaps all of the Greek mer- 
cenaries who were employed against him ; as well as gain for 
him the suffrages of the Greek settlements in Asia. To pro- 
cure the freedom of the latter was the avowed object of Alex- 

' See above, vol. II., chap, viii., pp. 243, 244. 



ander ; though had the wishes of the people been consulted, 
most of the states would probably have remained contentedly in 
their allegiance to Persia. 

Depending almost entirely on Asia for ordinary supplies as He passes the 
well as money, but little provision was made, and the army soon 
reached the straits which separate Europe from this continent. 
Whilst the fleet was occupied in transporting the troops across 
the unguarded Hellespont from Sestos to Abydos, Alexander 
poured libations to the waves, ordered altars to be raised where 
he embarked and landed ; and when visiting the localities 
immortalized by the king of poets, in accordance with the 
keenness of his feelings and the powerful superstition of the 
time, he offered sacrifices to Protesilaus and some others of the 
principal heroes connected with the fate of the city : on the site 
of Troy itself he hung his own armour, replacing it by a suit ^"^.°/'-'" 

•' " Pi/i sacrifices at 

which had been worn by one of the former heroes.' Troy. 

Aware that although he had neglected the passage of the 
Hellespont, the satrap Mentor was prepared to oppose his 
advance either across Mount Ida or through the towns along 
the western coast, Alexander caused his army to proceed east- 
ward along the Propontis, and having, as just noticed, visited 
Troy, he joined it at Arisba. From hence he advanced by Advance along 
Percote and Lampsacus to the Practius river ; and onward by iuto Bithynia. 
Hermotus and Colonse to the neighbourhood of Zelia, in 

Since the death of Mentor, the Persian forces were jointly 
under Spithridates, the satrap of Lydia, Ionia, &c., and Arsites, 
the Hellespontine satrap ; Memnon being only an auxiliary 
without a command. Contrary to the advice of the latter, to 
waste the country and avoid a battle, it was determined to take 
the bolder course of defending the territory, and a rapid march 
enabled the lieutenants of Darius to take a position near Zelia, 
on the river Granicus,^ with a force consisting of about 20,000 
Persian horse, and as many Greek mercenaries under Omares ;^ Defensive 
but with the addition of the light-armed troops and followers, ^"^^^^'^ '°"^' 

' Arrian, lib. I., cliap. xi, 

* Diod. Sic, lib. XVII,, cap. iv. 

' Arrian, lib. I., cap. xv. 


the aggregate probably approached 1 10,000, as estimated by 
Diodorus Siculus,' and Quintius Curtius.^ 
Defective Instead of placing the cavalry in the rear as a support, and 

Perstans^on ^ thc heavy armed in the first line, where their spears would have 
Granicu^s ^^^^ ^^ effectually in defending the bank of the river, the 
Persian chiefs, depending upon their principal arm, committted 
the serious mistake of reversing this order ; posting the horse 
on the level ground near the river and the phalanges on the 
Alexander's Having in pcrson carefully examined, and also ascertained 
p an o attac . ^j^^^ ^j^^ rivcr was fordablc, Alexander immediately prepared to 
attack, giving to his troops, with the intervals, a front equal to 
the too extended line of the enemy. The phalanges occupied 
the centre, and the cavalry the two wings. On the left were 
the Grecian, the Thracian, and the Thessalian horse ; on the 
right were the royal companions, also the Macedonian heavy 
horse and the Hypaspists ; the first being supported by the 
Agrians and bowmen, and the second by the Pseonians, who 
were also middle armed. Alexander entrusted the command of 
the left wing toParmenio, reserving to himself that of the right, 
which was to make the principal attack. This wing advanced 
under cover of some infantry and cavalry to begin the battle ; 
and although the latter were quickly compelled to retire, their 
attack gave the main body time to reach the right bank, on 
which point, attracted by the splendour of Alexander's armour, 
the Persians directed their choicest troops, when the battle 
became more a personal struggle between individuals than an 
Progress of ordinary action. The bravery of the Persian leaders was con- 
spicuous till the more successful valour of Alexander and the 
royal companions prevailed ; when Mithridates, a son-in-law of 
Darius, Pharnaces, the queen's brother, Spithridates, and seven 
others of great eminence having fallen, the retreat of the Persian 
cavalry was the consequence. The infantry being now left 
without support, Alexander immediately made an attack with 
a condensed force against the centre of the Persian Greeks, 

' Lib. XVII., cap. iv. * Preface, p. 20. 

" Compare Arrian, lib. I., cap. xv., xvi., with Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., 
cap. iv., and Quint. Curt., page 20, Preface. 


who after a resolute but unavailing resistance were broken. In The Persians 
addition to the killed, amongst whom were many of the leading after an obsti- 
men of Persia, 2,000 prisoners surrendered themselves in this"^^ 
great and complete victory gained by Alexander against the 
forces of Darius : his own loss was very trifling. 

Funeral honours for the slain were the first consideration of 
the king, and the next, those objects likely to facilitate his 
ulterior plans. The wounded received personal visits, and were 
treated with extraordinary care. Privileges and immunities 
were granted to distinguished soldiers ; and 300 complete suits 
of Persian armour were sent to the temple of Minerva, in which 
they were placed, with the inscription " From Alexander, son 
of Philip, and the Greeks, excepting the Lacedcemonians, these 
trophies taken from the barbarians of Asia." Regarding the 
empire as his own, Alexander admonished the soldiers to avoid 
plunder and spare his subjects ; and Callas, the satrap over the 
Hellespontine Phrygia, received instructions to exact only the 
regular revenue hitherto payable to Darius at Dascilium, and 
to receive it at the capital city. 

Alexander retraced his steps to Illium; from whence, following Alexander ad- 
nearly the route of the army of Cyrus, he proceeded through sa'"j?, 
Antandrus, Adramyttium, Pergamus, and Thyatira, to Sardis ; 
which formidable citadel with its treasure, v,^ere surrendered by 
the treason of Mithrenes, the governor. Alexander having 
continued the ancient constitution of the city, and ordered the 
erection of a temple to Jupiter, he proceeded to Ephesus, where and proceeds 
he ordered that its venerable temple should be rebuilt by his EpUc'sus, 
engineer, Denocrates, and that the tribute forn:erly raised for 
Darius, should in future be paid to this establishment.^ Miletus 
then fell, after a short but determined resistance ; and, in con- 
sequence, the Persian fleet was compelled to leave the coast: 
his own fleet being laid up to save expense, Alexander advanced 
to Halicarnassus ; which was occupied by a considerable force 
under Memnon, the commander-in-chief of the Asiatic coast of 
the empire. 

The province (Caria) was however divided ; Orontobates was iiac Caria 
faithful to Darius, whilst queen Ada, his competitor, joined ^ 

' Arrian, lib., T., cap. xviii. * Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. v. 


Siege of Alexander ; she gave up the strong fortress of Alindse, and 
assisted him with troops and supplies. Under these circum- 
stances, the consummate skill of the besieged enabled them to 
protract the defence of Halicarnassus for a considerable period ; 
for, when by infinite labour the besiegers filled up the ditch so 
as to place their engines near the walls, their works were con- 
stantly demolished or burnt by the sallies of the besieged. 
Again, when the former succeeded in levelling part of the walls, 
another portion was seen to rise suddenly behind the opening. 
The contest was long and doubtful, and bold sallies were con- 
stantly made ; in one of which, literally a battle, the Macedonians 
lost more men in maintaining their position than they had done 
at the battle of the Granicus, The constancy of Alexander, 

The town is howcver, triumphed at length: Memnon retreated by sea to 

taken, and its ' . i f> r-T • i • i • i i a i ^ 

castle block- Cos, and the capital of Caria bemg demolished, Alexander, 
after visiting queen x\da in the fortress of Alindse (Moola), 
continued his march coastways, leaving the citadel of Halicar- 
nassus (now Budroun) still occupied by the troops of Darius. 

As a reward for the services of Ada, Alexander confirmed 
to her the princely dignity and authority, and also granted to 
the kingdom its ancient and valued political constitution. 
Owing to the time of the year, distant operations were post- 
poned, but the approaching winter was not destined to be spent 
in a state of inactivity. The officers and soldiers who had been 
recently married, were permitted to go home, with an under- 
standing that they would return in the spring, bringing any re- 
cruits they might be able to engage; after, by way of encourage- 
ment, dwelling upon the generosity and kind feelings displayed 
by their victorious captain. Parmenio was now despatched to 
Communica- prescrvc the communication with Greece, and raise contri- 
^Uh Greece, butions \\\ mouey and supplies in the countries still subject to 
Persia ; whilst Alexander proceeded with a select body of 
troops, almost without baggage, to reduce the towns and ports 
along the mountainous shore, stretching from Caria eastward. 
Here he found the way prepared by the news of his liberality 
and successes, which had preceded him. The people being 
favourable, the mercenaries consented to depart, and the strong 
town of llyparna, on the borders of Lycia, became his without a 


blow. Entering the latter territory, he took Telmissus (now 
Makri), and crossing Anticragos, Pinara (now Minara), 
Xanthus, and Patara fell in succession, in addition to thirty 
small towns which followed this example; and, lastly, Phaselis, Further opera- 
the principal city of Lower Lycia (now Tekrova, in the Gulf of and^Lycia!''^ 
Adalia), sent deputies bearing a crown of gold and offers of 
submission: on his way thither, to pass the remainder of the 
winter, he captured the town of Telmissus, in Pisidia, by storm. 

Towards the close of winter, Alexander hastened onward, 
hoping by occupying the ports of Cilicia and the adjoining part 
of the Syrian coast to deprive the enemy of the services of his 
fleet; and this was carried out with his characteristic boldness. 

Mount Climax, a singularly rugged chain, intervened in the 
line of Perga, and terminated at the coast by a precipitous cliff 
washed by the sea, leaving no passage whatever, except under Adventurous 

,. . \-f . •Ill march rouud 

extraorduiary circumstances. Havmg ascertanied that the Mountciimax. 
periodical wind was at hand, which would cause a momentary 
passage, Alexander despatched a few light troops over the 
ordinary route, and seizing the precise moment of a decrease of 
water, during a northerly wind, the troops by wading for many 
hours up to the middle, at the foot of what is termed the ladder, 
succeeded in passing along the Lycian shore. The accomplish- 
ment of this rash undertaking, was attributed to miraculous 
interposition ;^ and the Pamphylian towns of Perga, Aspendus, 
Side, and Sillium, being subjected in consequence, Alexander, 
following the vale of Cestrus, entered the recesses of Mount 
Taurus. Here he defeated the Salagassians and Telmisseans, 
captured the city of the former, formed an alliance with the 
Selgse ; and the whole of Pisidia submitted, apparently for the subjection of 
first time to any conqueror.^ Pisidia, &c. 

A march of five days enabled Alexander to take the capital 
of Phrygia (Celsenee), after which he marched on Gordium, 
where he was joined by Parmenio and the rest of his army, 
including the bridegrooms, with a strong body of recruits from 
Macedonia ; and the first campaign in Asia terminated by 
cutting the famous knot.^ 

' Plin., lib. v., Alex., pp. G73. 674. 

* Arrian, lib. I., cap. xxvii., xxviii., xxix. ' Ibid., cap. xxx. 

268 memnon's project and death. [chap. ix. 

Memnon pur- Memnoii, hoping to recover his oversight, by which Sardis, 

Alexander. ° Ephcsus, Milctus, and Halicamassus were lost to Darius, was 
both diligent and successful in another quarter during the ope- 
rations just mentioned. A large portion of the coast, it is true, 
was in possession of a victorious enemy, but the numerous 
islands were open to Memnon's commanding fleet ; w^hich, 
having taken Chios without a blow, proceeded to Lesbos, and 
took the island, with the exception of Mitylene. Memnon 
awaited the fall of this city, in order that he might proceed to 
the Hellespont, and execute his part of the great plan which 
had been projected, of cutting Alexander off from Europe, and 
thus enabling Darius to overpower the small force that had 

His death. dared to invade his dominions. But death terminated Mem- 
non's faithful services in the camp before Mitylene ; and Phar- 
nabazus, his nephew and successor, being unequal to the task, 
his great designs fell to the ground. 

Being no longer seriously threatened, Alexander had the 
choice of either resuming the offensive, or of remaining on the 
defensive behind the Taurus, confining himself to the peninsula 
of which he was already almost master; and circumstances 
speedily gave him the command of the remainder of the ter- 
ritory. Owing to some dissatisfaction, Paphlagonia offered to 
transfer its allegiance from Darius to Alexander ; ^ and since 
the only province still subject to Persia, namely, Cappadocia, 
submitted as he advanced, Alexander thus became master of 
the whole of Hither Asia : but it was necessary to possess 
Cilicia also, this being the first province beyond, and contain- 
ing the most practicable route between Greater and Lesser 

HiUier Asia Asia ; also, with Syria by land, and Greece by sea. Alexander, 
therefore, made a rapid march to the place where Cyrus had 
been encamped ; and having forced the imperfectly guarded 
gates of Cilicia, he was in time to save Tarsus from being 
plundered by the Persian troops.^ 

Over-exertion, added to the imprudence of bathir.g in the 
cold waters of the Cydnus, brought on a fever, which delayed 
his progress for a time, but from which he eventually reco- 
vered. The important mountain-passes which connect Cilicia 
' Arrian, lib. II,, cap. iv. * Ibid. 



with the countries to the eastward must have been known from 
the march of Cyrus ; therefore Parmenio was despatched along ciiicia Cam- 
the coast with the greater part of the heavy-armed foot to KuVgcd^cliicia 
occupy them ; this he accomphshed, in addition to taking the occupied, 
city of Issus, and securing the defile to the westward (Kara 
Kapu), whilst the rest of the army was engaged on a more 
difficult service in the opposite direction. Anchialus, a town 
founded by Sardanapalus, was the fruit of Alexander's first 
day's march ; and, proceeding westward, he garrisoned Sole', 
after laying it under contribution. Having subjected Rugged 
Ciiicia in the short space of seven days, he received intelli- 
gence, on returning to Campestris, that Halicarnassus had 
fallen, and that his generals had been completely successful in 
Caria. Whilst Alexander was employed in securing Ciiicia, 
and the part of Syria westward of the Amanus, Darius was 
scarcely less diligent: his Greek mercenaries were increased to Vastprepa- 

•' " . . , , rations of 

about 30,000 men/ to whom were jomed about 60,000 Darius. 
Asiatics, called Cardacs, trained like the Greeks for close 
fight ; and the middle and light armed made up the remainder 
of an army estimated, most likely including the followers, at 
600,000;- which, however, would only give from 150,000 to 
200,000 combatants. But if the large number of Greeks and 
Cardacs be taken into consideration, Darius was at the head of 
the most efficient army which had hitherto marched towards 
Greece, and he was assisted by many talented refugees fi-om 
the latter country : this, however, owing to the suspicious dis- 
position of Asiatics, was at least but a doubtful advantage. 

Darius crossed the Euphrates and encamped about two days He crosses the 
from the passes of the Amanus, at a place called Sochi ;^ where, 
his Grecian counsellors recommended him to halt, urging that 
the impetuosity of Alexander would induce him to advance. 
The Persians attributed this advice to sinister motives, and 
recommended the bolder course of moving through the passes 
to expel the invaders ; adding, that this would be more be- 
coming a great monarch and the fine army which he had 
raised. Darius appears to have hesitated, and during the 

' Arrian, lib. II., cap. viii. * Ibid. 

^ Possibly Ukiiz-Suzle on the river 'Afrln. 



Darius ad- 
"vances from 
Sochi, and 

Alexander to 

The contend- 
ing armies 
pass one 

delay, intrigue and suspicion caused the unjust execution of the 
Athenian Charidemus. This event turned the scale ; and the 
treasure, the harems of the distinguished officers, with the 
heavy baggage, being sent to Damascus, the army was ordered 
to advance for this purpose ; quitting ground, which although 
but partially adapted for cavalry, afforded space to deploy the 
whole army. 

Alexander, who was then at Mallus, felt, on the one hand, 
that the advantages of a fine position would be lost by proceed- 
ing, whilst on the other, a moral effect must be produced on 
his adherents by attacking Darius. As usual, Alexander 
determined to risk everything, and a movement was made, in 
ignorance that Darius was then simultaneously advancing, 
which gave rise to the singular circumstance, that the contend- 
ing armies were, ' previously to the battle, in reverse positions. 

Having resolved to engage Darius wherever he could be 
found, the energetic Alexander hastened through the Syrian 
gates, and encamped beyond Myriandrus. As a defensive 
position, and for an inferior force, the narrow strip extending 
to the Issus was particularly favourable. The Mediterranean 
secured one flank, the range of Amanus the other, the prin- 
cipal pass (now Beilan) being no doubt occupied ; there was 
besides a speedy communication by means of light vessels, with 
the rest of the ground to be defended. In this state of things, 
Darius crossed the Amanus by the upper or northern pass, 
which had been neglected by Alexander, and having debouched 
near the town of Issus, just after Alexander had passed, some 
of the sick and wounded Macedonians who had been left there 
were cruelly maimed, and then sent to report the number of 
his forces to Alexander. A violent thunder-storm at the 
moment, prevented Alexander from ascertaining the fact till 
the following day, when one of his vessels announced that a 
very large army was encamped on the western slopes of 
Amanus. Although much surprised, and probably seriously 
alarmed, by this unlooked-for intelligence, his retreat being 
thus cut ofl' by an overwhelming force, he carefully concealed 
his apprehensions, and adopted at the same time the most 
decided measures. 


The soldiers were commanded to take refreshments prepa- 
ratory to a march ; and in order to anticipate the discouraging 
effect of a retrograde movement, Alexander, with admirable 
presence of mind, told his commanders that Darius had taken 
precisely the step which he most desired ; having been led by 
divine impulse into a situation where a great part of his force, 
and particularly his powerful cavalry, could not act for want of 
space. Hoping also to remedy his own omission, he despatched 
a body of horse with some bowmen : and, himself speedily fol- Alexander 

. . . (-^ . . returns and 

lowing, he reached the gates of Cilicia and Syria about mid- occupies the 
night ; when, having gained this important pass, which had before" Darius^ 
been equally neglected by Darius, he halted for the rest of the 

It is probable that Darius became aware of the relative posi- 
tions of the armies rather sooner than it was known to Alex- 
ander ; but this advantage was lost to him on account of the 
encumbrances which impeded his movements : he endeavoured 
the next morning to repair his neglect; but finding the gates 
already in possession of the enemy, he halted after a march of 
about ten miles, and occupied a position which extended from 
the mountain to the sea along the river Pinarus.^ 

At the foot of the mountains, the stream in question, now Positions of 
the Deli-chai, makes a bold sweep southward, and again west- armies.*^" '°^ 
ward, between banks so steep as to be impracticable for ordi- 
nary cavalry ; but a little lower, and onward to the sea, the 
banks are lower. Darius therefore proceeded to strengthen 
his position along the right bank, covering the operation by a 
large body of cavalry and infantry, Mho remained in advance 
till it was completed. The margin of the Pinarus was there- 
fore occupied by the heavy-armed troops of Darius, the Greek 
mercenaries and the family of Darius being in the centre, with 
the Cardacs on each flank. The nearest heights on the left 
were occupied by light-armed troops ; the cavalry extended 
along the right bank, from the Cardacs to the sea.^ The plains 
and the resources of Cilicia being thus completely covered, the 

' Arrian, lib. II,, cap. viii. 

* Ibid., lib. II., cap. x., and Quintius Curtius, lib. III., cap. 9, 10. 

* Ibid., Arrian and Quintius Curtius. 


Dispositions of 



position of Alexander was full of difficulty, and a daring 
attack offered the only chance of extricating his array from its 
perilous situation. 

Having ascertained the enemy's formation, he placed his 
phalanx opposite to the Greeks serving under Darius, and the 
republican Greeks were posted on each flank to oppose the 
Cardacs and the cavalry. The left wing was entrusted to 
Parmenio ; Alexander commanded the right, intending, by a 
desperate attempt, to force the enemy's left.^ 

The limited space decidedly favoured the attack of an infe- 
rior force, particularly as the banks of the river did not offer 
any serious impediment except towards the left of the Persians, 
where it was counterbalanced by another circumstance, of 
which Alexander speedily took advantage. Owing to the out- 
ward sweep made, as already noticed, by the Pinarus in passing 
the lowest slope of the hills, the Persians, who occupied the in- 
terior or right bank, must of necessity not only have been out- 
flanked by an enemy occupying the exterior side, but partly 
taken in reverse also as the assailants advanced. But, as stated 
by Arrian,^ the latter were in the first instance exposed to the 
same evil ; for, owing to the curve or bay in the mountains, 
the Persian light troops posted on the high ground, threatened 
the rear of the Macedonians. Believing that these hills 
effectually secured the left of the position, Darius detached a 
eng ene , (>Qj-,gj(jgj.^l3l(3 body of cavalry to strengthen his right, posting 
nearly the whole of this arm between the Cardacs and the sea. 
Here the grand attack of the Persians was to be made on the 
cavalry of Alexander, with a view to its being followed up, 
by taking the infantry in flank and rear. 

By these dispositions, the right and stronger part of each 
army was opposed to, and destined to attack the left and 
weaker portion of the enemy. But on perceiving that this had 
been carried too far, Alexander despatched the Thessalian 
horse and some chosen foot to reinforce Parmenio, who had 
orders to keep close to the sea, that he might not be outflanked ; 
while Darius made no attempt to remedy his error. 

Alexander having completed his dispositions, addressed a 
' Arrian, lib. II., cap. x. * Lib. II , cap. viii. 

The right of 
the Persian 


few animating words to his followers, alternately rousing the Alexander 
national feeling of the Macedonians, the Greeks, Illyrians, and soldiers. 
Thracians ; reminding the Greeks of the conduct of the ten 
thousand,' and the whole that they were about to be the libe- 
rators of the universe, and to push their conquests farther than 
those of Hercules or Bacchus ; also that the spoils of the East 
would soon be at their feet, almost without the necessity of 
using a sword to gain them. 

At this juncture, the wild war-cry of the Persians was heard Commence- 
and answered by that of the Macedonians, which was still progress of the 
louder, owing to the reverberation of the mountains and ^'^"^^" 
forests. Alexander seized this moment to order the middle 
and light armed troops to advance, to cover the phalanx, which 
had an enemy in rear as well as in front ;^ and the Persian 
light troops being driven from the heights which encircle this 
part of the Pinarus, a position was gained from which missiles 
reached the flank and rear of the Persian heavy armed, on the 
river's brink.^ Alexander seized this moment to lead his pha- 
lanx slowly across the Pinarus, and having ascended its oppo- 
site baak, he rushed to attack the Cardacs, who were quickly 
routed. Encouraged by this success, the Macedonian phalanx 
next attacked the more formidable post of the Persian Greeks, 
and a severe contest followed. At the same time, the cavalry Mutual ad- 
was hotly engaged, each side having the advantage alternately ; duringThe 
both suffered great loss, and, owing to the great bravery of the <="°t*^st. 
troops, the combat was long undecided.^ In the meanwhile 
the Macedonian infantry suffered severely in this part of the 
battle, but they continued to persevere^ till the confederate 
Greeks, after having put the enemy's left to flight, came to 
their support. Being thus taken in flank, the Persian Greeks 
gave way, and were nearly all put to the sword. 

The conflict now approached the centre of the line, in which, 
agreeably to ancient custom, Darius had taken post, seated on 
a splendid chariot drawn by four horses abreast, and his 
striking costume as well as his position, at once marked him as 

' Arrian, lib. II., cap. vii, * Ibid., cap. ix, 

^ Ibid., cap. X. * Diod. Sic, lib. XVIII., cap. vi. 

* Ibid., cap. xi. 


a special object of attack, as well as defence ; for Sabaces the 
satrap of Egypt, Atires, Eheomithrus, and other illustrious 
Persians, perished at his side ; and it is said that Alexander 
himself was slightly wounded in the tumult.^ Darius con- 
tinued in his chariot in the midst of the slaughter, till the 
horses became so ungovernable, owing to their wounds and the 
heap of slain under their feet, that the king would have been 
carried into the enemy's ranks, had it not been for a vigorous 
charge made by his brother Oxathres. This gave time to 
bring up another chariot, and the struggle continued for a 
Flight of time.^ But as the left had been routed, and he was nearly 
anus, an ^^^ ^g. £j.q^^ ^^^ right wiug, by the almost total destruction of 
the centre, Darius fled in his chariot, till the nature of the 
ground obliged him to mount his horse.^ 

Up to this period the Persian horse appear to have had the 
advantage ; and it is probable that even the skill of Parmenio 
and the bravery of the Thessalian cavalry would have been 
unavailing, had it not been for the masterly attack made by 
Alexander on the opposite extremity of the line, and the rapid 
successes which caused the Persian horse and the rest of the 
right wing to commence a retrograde movement that they 
might not be cut off/ 
loss of the Near the battle-ground the mountains are practicable for 

sequence. ° " infantry, and they are partially so for such expert horsemen as 
the Persians. The infantry would naturally resort to the 
slopes of the hills for immediate safety, but owing to their posi- 
tion near the sea, the bulk of the cavalry would be obliged to 
follow the coast, till they could return as they entered, by the 
Upper Amanic pass, which was at no great distance ; and there 
no doubt the pursuit of Alexander terminated. 

Arrian states the loss of the Persians to have been 100,000, 
including 10,000 horse,^ which probably was more than half 
the number of combatants. Other writers, except Justin, 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. vi., and Quintius Curtius, lib. III., 
cap. xi. 

"" Arrian, lib. II,, cap. xii. ; Pint., p. 669. 

^ Arrian, lib, II., cap. xi, 

* Ibid. * Ibid. 

CHAP. IX.] Alexander's kindness to the captive queens. 275 

make it greater.' The latter ^ gives 61,000 foot, 1 1,000 horse. Loss of the 
and 40,000 Persians. coTdingV^' 

The carnage during a fierce and prolonged contest in the*^^^^'"' 
centre of the line must have been considerable, but this could 
scarcely have been the case, either on the left, where the Per- 
sians were speedily routed, or on the right, where they had 
the advantage ; and the estimate of Justin, in the absence of 
any Persian accounts, seems to be nearest the truth, even in- 
cluding the followers. On giving up the pursuit, and retracing 
his steps as far as the camp lately occupied by Darius, Alex- 
ander found the royal tent prepared, agreeably to Eastern 
custom, with all that splendour for which the Persians were 
remarkable ; and he could not overlook the circumstance that 
he appeared to have succeeded to the dominion, as well as to 
the moveable palace of Darius. The feast given the same night The tent of 
to some of his principal officers, was interrupted by wild shrieks 
and lamentations in an adjacent tent. On ascertaining that 
the latter emanated from a part of the royal harem, who were 
making the customary lamentations for the supposed death of 
Darius, Alexander sent to inform the princesses that he v>-as Alexander 
still alive, adding the assurance, that their treatment should in captives*^ '^ 
every way be suitable to their exalted rank. Next day, after ^<>°o^''^^iJ'- 
seeing his wounded soldiers, though still suffering from his own 
wounds, he visited the royal captives, accompanied by his 
favourite Hephsestion, to give this assurance in person. The 
superior height of the latter — a lofty stature being much valued 
in Persia — caused Sisygambis, the queen-mother, to throw her- 
self at his feet ; Alexander endeavoured to relieve her confusion 
by saying there was no mistake, for Hephsestion was also an 

At once perceiving, from his condescension and kindness, 
that Alexander did not intend that the youthful queen should 
experience the fate which the laws of Asiatic conquest prepared 
her to expect, Sisygambis, after acknowledging her gratitude, 
added, addressing the conqueror particularly, " That she could 
support the heavy yoke entailed by her calamity, since he pre- 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. vi., states it to be 120,000, and 10,000 horse. 
* Lib. XI., c. 9. 


Altars con- 
secrated on 
the field of 

Advance into 
Syria and 





ferred to be distinguished by his clemency rather than by his 

The magnanimous decision of Alexander was taken possibly 
not without a struggle, and he quitted their tent exhorting the 
princesses to take courage ; but, lest his resolution might fail, 
he did not again trust himself in the presence of the youthful 
queen, the most attractive as well as the most lovely woman of 
her time.^ 

After celebrating the merits of the slain, and bestowing suit- 
able rewards on the living, Alexander consecrated altars to 
Jupiter, Hercules, and Minerva on the battle-ground, prepa- 
ratory to indulging that overpowering ambition to which his 
late success had given birth, and for which circumstances were 
now so peculiarly favourable. 

Darius with the remnant of his army had passed the river 
Euphrates, leaving Syria unprotected. Parmenio and the 
Thessalian horse were despatched to seize it, whilst the rest of 
the army took nearly a parallel direction along the coast 
towards Phoenicia. Although a satrapy of Persia, this 
territory contained several governments, subject to different 
patriarchal chiefs or kings, who were always jealous, and not 
unfrequently opposed to one another. Aradus, one of these, 
comprised the northern part of Phoenicia, and, within its limits, 
Mariame and Marathus, two ports nearly opposite to the isle 
of Aradus (Puad).^ 

Owing to the mercantile connexion of the latter place with 
Greece, the transfer of its allegiance to Alexander was to be 
expected ; and during the advance of the conqueror, no doubt 
along the valley of the Orontes, Gerostratus, the sovereign of 
Aradus, sent a golden crown in token of submission. 

Parmenio, in the meanwhile, accomplished his task ; for, 
through treason, the capital of Syria, with a large amount of 
treasure, fell into his hands, as well as the deputies who had 
been sent by the Lacedaemonians, Thebans, and Athenians, to 
concert measures with Darius against Alexander. Nearly at 
the same time messengers came from Babylon with an appeal, 

' Quintius Curtius, lib. III., c. xii. * Ibid. 

' Plin., lib. V.^ c. XX. 


which, being at once feeling and dignified, showed that Darius 
was not subdued by his recent calamity. His letter stated, in 
substance, that Alexander having continued the unprovoked 
hostilities commenced by his father, he had been compelled to 
defend his territory ; and God's will having disposed of the 
victory, it now remained to ofier peace and friendship, and to Darius pro- 

T • 1 • »• 1 • 1 1 PI • -o 1 r> -1 poses terms of 

solicit, as a king irom a king, the release oi his wiie and lamily peace, 
at the price of any ransom he might name, in addition to the 
territory westward of the Halys.^ 

On receiving this letter, Alexander summoned a council, 
before which, it is said, he placed in the name of Darius other 
proposals" more suitable to his wishes ; but, however this may 
have been, the conqueror, in his reply, dwelt upon the former 
invasions of Greece, the murder of Philip, and the unjust 
acquisition of the throne by Darius. Not satisfied with these 
reproaches, Alexander desired that he might be addressed as 
king of Asia, and lord of all that was once possessed by Darius : 
on such terms he expressed his readiness to restore to Darius Haughty reply 

■t • r> -i -111 T 1- IT of Alexander. 

his family, provided he supplicated m person ; adding, that he 
then might ask freely, and nothing would be refused.^ 

Phoenicia was of vital importance, in order that Alexander 
might cripple the naval superiority of Persia, and circumstances 
favoured his desire to obtain possession of it. Jealousy of their 
prosperous daughter. Tyre, induced the Sidonians to request 
Alexander to take their state under his protection, and the 
request was readily granted. The town of Byblus capitulated 
on his approach ; and as he advanced, even the Tyrians sent 
Azelmic, the son of their king, to tender their submission. 
Doubting their sincerity in desiring to transfer their allegiance 
from Persia, Alexander announced his intention of visiting the 
city, that he might offer sacrifices to the Tpian Hercules. 
Suspecting his purpose, the Tyrians replied, that in all other The Tyrians 

. ... refuse to open 

matters they were ready to obey, but declined admitting either their gates to 
Persians or Macedonians within their walls ; adding, that it ^^^"^ ^^' 

* Compare Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. vi., with Quint. Curt. lib. IV., 
cap. 1., and Arrian, lib. II., cap. xiv, 

* Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. vi. 

^ Arriau, lib. II., cap. xiv., and Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. i. 


was unnecessary to do so in this case, since the original temple 
was still standing in Old Tyre.^ 
Determination This reply being Submitted to a council of war, agreeably to 
Tyrer^^^ the Macedonian custom, it M^as determined to reduce Tyre, 
which was then the bulwark of Phoenicia, previously to pro- 
secuting the contemplated invasion of Egypt."^ The natural 
strength of an insular situation, fortified with prodigious care, and 
the possession of a superior fleet, induced the wealthy Tyrians 
to brave the contemplated attack, considering their city to be 
impregnable. Palsetyrus was the most ancient city,^ but if 
not previously, we know that as far back as the time of Hiram 
there was a temple dedicated to the Olympian Jupiter on the 
island, with which there was a communication by means of a 
kind of bank or dike.^ Ithobal the Second appears to have 
been on the throne during the memorable siege of thirteen 
years by Nebuchadnezzar ;^ when the inhabitants retired to the 
island, and having cut off the communication by destroying the 
dike, the disappointed conqueror was obliged to abandon the 
enterprise.^ Subsequently the city was confined to the island, 
which is at the distance of about 800 yards from the coast, and 
was probably much larger at that time than previously." 
Alexander Stimulated rather than deterred by the additional difficulty 

restore the of being deprived of a fleet, Alexander determined to restore 
the ancient communication, and after some little hesitation the 
troops commenced the gigantic undertaking of carrying out a 
mole from the mainland, using for this purpose the neighbour- 
ing forests, and the remains of the ancient city. A stiff" clay 
bottom made the work at first comparatively easy, but as the 
water deepened, the difficulties were greatly increased, and the 
workmen being exposed to attacks from the vessels, in addition 

' Arrian, lib. II., cap. xvi., and Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xi. 

^ Arrian, lib. II., cap. xvii. 

^ Vol. I., pp. 480, 481. 

■* Hiram, tlie son of Abibalu3, raised a bank, to join the temple of Jupiter 
on the island to the city.— Jos. Ant., lib. VIII., cap. ii., sec. vii. ; and 
cap. v., sec. iii. 

' Jos. Ant., lib. X., cliap. xi., and lib. I. Contra Apion. 

" Ezek., cliap. XXIX., v. 18. 

'' See above, vol. I., p. 481. 

ancient mole. 


to those from the walls, Alexander erected as a protection, two 
wooden towers at the extremity of the dike to contain his 
engines ; and covered them with leather and raw hides to pre- 
vent their being easily burnt.' But the intrepidity and vast 
resources of the enemy triumphed ; and a bold effort enabled 
the besieged to burn these structures by means of a hulk filled 
with liquid bitumen and other combustible materials, which 
they ignited as she was placed a5;ainst the towers. Part of the 
dike was destroyed also,^ and a sudden storm afterwards com- 
pleted the destruction of the work.^ Alexander was so much 
discouraged, particularly by the latter circumstance, that he 
was on the point of abandoning the siege, and of marching to Difficulties of 
Egypt ;* but being opportunely reinforced by vessels from 
Rhodes, Cilicia, and the ports of Phoenicia, be determined to 
renew the attempt by sea and land, depending chiefly on the 
former, since he had now the superiority on that element. 

A hasty attempt to storm through an imperfect breach 
having failed, Alexander took advantage of a calm day to make 
a general assault, by approaching the walls, and making simul- 
taneous attacks on different points with his battering engines. 
After some progress was made with these machines, ships with 
ladders were advanced to replace the others, and at length 
Alexander stormed at the head of the main body. Thus, after 
a protracted and determined resistance of nearly eight months, 
the proud city of Tyre was carried, having sustained the loss offinai success of 
6,000 men; 2,000 were afterwards nailed to gibbets, and 
30,000 of the inhabitants were sold for slaves : the Macedo- 
nians were not only greatly enraged by the obstinacy of the 
defence, but also by the cruelty of the Tyrians in putting to 
death some Macedonians who had been taken on the passage 
from Sidon.^ 

During this operation, Alexander's lieutenants were success- 
ful in Paphlagonia, Lycaonia, Tenedos, Ghio, &c., being unop- 

' Arrian, lib. II., cap. xviii. 

* Ibid., cap. xix., and Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. iii. 
^ Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. iii. 

* Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. vii. 

* Compare Arrian, lib. II., cap. xxiv., and Quint. Curt., lib, IV., cap. iv., 
and Justin, lib. VIII., cap. iii., and lib. XL, cap. x. 


Fresh offers of posed by Darius, who instead of exerting himself to preserve 
peace. Tyre, appears to have trusted entirely to negotiation. The 

generosity experienced by his beloved queen made a strong 
impression on him. Darius is said to have prayed that, next 
to himself, his noble enemy should be the sovereign of Asia. 
It was with these warm feelings that messengers were despatched 
with fresh proposals, which reached Alexander towards the 
close of the siege of Tyre. Ten thousand talents were offered 
as a ransom for his family by Darius, and a peaceful alliance to 
be cemented by a marriage with his daughter ; with whom, as 
her dower, Alexander was to have the countries lying between 
the river Euphrates and the Mediterranean sea. 
Alexander To this Alexander haughtily and briefly replied, that he did 

to make peace, not Want the uioncy, and need not ask Darius's leave to marry 
his daughter; adding, that he would not accept part of an 
empire which he considered to be wholly his own. 

All hope of peace being thus ended, Darius reluctantly pre- 
pared for another struggle, and the Bactriaus under Bessus, 
with other distant levies which had been too late for the recent 
campaign, were ordered to assemble at Babylon ; but these 
preparations did not cause any change in the plans of his 
enemy. ^ 
B. c. 332. On the fall of Tyre, Alexander marched towards Jerusalem, 

He marches to being bent on punishing the Jews for refusing supplies during 
the late siege, which they had done on the broad ground that 
they were bound to Darius as long as he lived. This imminent 
danger was, however, averted by a vision, agreeably to which, 
the high-priest Jaddua, accompanied by the priests in their 
various-coloured robes of fine linen, went forth attended by a 
multitude of citizens clad in white, and met the conqueror a little 
way from the city. On perceiving this sacred procession, it is 
said that Alexander advanced alone, and having prostrated 
himself before the holy name of God inscribed on the diadem 
of the leader, he took the high-priest by the hand, and entering 
the city as a peaceable visiter, he offered sacrifices in the 
temple. Here it was shown him in the book of Daniel that he 
was prefigured as the Greek destined to overthrow the Persian 
' Arriau, lib. II., cap. xxv. 


empire ; with which he was so much delighted that he readily 

granted to the Jews the boon of retaining the laws of their Certain prWi- 

r o ^ 1 1 • • o leges granttd 

loreiathers ; he granted them also immunity trom taxes every to the Jews, 
seventh year, when they neither sow nor reap.^ 

The animated and highly-wrought picture of the Jewish 
historian has been doubted, but Alexander was unlikely to 
leave such an important city unnoticed in his rear ; and from 
his subsequent relations with the Jews, it may be inferred that 
some understanding with them was established, either personally 
or by one of his officers. 

The only place southward of Jerusalem which could impede Advance to 
future operations was Gaza, a city commanding the high road 
to Egypt, and then governed by Batis. Notwithstanding the 
successes of Alexander, to which all other rulers seemed ready 
to succumb, this faithful eunuch, with the assistance of a body 
of Arabs whom he had engaged for this service, determined to 
defend his post for Darius. A fortress situated between Phoe- 
nicia and Egypt, and having a small port on the coast, at 
the distance of a short league, was of vital consequence to 
Alexander •, but the difficulties to be overcome required all the 
energies of this great commander. He had not to contend, as 
recently, with an arm of the sea, and a powerful fleet, but the 
extent of the city, and the unusual height of its walls, which 
were raised on the crest of ground about sixty feet above the 
plain,^ gave considerable strength to the place, independently of 
its position ; which, though not in the ocean, was in other 
respects effectively an island. It is not surprising, therefore, its peculiar 
that some of the engineers considered it impracticable to master 
such walls by force ; but Alexander observed that the difficul- 
ties were small compared with the importance of the under- 
taking f and he proceeded to give orders to commence what 
proved almost the greatest achievement which he was ever 
destined to accomplish. 

On the southern side of the city a prodigious mound was 
commenced, and as the surrounding desert denied the ordinary 

' Joseph. Ant., lib. XI., cap. iv., v., viii. 

^ Biblical Researches, &c., by E Robinson, D.D., vol. II., pp. 374, 375. 

^ Arrian. lib. II., cap. xxvi. 


resources, earth and timber, probably olive and date trees, 
which abound,' were brought from a distance over the sand 
with great labour ; the people of the adjacent country being 
employed for this purpose. 
Protracted Owing to thcsc difficulties, added to those caused by the 

^e^cneeo e (jgj-gpj-^^jj^g^j defence and constant sallies of the besieged, the 
rampart and the mines progressed but slowly ; especially the 
latter, which as the sand required to be everywhere supported, 
were, even with this assistance, maintained with the greatest 
difficult}', more particularly as the work was exposed at the 
same time to constant attacks in every stage. 

The battering machines, including those which had been 
used at Tyre, having at length been brought to play with 
advantage on a level with the walls, and a partially practicable 
breach effected, the assault took place forthwith." Notwith- 
standing a severe loss, the Arabs thrice held their ground 
against the shock of the Macedonians ; but in a fourth, the 
example and unshaken valour of their leader, who before, in 
repelling one of the sallies, had been severely wounded in the 
shoulder by an arrow discharged from a catapult,^ enabled 
some of the Macedonians to get within the walls, and the gates 
being forced open one after another, the main body of the army 
Capture of the entere4 the city. The Arabs, however, maintained their 
city y storm, ^.y^^^^q^^qy^ Continuing a brave but ineffectual resistance till the 
last, every one losing his life where he stood ; except indeed 
Batis himself, who fell into the hands of the enemy covered with 
wounds, but still alive.* Six thousand men perished according to 
one account, that of Hegesias ; and 10,000 Arabs and Persians 
according to another,^ in addition to the wives and children of the 
inhabitants, who were sold for slaves by order of Alexander/' 
This commercial emporium contained great stores of frankin- 
cense, myrrh, and other booty ; and a remarkable proof of this, 
and of the connexion of this place with the East, is given by 
Plutarch, who says that Alexander sent his tutor, Leonidas, a 

' Biblical Researches, &c., by E. Robinson, D.D., vol. II., pp. 372-376. 
* Arrian, lib. II„ cap. xxvii., and Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. vii. 
^ Diod. Sic, lib. IV., cap. vi. '* Arrian, lib. II., cap. xxvii. 

^ (.iuint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. vi. " Arrian, lib. II., cap. xxvii. 


present of five hundred talents weight of frankincense, and a 
hundred of myrrh, in recollection of the hopes he had entertained 
and the reproof he had received when a boy. It seems that 
Leonidas one day had observed Alexander, at a sacrifice, throw- 
ing incense into the fire by handsful, and said, " Alexander, 
M hen you have conquered the country where spices grow, you 
may be thus liberal of your incense ; but, in the meantime, use 
what you have more sparingly." Alexander therefore wrote 
thus : " I have sent you frankincense and myrrh in abundance, 
that you may be no longer a churl to the gods." ^ 

The sale of captives was the custom of the time ; but for the 
honour of Alexander it is to be hoped the statement is not 
correct of his having, as Achilles is said to have treated 
Hector, caused the dying Batis to be dragged round the town 
at the heels of a chariot." 

Circumstances favoured the next enterprise ; for on arriving March to 
before Pelusium with his army and fleet, the Egyptians being 
dissatisfied with the satrap Mazaces, were ready to welcome 
Alexander. Having thus acquired the fertile territory of the 
Nile without a blow, the excitement of warlike objects gave 
place for a time to those of peace : and having examined the 
course of the Nile from Memphis to Heliopolis, Alexander 
strove to unite his new and old subjects by amusements and 
religious ceremonies, himself assisting in the sacrifices to Apis, 
instead of outraging the feelings of the Egyptians by showing 
contempt and scorn for the objects of their worship. An 
examination of the coast succeeded, and in order to replace the 
defective ports at Pelusium and the Canopus, the city bearing 
his name was projected on a scale of magnificence which its 
ruins still indicate, with a view of facilitating the commerce of 
the west, also of commanding that which was expected to spring 
from his intended conquest of the east. For this invasion 
Alexander was now preparing, by raising troops in Greece to Alexander 
strengthen and consolidate his Asiatic levies ; and it was during the go've^m- 
the interval thus employed that his visit to the remarkable °'^°^°^^-''P^ 
temple of Ham or Amnion, in the oasis of the latter name, 

' Alexander, in Plutarch, Langhorne's ed., p. 356. 
' Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. vii. 


took place ; probably to give Alexander's enterprise the sanc- 
tion of the oracle. 

Accompanied by a considerable body of horse and foot, he 
arrived at the temple ; and, in the return, the greater part of 
the troops took the longer route by the shore of the Mediterra- 
nean Sea, whilst Alexander with the remainder boldly crossed 
the desert in a direct line to Memphis. 
The ancient The arrangements for the government of Egypt were now 
^J^ygJ]"^' completed, the basis of which was the maintenance of the 
ancient laws under the executive government of local chiefs, 
some of whom were Egyptians, and others Macedonians, and 
the whole were placed under the general supervision of a vice- 
roy or Deloaspis ; ^ the post next in rank, with the chief military 
command, being naturally entrusted to a Macedonian. 

Having completed these arrangements, by issuing public 
orders for all to respect and execute the ancient laws and insti- 
tions, Alexander determined, by assuming the offensive, to 
anticipate the march of Darius towards Syria and Egypt. 
Alexander Being reinforced by 400 Grecian infantry, and 500 Thracian 
toward? Asia, horse, in the spring of the year 331 B.C. he put the army in 
motion towards Tyre ; ^ his force amounting apparently to 
7,000 horse, and about 40,000 foot, besides the Asiatic levies, 
whose number has not been given by historians. 

At Tyre, the appointed rendezvous of his fleet and army, 
Alexander found deputies from Athens and several other 
republics, soliciting his return to defend them against the Lace- 
daemonians ; but past successes had only inflamed the desire of 
encountering more dangers, and making other conquests. Alex- 
ander therefore sent some money to Antipater, and having 
despatched a fleet to the Peloponnesus, the march was con- 
tinued, after celebrating a public sacrifice to Hercules, in which 
the whole army joined. 
Probably Although the route onward from Tyre is not mentioned, the 

Phoenicia. facility of obtaining supplies, as well as the circumstance of the 
Phoenicians and Cyprians being ordered to furnish vessels ^ for 
crossing the Euphrates, clearly indicate that it was through 

' Arrian, lib. III., cap. v. * Ibid., cap. vi. 

=• Ibid. 


Phoenicia, most likely by keeping along the Upper Orontes to 
the neighbourhood of Antioch, at a moderate distance from 
which place there were four crossing places over the Euphrates, 
namely, the Zeugmas of Sumeisat, Eiim Kal'ah, Bir, and 

Alexander directed his march on the last, which was the Darius assem- 
crossing place of Cyrus, ^ whose steps he was following. Pre-rousann™^' 
parations to meet the invaders were by this time far advanced, y^°^s ^^^ 
and the Scythians, Parthians, Indians, and other levies, with 
200 scythed chariots, being assembled in Babylonia, and the 
troops newly armed with swords and spears of a longer and 
better description, Darius found himself at the head of a more 
numerous army than that which had been destroyed at the 

On reaching Upper Mesopotamia, Mazseus was posted in 
advance to dispute the passage at Thapsacus, but he abandoned 
this position without offering any obstruction, except that of 
breaking down the bridge on the approach of the enemy ; and 
Alexander, instead of resorting to the tedious operation of 
using his boats, repaired the bridge, and passed the great river 
without the slightest opposition.^ 

Local tradition has transmitted the fact of the passage of Nicephoriom 
Iskender Acbar ; and there is the additional fact that, tempted 
by the advantages of the situation, he ordered the city of Nice- 
phorium, now Kakkah, to be built.* 

The position of Darius near the Tigris, and the circum- 
stances of the country along the direct line having been wasted 
by Mazseus, determined Alexander to proceed to Babylon by 
the circuitous route along the Tigris, which, in addition to 
affording more supplies, would be less exposed to excessive 

* Arrian, lib. III., cap. vii. 

* Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. ix. ; Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. vii., says 
800,000 foot and 200,000 horse. 

^ Compare Arrian, lib. Ill,, chap, viii., with Quint. Curt., lib. IV., 
cap. ix. 

* Plin., lib. VI., cap. xxvi. ; lib. V., cap. xxiv. ; and above, vol. I., 
pp. 48, 114. 

* Arrian, lib. III., cap. vii. 



[chap. IX. 

Route from It is a proof of the accuracy of the historian, that, conform- 

th?ngris/° ably to his description, in proceeding northward along what was 
subsequently one of the royal roads (which is still to be traced 
by the pavement) to Carras and to Amida, now Diyar Bekr, 
the river Euphrates, and subsequently the mountains of Ar- 
menia, would be on the left hand.^ 

Whilst crossing Upper Mesopotamia, it was ascertained from 
some of his scouts who had been taken, that Darius was 
encamped with a numerous army in a position where he 
intended to dispute the passage of the Tigris.^ On receiving 
this intelligence, Alexander directed his march towards the 
spot that had been indicated ; but on arriving there, he neither 
found Darius nor any of his troops, therefore he only expe- 
rienced the difficulty of fording a stream which, owing to its 
depth and rapidity, is all but impracticable for an army. 

The passage is supposed to have taken place in the vicinity 
of Eski Mosul, which point would have been speedily reached 
if, as is probable, Alexander took a more easterly direction when 
he reached the vicinity of either Mardm or Nisibm. It appears 
Retreat of that Darius on reaching Upper Mesopotamia, suddenly turned 
the Tigris and to the right, and crossed first the Tigris and then the Caprus or 
^■' Lesser Zab, and halted at Arbela, now Arbfl, a small tow^n with 

a ruined castle, situated on an artificial mound 742 feet above 
the sea. It is not stated why Darius quitted the favourable 
ground in Mesopotamia, where there was scope for the whole 
of his forces, including the chariots, but it may be inferred from 
his attempts to negotiate,^ that a peaceable reunion with his 
family, and not a battle, had been his object ; and thus he lost 
the opportunity of crippling, if not destroying, Alexander's 
army, first when crossing at Thapsacus, and again at Eski 

But having at length resolved to meet his enemy, Darius 
left the greater part of his baggage, provisions, &c., at Arbela, 

' Arriaii, lib. III., cap. vii. See also the route from Thapsacus towards 
tlie interior of Mesopotamia, in a north by easterly direction, to Haran, and 
from thence, by Mardin, to the river Tigris, at Eski Mosul. Map No. 2 and 
Index Map. 

* Ibid. =» Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xi. 


crossed the Lycus, or Great Zab, and encamped on the river 
Bumadus, at a village called Guagamela, which is about 600 
Stadia from Arbela.' In the meanwhile, Alexander, with his 
usual tact, quieted an alarm, which the occurrence of a total 
eclipse of the moon at the moment of passing the Tigris had 
caused in the camp, by directing Aristander, the soothsayer, to 
assure the soldiers that the eclipse portended evil to Persia, 
and not to Macedonia. Being ignorant of the position of Alexander 

. rpy. ... . crosses and 

Darius, he followed the course of the Tigris into Assyria, advances 
having the Gordysean mountains on his left ; but during his Tigrfs. ^ 
fourth march, his uncertainty was relieved, by learning from 
some prisoners that Darius occupied a strong camp at no great 
distance ; and he halted, in consequence, to prepare for battle. 

Darius appears to have taken this opportunity to make his 
third and final proposals for peace, to which he was alike 
inclined by a quiet disposition, and personal esteem for Alex- 
ander ; whose greatness of mind in the first instance towards 
Statira, and particularly his feeling conduct at the time of the 
queen's death, had inspired an aftectionate husband with the 
warmest gratitude and the greatest admiration. With tears in 
his eyes, and his hands raised towards heaven, Darius prayed 
that God, who disposes of all things, would preserve to him 
the empire of the Persians and Medes as it had been received ; 
but he added, as the recollections of the husband overcame 
the pride of the monarch, "if it be otherwise decided, and 
the glory of the Persians must fall, may none but Alexander sit 
upon the throne of Cyrus."" 

The princely oft'er of 30,000 talents of gold and all the He again re- 
territory lying between the Hellespont and Euphrates, as a liberal terms. 
dower with his second daughter, having been made by the 
ambassadors, couched in language which enhanced the value, 
(for Darius was ready to divide the empire itself,) it was as a 
matter of form referred to the council. But the peaceable 
course advised by Parmenio, with the silent sanction of his 
colleagues, not being palatable, Alexander told the deputies 
that with the exception of the money, which he did not want, 

' Arrian, lib. III., cap. viii. 

* Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xi. 



[chap. IX. 

some prepara' 


His neglect. 

the rest was already in his possession ; and attributing to 
Darius the design of endeavouring to corrupt his friends, and 
bribe his soldiers to kill their prince, he added, that he would 
pursue him to the last extremity, not as an open enemy, but 
as an assassin and a poisoner.* To these reproaches they 
simply replied, that since Alexander was resolved to continue 
to make war, his frankness was praiseworthy, and it was time 
they should hasten to apprise Darius of the necessity of being 
prepared for an immediate battle. Accordingly, Darius took 
Darius makes Something like a decided step by detaching 3,000 horse under 
Mazaeus to endeavour to obstruct the enemy, who by this time 
had almost reached the Persian camp. 

It has been seen that the hope of peace, and the prospect of 
recovering his family, had caused Darius to commit the un- 
pardonable oversight of allowing the invaders to cross two 
mighty rivers, and without interruption to traverse extensive 
plains, where the Persian cavalry might have watched their 
movements at some distance ; leaving them only a desert as 
they advanced. But instead of being thus harassed, Alexander's 
forces, numbering about 40,000 European infantry and 7,000 
cavalry,^ independently of the Asiatic levies, entered Assyria 
in the most efficient state, advancing with the infantry forming 
two columns in the centre, the cavalry on the flanks, and the 
baggage in the rear.^ After advancing about 30 stadia, the 
cavalry under Mazaeus was seen retiring from some hillocks, 
which being immediately occupied, the Persian army was 
indistinctly visible through the fog.'* The long-wished-for 
opportunity of meeting his adversary for the moment perplexed 
rather than encouraged Alexander, who instead of closing with 
the enemy as usual, determined by the advice of Parmenio to 
delay the attack. Taking the light horse and the royal cohort, 
Alexander examined the camp of Darius, and having made 
himself well acquainted with the position of the enemy, and 
strengthened his own, by means of a palisade, a council of 
war was summoned to deliberate. Parmenio and some others 

the camp of 

' Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xi. * Arrian, lib. Ill,, cap. xi. 

^ Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xii. 

* Compare Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xii., with Arrian, lib. III., cap. xi. 


recommended a night attack as being likely to be unexpected, 
and therefore terrible as well as destructive. To this, the uncer- 
tainty of attacks in the dark, the superior knowledge possessed 
of the country by the enemy, and the difficulties of a retreat 
were opposed ; and the meeting was reminded that it was 
incumbent on Alexander to conquer openly. Orders were now 
issued to take some repose preparatory to a regular battle, and 
the different commanders were desired to make known to the 
soldiers that the contest was not for a petty province such as Alexander 
Phoenicia, Syria, or even Egypt, but for the empire of Asia ; soidiersr 
and that success would depend upon the courage and united 
exertions of every individual.^ 

Although a feeling of anxiety, if not of alarm, was manifested 
about the result of the contemplated struggle, the address of 
Darius was powerful. Not long ago, he observed to his army, 
they had marched against Greece, but the inconstancy of fortune 
at the Granicus, and again at the Issus, had removed the 
barrier of two great rivers, and placed the Persians on the 
defensive, in the heart of the kingdom. But his duty had been 
performed by assembling a force which this vast plain could 
scarcely contain ; he had likewise furnished the necessary arms, 
equipments, and provisions, with suitable battle-ground for this 
multitude : the rest, he added, depended upon themselves. " It Animating 
is," observed the king to the soldiers, " become a contest for Darius to his 
existence, and, what is dearer still, the liberty of your wives ^°"°^'''''s- 
and children, who must fall into the hands of the enemy, unless 
your bodies become a rampart to save them from captivity." 
Darius added, that his own mother and his children w^ere still 
in that prison where Statira had lately perished, and now 
appealed to their compassion and fidelity for deliverance from 
a prolonged captivity. His eloquent address concluded with 
this remarkable peroration : — "The enemy," said the king, " is 
at hand ; and as this contest must either overturn or establish 
the greatest empire in the world, I conjure you by the splendour 
of the sun, by the fires on our altars, which represent this lumi- 
nary, and by the immortal memory of C\tus, the great founder 
of the empire, to maintain the glory of the nation unsullied."" 

' Arrian, lib. III., cap. ix. ^ Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xv. 



Darius now proceeded to make the following arrangements. 
The Persian On the left, the principal line consisted of Dahians, Arachosians, 
^' horse and foot intermingled ; in front were the Bactrian and 
Scythian horse, with 100 two-wheeled chariots ; and in rear, 
forming a third line, were the Cadusians and a mixed body of 
Persian horse. ^ The right was also formed in three lines, the 
principal of which was composed of Cselo-Syrians, Mesopota- 
mians, IMedes, Parthians, and Sacse, in addition to Tapurians 
and Hyrcanians, supported by another line composed of 
Albanians and Sacesinse ; with a third in front, of chariots and 
cavalry, namely, the Armenian and Cappadocian horse. In 
the centre under Darius himself were the roval kinsmen, the 
Persian Melophori, who were distinguished by grenades of 
gold, ^ the Indians, the Carian exiles, and Mardian archers ; 
with the Greek mercenaries on each side. In front were 50 
chariots and 15 elephants, and in the third or supporting line, 
were the Uxians, the Babylonians, the Sitaceni, and the people 
bordering upon the Erythrean Sea.^ 
ascertained by A documcnt Containing the preceding plan of Darius having 
beeii intercepted on the eve of the battle, Alexander was not only 
informed of the whole of the details, but he appears likewise to 
have known that Darius meant to keep his forces under arms, 
expecting a night attack.* 

The Macedonians passed the night in a state of anxiety, in 
which, contrary to his wont, Alexander largely shared.' The 
soothsayer Aristander was summoned, and after endeavouring 
to propitiate Jupiter, Minerva, and Victory, by prayers and 
sacrifices, Alexander retired, but not to sleep. Absorbed with 
anxiety about the result of the coming battle against such 
fearful odds, at one time he planned a general attack with his 
whole force on the Persian right, at another a general attack in 
Various plans front was Contemplated, and this again gave place to a meditated 
tempiatcd. attack ou the left wing ; and in this unsettled state the great 
captain continued till at length his bodily frame being com- 

' Compare Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xiii., with Arrian, lib. III., cap. xi. 
^ Herod., lib. VII., cap. xli, 

^ Compare Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xiii., with Arrian, lib. III., cap. xi. 
* Ibid. » Ibid. Quint. Curt. 


pletely exhausted, he found relief from the all-absorbing anxie- Preparations 
ties of the mind, and a deep sleep was the consequence, which attack. 
continued till long after daylight. On being awoke with some 
difficulty by Parrnenio, Alexander briefly directed the com- 
manders to take post and await his orders.' He speedily 
appeared in the unusual equipment of armour, displaying a 
cheerful countenance, from which the army confidently augured 
victory; and the palisade being overturned to give space, the 
troops were immediately formed, nominally in two wings with 
the cavalry in front, but actually in a grand hollow square, in 
order to resist the general attack intended to be simultaneously 
made on the front, flanks, and rear by the enemy's forces, which 
greatly outflanked the Macedonians. 

The latter were thus detailed : the right wing comprised the Order of 
auxiliary horse called Agema, and was supported by the squadrons ^" ^' 
of Philotas and Meleagre, &c. To these succeeded the phalanx 
and the Argyraspides, strengthened by the corps of C?enus, the 
OrestsB, and Lyncestae, who were followed by the foreign levies 
under Amyntas with the Phrygians, who completed this wing.^ 
The formation of the left wing was nearly similar, having the 
Peloponnesian and other cavalry in front, the Thessalian horse, 
with the phalanx and infantry, in the rear. A moveable phalanx 
was ready to support any part of each wing, prepared to con- 
tract or dilate its front as occasion required ; and auxiliary 
corps were placed ready for action towards the flanks and rear, 
both of which were as well protected as the front itself;^ and in 
order to avoid the most formidable arm of the enemy, Alex- 
ander desired a passage to be opened for the chariots and the 
horses, with a view to the latter being speared as they passed.* 
Parmenio commanded the left wing, and as usual the king led 
the right, which was advancing, when Bion a deserter came at 
full speed to indicate the position of the caltrops : the cavalry 
avoided them in consequence, by taking an oblique direction. 

' Compare Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. viii., with Quint. Curt., lib. IV., 
cap. xiii. 

"^ Diod. Sic. ibid. ; Quint. Curt, ibid ; Arrian, lib. III., cap. xi. 
^ Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xiii. ; Arrian, lib. Ill,, cap. xii., xiii. 
* Ibid. Arrian, and Quint. Curt. 

u 2 



[chap. IX. 

The Persian 
attack com- 
mences suc- 

For some time 
the battle con- 
tinues doubt- 

But Darius commenced the battle at this moment, by making 
a signal for his chariots to advance, and Bessus to charge 
Alexander's left flank simultaneously with the Massagetian 
cavalry. The former caused considerable loss and disorder as 
they broke through the first line of the Macedonians at full 
speed, and the danger was increased by Mazseus having got 
into the rear of the Macedonian left ; at the head of 1,000 horse 
he reached the baggage, and not only released many of the 
captives, who were slightly guarded, but he was at the point of 
also rescuing the family of his master.^ 

Parmenio being alarmed, sent Polydamus for orders ; when 
Alexander replied, that victory will not only recover what is 
lost, but obtain what belongs to the enemy also ; " Let him not, 
therefore," said the king, " weaken the order of battle or be 
influenced by the loss of baggage, but continue to fight in a 
manner worthy of Philip and Alexander." 

Amyntas, however, with some squadrons, made an attempt 
to rescue the baggage, and on being repulsed by the Cadusians 
and Scythians, he retreated towards the king, who was so 
uneasy lest the soldiers might quit their ranks to save their 
efiects, that he despatched Aretas with his lancers to attack the 

By this time the chariots had penetrated the phalanx, and the 
flanks of the horses being pierced right and left, they became 
unmanageable ; a frightful carnage ensued of horses and men, 
and there was a general discomfiture ; some carriages, however, 
penetrated to the rear, mangling and killing the unfortunate 
beings whom they happened to meet. In the meanwhile Aretas 
killed the chief of the Scythians whilst pillaging, and pursued 
his people ; but the Bactrians having recovered the lost ground, 
the Macedonians sought safety by flying towards Alexander.' 
Uttering the cry of victory, the Persians fell with fury upon the 
enemy as if he had been everywhere defeated ; which, in fact, 
must have been the result, had not the intrepid leader main- 
tained the contest almost single handed. Having at length by 
his animating example, reproaching and exciting alternately, 

' Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xiii., xv. 

* Ibi(l., cap. XV. ^ Ibid. 


renewed the courage of his soldiers, and a successful charge 
being made at their head, it was followed up by an attack on 
the Persians ; but being taken in reverse as he advanced by 
the left wing of the enemy, Alexander would have been de- 
stroyed, if the Agrian cavalry had not attacked the latter in 
rear, and obliged them to face about to defend themselves.' 

This caused an extraordinary, if not an unprecedented state 
of things. Alexander was engaged at the same time with an Alexander 
enemy in his front and another in the rear. The latter were Ss h?s ^^^^ 
attacked by the Agrians, and these in turn by the Bactrians, ground. 
who had returned with their pillage, and being unable to 
resume their ranks, fought according to chance in a desultory 

A succession of hostile bodies encircling one another in deadly 
strife, must ere long have been fatal to one of the armies, and 
owing to what was of itself an accidental circumstance this 
melee ended by the total overthrow of the Persians. Darius 
was in a chariot, Alexander on horseback, and each surrounded state of the 
by followers ready either to conquer his rival, or fall under the in the day. 
eye of their prince, when the death of his charioteer, who was 
killed by a dart thrown by Alexander himself, gave rise to the 
belief in both armies, that Darius himself had fallen.^ 

Previously the battle had been stoutly and successfully con- 
tested. The baggage and spoil of Alexander's army had been 
plundered by Mazseus, his right wing was taken in reverse, his 
left was worsted by the Massagetian horse,^ and even in the 
heat of the battle, after their chief dependence, the chariots, had 
been overthrown, the Persians maintained their ground during 
the carnage, till they thought they saw their sovereign fall,^ 
From this instant there was a complete panic, the centre and Panic and 
left flying amidst indescribable and irremediable confusion ; Persians.' ^ 
and Darius was hurried along in a cloud of dust, so dense, that 
it is said the sound of the whips urging the horses was the only 
guide by which Alexander pursued the fugitive monarch.*. The 

' Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xv. 

^ Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. viii. ; Arriau does not mention this circum- 

" Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xv. ■• Ibid. 


Total rout of historian, M'ho appears to have been most famihar with the 
details of this momentous battle/ observes, that the calamities 
of a whole century seemed to be comprised within the short 
space of that fatal day. Some of the fugitives strove to save 
themselves at all risks by taking the shortest road, others 
directed their steps towards difficult defiles, or paths unknown 
to their pursuers. Horse and foot, armed and unarmed, the 
healthy, the sick, and the wounded, without order, and without 
a chief, hastened onward in a frightful state of confusion, which 
was increased if possible by efforts to find the means of alle- 
viating their thirst. Regardless of all other considerations, they 
drank to such excess on reaching the river Lycus, that they 
were unable to continue their flight, and the bridge which, in 
consideration of the fugitives rather than himself, Darius had 
purposely left, being soon overcrowded and choked, numbers 
were driven into the stream." Alexander, however, did not 
continue the pursuit, alleging that his troops were exhausted, 
their weapons blunted, and that the day had closed ; but, in 
reality, he halted with vexation and rage because he was aware 
that the retrograde movement, which he was about to make to 
relieve Parmenio from his critical situation, must permit the 
enemy to escape. But he had not proceeded far, when he met 
the Persian and Parthian cavalry in full retreat. The intel- 
ligence of the fall of Darius had caused Mazajus to relax in his 
efforts, and ultimately to retreat, taking a circuitous route with 
Pursuit of the the remainder of Darius' forces to Babylon.^ No longer ob- 
Aiex'a^nderf structed, Pamicnio made an onward movement with the lefl 
wing, seizing the enemy's tents as he proceeded, he subsequently 
captured their baggage, camels, elephants, &c., and continued 
to advance, till Alexander himself returned to the Lycus ; and 
afler a short rest resumed the pursuit, hoping to complete the 
wonderful success of the day, by capturing the fugitive king."* 

Niebuhr' supposed Guagamela to be represented by the 
village of Karmelis, which is situated on the Khazir stream, 

' Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xvi. * Ibid. 

^ Compare Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. .\vi., with Arrian, lib. III., cap. xv. 

* Arrian, ibid. 

' Travels, vol. II., p. 342, Copenhagen edition. 


about sixteen miles eastward of Mosul, but it does not appear Provable site 

1 1 • 1 1 1 • • ■ 1 • 1 • i. • , , of the battle. 

that there is any local tradition regarding this most important 
battle ground mentioned in Asiatic history, excepting Beit 
Genua, or house of bones, which possibly may be connected 
therewith;^ and the circumstance that Arbela was built by 
Darius.^ In all likelihood the battle took place between 'Ain-el- 
Bertha (Mons Nicator) and the great Zab, probably on that part 
of the plain which is watered by the Khazir-sii or Bumadus." 

Beyond a hollow square to protect the flanks and rear, there 
w^as nothing remarkable in the order of the battle of Arbela, 
which was only a fierce protracted melee, and Alexander, who 
was most indebted to his personal bravery, and the steady disci- 
pline of his troops, particularly in sustaining the shock of the 
chariots, at length gained the victory. 

By one account^ the loss of the Persians during this fearful Loss of the 


struggle for the empire, was 40,000 men, and by another, more 
than double this number ;^ but even the former seems to be an 
over estimate, and out of all proportion to the 100 Macedonians 
stated to have fallen on the other side.^ The flight of Darius 
naturally continued till he reached the baggage and reserve of 
his army at Arbela, where he assembled several of his principal 
officers, some of whom had likewise arrived from the battle. 
Expressing his belief that Alexander would endeavour to seize 
the two capitals, Darius announced his intention of proceeding 
to Ecbatana to raise another army, hoping to have his revenge 
after Alexander's warriors were absorbed in the enervating Darius pro- 
luxuries of Babylon and Susa ;'' adding expressively, that in batana. 
difficult circumstances, things that are necessary, not those 
which are great, must be first thought of; and that his prede- 
cessors had been enabled to recover previous losses by the use 
of iron rather than gold.® Having abandoned the idea of de- 
fending Mesopotamia and Susiana, Darius, accompanied by the 

' Travels and Eesearches in Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Clialdea, and 
Armenia, by AV. F. Ainsworth, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., vol. II., pp. 135, 136. 

* Rich's Kurdistan, vol. II., p. 18. 

^ Ainsworth's Travels, &c., vol. ii., pp. 135, 136. 

* Quint. Curt., lib. IV., cap. xvi. 

^ Died. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. viii. ^ Arrian, lib. III., cap. xv. 

^ Quint. Curt., lib. V., cap. i. * Ibid. 



[chap. IX. 

arrives at 

coutimies his 
inarch to 

Bactrians, some Persians, his kindred, a few Melophori, and 
about 2,000 foreign mercenaries/ proceeded to the Atropa- 
tenian Ecbatana, probably by Rowandiz, from whence tra- 
versing the Zagros at the pass of the Keli-shin, he finally arrived 
at the Median Ecbatana.^ Alexander reached Arbela too late 
to get possession of Darius, bat the royal furniture and rich 
stuffs, together with 4,000 talents, fell into his hands.^ 

As Darius had foreseen, the route of Babylon was taken, 
and in four days Alexander reached the city of Memnis, evi- 
dently Kerkiik, from the distance, as well as from the par- 
ticulars given of a fountain in a cavern, with such an abundance 
of bitumen that it supplied cement for a great part of the walls 
of the capital."* 

On approaching the Queen of the East, Mazseus came with 
his family to offer the city and his services, to which the con- 
queror was entitled agreeably to eastern custom ; and thus a 
very formidable siege became unnecessary. The inhabitants 
perfumed the streets with incense and spices, and the Magi, the 
Chaldeans, the soothsayers, and the musicians having attended 
the triumphal march of Alexander, he sacrificed to Belus, and 
gave directions for the restoration of the celebrated temple 
devoted to this deity .^ 

' Arrian, lib- III., cap. xvi. 

^ Major Rawlinson, Vol. X., RoJ^ Geog. Journ., pp. 21, 149. 
"" Quint. Curt., lib. V., cap. i., but Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., p. 538, says 
3,000 silver talents. 

* Quint. Curt., ibid. ^ Arrian, lib. III., cap. xvi. 

( 297 ) 



March to Susa, the Persian Gates, and Persepolis. — Advance to Ecbatana. — 
Treasure found in those Cities. — Advance to the Caspian Gates. — Pursuit 
and Deatli of Darius. — Invasion of Hyrcania. — Campaigns in Kliorasan 
and Drangiana. — Alexandria ad Caucasum built. — Invasion of Bactria. — 
Passage of the Oxus. — March to Maracanda and the Jaxartes. — Siege of 
Cyropolis. — Activity of Spitamenes. — Warlike People north of the Paro- 
pamisus. — Capture of the Fort of Oxyartes. — Alexander's Marriage to 
Roxana. — Expedition into Margiana. — Hill Fort of the Paraetacse taken. 
— Winter at Zariaspa, and Death of Clitus. — Return across the Paropa- 
misus, and March to the Indus. — Siege of Aornas. — Visit to Nysa. — 
Alexander passes the Indus and defeats Porus. — Sakala taken. — The Army 
refuses to cross the River Hyphasis. 

To the wealth of Babylon the army had looked forward as the 
reward of their past labours and dangers, as well as of those to 
be encountered in overcoming the vast preparations which had 
been made to defend the seat of empire.^ But the leading 
object of the growing ambition of Alexander had now been 
obtained without resistance ; for the mighty struggle in ap- 
proaching Arbela not only had placed the Queen of the East 
at the feet of the conqueror, but also had paralysed everything 
like an organized defence of the neighbouring territory ; and 
the second city of the empire, with its strong castle and pro- 
digious wealth, awaited the conqueror. 

The unprotected treasures of Susa being the next object, Alexander 
Alexander hastened to complete his arrangements for the go^Jrn^eu'rof 
government of Babylonia, which with Susiana became the base i^^^^J^o^- 
of still greater and more distant operations. 

The satrapy of Armenia was bestowed upon Methrines, that 

* Died. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. vi., p, 518. 


•with regal 

of Babylon was continued to Mazseus : ^ Apollodorus raised 

numerous recruits in Asia; and others having arrived from 

Macedonia,^ i^lexander, after halting thirty-four days and 

He marches distributing ample rewards, proceeded towards Susa, the more 

towards Susa. ^,gi^|; Capital, and the winter residence of the Court.^ 

As Alexander approached, the son of Abulites came to 
offer to surrender the city, and on reaching the Choaspes, 
now the Kerah or Kerkhah, the offer was repeated by the 
satrap in person; whose respect was further manifested by 
He is received having a procession of elephants and swift dromedaries, 
bearing presents of regal mag-nificence.* Besides which the 
conqueror found in the royal treasury of Susa 50,000^ un- 
wrought ingots, or about 9,365,000^., which had been collected 
by different sovereigns for their children and descendants ; but 
had now passed to a stranger as the result of a single battle. 

Whilst in this city, reinforcements joined from the Asian Greek 
cities,'' which enabled Alexander to complete his preparations for 
another campaign. Having restored the satrapy of Susiana to 
Abulites, and entrusted the government of Susa itself, with the 
care of the royal captives, to Archelaus, he resumed his march 
towards Persis. Making, as has been presumed, a detour^ to 
avoid the river Coprates, or river of Dizful, on the fourth day 
the army crossed the Pasitigris, probably above Ahwaz,^ and 
invaded the territory of the Uxii. The people of the plains 

for another 

' Arrian, lib. III., cap. xvi, 

* Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xii.; Quint. Curt., lib. V., cap. ii. 

' A direct line in an E S.E. direction, through Lower INIesopotaniia, 
would touch the river Tigris about the commencement of the Shatt-el-Hai 
at Ki'it-el-'Amarah, which is 70 miles from Babylon ; and 55 miles farther 
is the ancient crossing place of that river, called El Kantarah, which is a 
little below Imam Gharbi. The remaining distance to Siis is about 100 
miles, or nearly 230 miles in all, over a level country ; and the march occu- 
pied 20 days, according to Arrian (lib. III., cap. xvi.), including the pas- 
sage of the Hai Canal and tlie rivers Tigris and Choaspes. 

■* Quint. Curt., lib. V., cap. ii. 

' Forty thousand only, according to Diod. Sic, lib, XVII., cap. xiv. 

° Arrian, lib. III., cap. xvi. 

' See above, vol. I., p. 205. 

" Following a part of tlie river Shiipur, the distance would be from 42 
to 45 miles. 


submitted, but a considerable body of mountaineers under pian of 
Madates opposed him, and the pass which they occupied was 
too strong to be carried by a direct attack.^ Alexander having, 
however, ascertained that the fortress might be taken in reverse, 
detached 1,500 light troops and 1,000 Agrians under Tauron^ 
at sunset ; and moving himself north-eastward at the third 
watch to give time, he passed the straits by daybreak,^ being 
provided with materials to make screens to protect his men 
during the delicate operation of placing the towers against the 

The flinty and precipitous nature of the ground, however, Rock fortress 
caused a serious loss notwithstanding; and perceiving some 
hesitation among his men, Alexander asked the soldiers if they 
were not ashamed to make difliculties before such a paltry 
place, after having taken so many splendid cities. A tortoise 
was now formed with their bucklers as a protection, just as the 
corps under Tauron appeared above the citadel, and the enemy 
being thus closely pressed on both sides, the town presently 
surrendered. Some of the inhabitants fled, and others retired 
into the citadel, which afterwards surrendered, under favour- 
able terms, obtained at the earnest intercession of Sisygambis. 

Some ruins near the caves of Shikoftehi-Suleiman, on the 
plain of Mai- Amir, appear to be those of the Uxian city ; and 
the narrow pass, connecting the plains of Halegiin and Mal- 
Amir, answers to the straits passed by Alexander before day- 

The rest of the Uxian territory being added to the satrapy Akxamier 
of Susiana, Alexander despatched the main body under Par- advance!^ 
menio along the plain, and leading the light troops by the 
mountain road on the left flank, he joined them, on the fifth 
day, near the Susiad rocks^ which separate Susiana from Persis 
or Pars. The difl&cult defile at the foot of Kal'eh Sefid, about 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xv. 

* Quint. Curt., lib. V., cap. iii ; but Arrian, lib. III., cap. xvii., calls 
the commander Craterus. 

^ Quint. Curt,, lib. V., cap. iii. 

* Baron de Bode's Notice in Royal Geographical Journal, vol. XIII., 
pp. 108-112. 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xv., p. 541 ; Quint. Curt., lib. V., cap. iv. 


four miles eastward of Failioun, no doubt represents the Uxian 
narrow, and the Persian Gates, whose great natural strength 
had been increased by art ; and moreover they were occupied 
by a strong force under the Satrap Ariobarzanes.' 
He experi- A determined attack was made on these defences next morn- 

from the^Uxii '"S '•> ^^^ ^^ the assailauts were exposed to bowmen, darters, and 
machines, placed on the heights commanding each side of this 
narrow defile, and being at the same time vigorously opposed 
in front, Alexander was at length forced to retire. Success, 
however, was only delayed ; for, on learning that some difficult 
paths led through the mountains, one of those plans of attack 
was speedily formed which so often lead to successful results.^ 

Taking the most laborious and difficult part of the enter- 
prise, Alexander proceeded that very night at the head of a 
chosen body of light troops, and having, by extraordinary 
rapidity in passing over the most difficult ground, surprised 
three outposts in succession, he finally succeeded in getting 
round to the rear of the Persian camp about daybreak; and on 
the trumpets announcing this success to the rest of the army, 
Craterus, as had been concerted, simultaneously attacked the 
opposite extremity of the pass. The enemy being now completely 
surprised by Alexander's manoeuvre, effectual resistance ^vas in 
vain ; some fled from Alexander to Craterus, whilst others 
Capture of the attempted to escape from Craterus towards Alexander, and in 
' this helpless situation a large proportion of the defenders were 
cut to pieces ; but Ariobarzanes, with great intrepidity, made 
his way towards Persepolis at the head of a few horse.^ Fresh 
exertions being necessary in consequence, Alexander continued 
the march without giving his troops a moment's repose, and 
finding that Philotas, who with admirable forethought, and 
knowledge of the country, had been previously detached for 
this purpose, had already prepared a flying bridge, the Araxes, 

' Forty thousand foot and 700 horse, Arrian, lib. III., cap. xviii. ; but only 
25,000 foot and 300 horse, according to Died. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xv., 
p. 541. 

* Arrian, lib. III., cap. xviii.; Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xv. ; and 
Quint, Curt., lib. V., cap. iv. 

^ Compare Quint. Curt., lib. V., cap. iv., with Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., 
ciip. XV., p. 542, and Arrian, lib. III., cap. xviii. 


now the Band-emir, was crossed ; and, hurrying onward Avith 
the cavalry, Alexander reached Persepolis in time to anticipate March to 
the plunder of the royal treasury, which he privately knew ^'^^p®'^* 
from Tiridates, the governor, was intended by the Persians. 

The city was devastated in the most remorseless manner, 
with the exception of the palace and citadel. The former 
was occupied by Alexander himself, and in the latter he found 
the prodigious amount of 120,000 talents,^ near 27,120,000/. 

The scarped rock immediately behind the grand plateau is 
evidently the remains of the acropolis,^ and the position of its 
sepulchral excavations, at some distance above the ground, 
without a regular entrance, agrees with that of the tombs of the 
kings in the royal mountain, in which the bodies were placed, 
probably by machines, and in which there were excavations 
suited for the treasure.^ The ruins on the adjoining plain seem Ruins of Pa- 
to have been those of Pasargada, but probably the second city ^^^sada. 
of this name. From the other Pasargada, which was founded 
by Cyrus, and now surrendered by Gobares with 6,000 talents,* 
being separately mentioned, it may be inferred that it was at 
some distance from the existing capital, and therefore, possibly, 
it coincides with the Persagadis ( Qii. Farsa-Gerd ?) and the 
tomb of Cyrus, now the Mesjid-i-Madreh Suleiman on the 
plains of Murgh-ab,^ about twenty-three miles north-eastward of 
Persepolis, which was opened by Alexander, on his return from 

That knowledge of the countries to be passed, for which Halt at Perse- 
Alexander was so remarkable, induced him to halt four months jSion^oMhe 

Cosscei, &c. 

* Quint. Curt., lib. V., cap. v. ; Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xviii. ; 
Justin, lib. XI., cap. xiv. 

^ Rex Arcem Persepolis, Quint. Curt., lib. V., cap. vi. 

* See above, vol. I., pp. 73, 210, and Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xvi. 

* Cyrus Persagadum urbem condiderat, quam Alexandre praefectus ejus 
Gobares tradidit. — Quint. Curt., lib. V., cap. vi. 

^ Since the above was written, the inscription, which is five times re- 
peated on the pilasters at Murgh-ab, viz., Adam Qurus' k'hs'aj'a-piyil 

Hakhamani'siyii, has been translated, Ego Cyrus, rex Achcemenius. 

Memoires de laSociete Royale des Antiquaires du Nord, Copenhagen, 1844 
p. 422. 

' Quint. Curt., lib. V., cap. i. 


at Persepolis, in order to escape the severity of a Persian 
winter. During the earlier part of this inclement season he 
subjected the Cosscei, Mardi, kc. ; but want of active occupa- 
tion subsequently led to the most unpardonable scenes of 
revelry and excess, during one of which, at the instigation of 
Thais, an Athenian courtesan, and whilst in a state of ebriety, 
he threw the first torch into the splendid palace of Xerxes and 
his father Darius.^ 
Darius re- ^^ appears that, on reaching Ecbatana, Darius commenced 

pares for war. preparations for another struggle in Media, Parthia, Bactria, 
&c., and on the side of Greece also, w^here the timely employ- 
ment of 300 talents had induced the Athenians and Lacedae- 
monians to make war upon the Macedonians, &c. ; but as 
Alexander had succeeded in the main object of providing for 
the continuation of the war by securing the treasures of 
Darius,^ the mass of which was safely deposited in the citadel 
of Susa, he was not disposed to give his enemy more time to 
mature his plans. Therefore, leaving the heavy baggage to 
follow, he commenced his march towards Media before the 
winter had quite terminated. 

On the twelfth day he learnt that the confederate republics 

had been successful, and that the intelligence of the defeat of 

the Lacedaemonians had deterred the Cadusians and Scythians 

from sending assistance; and Darius being in consequence 

unable to keep the field had quitted Ecbatana, taking with 

him 3,000 horse, 6,000 foot, and 7,000 talents; and three 

Reinforce- days later Alexander occupied the summer palace of the luxu- 

AuSande" at ^^^"^ mouarchs of Persia. During this halt Alexander's army 

lichataua. ^yjjg reinforccd by 5,000 foot and 1,000 Greek horse, with a 

much larger barbarian force, which the Greeks also raised. 

Being thus strengthened, and having ample funds, Alexander 

' The hachis, or grand hall of reception, appears to have been commenced 
by the latter and finished by the former monarch. — Quint. Curt., lib. V., 
cap. i. ; Momoires des Antiquaires du Nord, Copenhagen, 1844, pp. 353, 
361, 363, 364. 

^ These, including the remains of the spoils of Lydia, which Cyrus con- 
veyed to Ecbatana, amounted to 445,000 talents, or nearly 90,570,000/. 
sterling (Hales' Analysis of Chronology, &c., vol. I., p. 215) ; for, as foretold, 
Dan., chap. XT., v. 2, tlie fourth kiny: was to be richer than they all : " by his 
strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia." 


was in a condition to realize the hopes given in the outset to The civic 
his followers ; and in so doing he well knew how to increase home, 
his influence as a general, and at the same time augment his 
power as a sovereign. Accordingly he declared that the civic 
Grecian troops were released from the obligation of further 
service ; giving, as a recompense for their bravery and good 
conduct, a donation of about 400,000/. sterling ; but he added 
it was open to all to continue to share his glory and fortune. 
These, as might be expected, after such unexampled successes 
and liberality, were very numerous ; the others proceeded to 
Phoenicia to embark for Euboea. 

With a view to active operations, Harpalus, with the remains 
of the treasure and 6,000 Macedonian foot, was left at Ecba- 
tana, and Parmenio being directed to lead the mercenary 
troops through the territory of the Cadusians into Hyrcania, 
Alexander resumed the pursuit of Darius. Speed being of Pursuit of 
more consequence than numbers, a select body, consisting of 
the royal companions, some Agrians, a few bowmen, and mer- 
cenary horse, advanced from Ecbatana, probably by the line 
of the present capital of Teheran, to Phagse ; accomplishing 
the distance of about 250 miles with such speed, that many of 
the infantry who could not support the fatigue were left behind, 
and numbers of horses died from fatigue. 

Finding that Darius had abandoned the Caspian Gates (one 
day's march eastward), Alexander halted to collect his troops, 
and was joined by some of the army of Darius. 

On the sixth day, Alexander marched to the Caspian Gates, Darius carried 
where he learnt from Bagistanes, a Babylonian, and other fugi- bjtm^officlrs. 
tives, that Darius had been the victim of a conspiracy, and was 
now conducted as a prisoner by the usurper Bessus, and his 
coadjutors the satraps of Arachosia and Aria.^ Commise- 
rating, probably for the first time, the unhappy situation of the 
king, Alexander was soon in pursuit, at the head of some of his 
light troops, provided with two days' provisions, and followed 
by the main body with the heavy armed, &c., under Craterus. 
Long and very rapid marches are amongst the most remark- 
able circumstances connected with the campaigns of this 
' Arrian, lib. III., cap. xxi. 



[chap. X. 

pursues the 

Death and 
character of 

prince of warriors, and none were more extraordinary than the 
present. It appears to have been continued without interrup- 
tion during the afternoon and succeeding night ; and, after a 
short repose the following noon, it was continued throughout 
the next night, when at daybreak Alexander reached the place 
where Bagistanes had left the satraps. Here he learnt that 
Bessus was not far in advance, conducting the royal captive in 
a covered chariot. Although the troops were almost exhausted 
they made fi-esh exertions, and about the following noon 
reached a village which the satraps had only quitted the pre- 
ceding evening. Another effort, therefore, might crown Alex- 
ander's wishes, and on this he determined. In order to secure 
the services of part of the phalanx, 500 of this body were 
mounted on cavalry horses, with whom, and the rest of the 
horse, Alexander hastened onward without allowing any re- 
pose. Leaving the dismounted men with the remainder of his 
troops to follow by the ordinary road, he took a direct line 
across the desert, and next morning, at daylight, after having 
marched about 175 miles in rather less than four days, he dis- 
covered the enemy escaping in a disorderly manner.^ 

Finding that Alexander gained upon them, notwithstanding 
their efforts to hurry on the chariot, Satibarzanes and Bar- 
zsentes fled in company with Bessus, after grievously wounding 
their prisoner; and before Alexander reached the spot, the 
unfortunate king had already expired by the road-side, probably 
somewhere in the plain country near Dhamahan. 

Whether the prodigious efforts made by Alexander were to 
complete the fall of Darius or display a tardy generosity cannot 
now be known, but his remains, after being embalmed by 
order of Alexander, and under the superintendence of the 
queen-mother, were deposited in the usual place of sepulture 
of the royal family, with all the pomp and ceremony belonging 
to the sovereign of Persia.^ The eventful career of Darius 
terminated in the fifth year of his reign and the fiftieth of his 
age. His talents and disposition were admirably suited to 
adorn private life, and under other circumstances he probably 

' Compare Airian, lib. III., cap. xxi., with Quint. Curt., lib. V., cap. xiii. 
^ Quint. Curt., ibid. 


would have been equally distinguished as the head of* a great 
empire : even Arrian, who was not very favourable to him, 
says that he never attempted any invasion upon the rights of 
his subjects.^ 

Soon after the murder of Darius, Alexander proceeded to 
the ancient capital of Parthia, Hecatompylos, which appears to 
have been at no great distance ; where, having concentrated 
his scattered troops, he marched to the borders of Parthia,^ 
and after a little time descended from the elevated plateau to 
invade Hyrcania, now the low marshy tract of Mazanderan. 
In order to subdue several mountain tribes at the same time, Alexander 
Alexander marched in three divisions : Erigyius led the main Tapuri. 
force along the royal road towards Zadracarta, the modern 
Saree-,^ another under Craterus, with the carriages and heavy 
baggage, made a circuit to the west through the territories of 
the Tapuri (Taberistan) ; the third, under the king, crossed 
by the shortest and most difficult path,^ and being reunited in 
the plains of Hyrcania, the whole marched to Zadracarta, 
where the satrap of Tapuria, and other chiefs, came to transfer 
their allegiance from Darius to Alexander. 

Perhaps no prince better understood the consolidation of his Alexander's 
conquests than Alexander ; he rewarded the fidelity of the The followers 
aged Artabazus and his sons to Darius, by places of honour^ Danus. 
about his own person ; the satrapy of the Tapuri Mas continued 
to Autophradates, with the addition of the adjoining territory 
of the Mardians. The rough and mountainous country of this 
people was now invaded and subjected for the first time, chiefly 
by means of a troop of darters, raised and organized after 
the matchless equestrian warriors of Parthia.^ 

Public games, and Alexander's growing inclination to give 
way to the luxuries of Zadracarta, were interrupted by intelli- 
gence from Bactria, that Bessus had formally claimed the 
sovereignty of Asia, assuming the title of Artaxerxes. 

' Lib.. III., cap, xxii. * Quint. Curt., lib. VI., cap. iv. 

^ From the position of tiie Tapuri. and the other routes taken, the junction 
of the three corps would have been in this neighbourhood. 

* Arrian, lib. III., cap. xxiii. 

* Compare Arrian, lib. III., cap. xxiii., xxiv., with Quint. Curt., lib. VI., 
cap. iv., v., and Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xix., xx. 



Being resolved to prevent the murderer of Darius from ob- 
taining his throne, Alexander immediately marched by the 
shorter route along the southern slopes of the Elburz chain, 
passed the confines of Parthia, and reached Susia,^ a city of 
Aria, about 550^ miles from Zadracarta. Although one of the 
murderers of Darius, Satibarzanes was pardoned on his submis- 
sion ; and Alexander having sent him back with distinction to 
the seat of his government,^ hastened his march towards 
Bactria, in order to anticipate the auxiliaries expected from 
Flank march Shortly aftcrwards, Alexander having learnt that the Mace- 

to Artacoana. ^ ^ ° a • 

donian guard of honour had been put to death, and that Sati- 
barzanes was raising troops to support the pretensions of Bessus, 
his former accomplice, made a retrogade, or rather a flank 
movement ; and taking with him a light division, he marched 
seventy-five miles ^ in two days to Artacoana, but the satrap 
had already fled from his capital, having been deserted by most 
of his followers. The position of this city, afterwards Alexan- 
dria, which was near, or at Herat in Aria, opened another and 
more convenient route into Bactriana, but the hostile disposi- 
tion manifested elsewhere, obliged Alexander to remain on the 
southern side of the Paropamisus ; and he marched against 
Barzsentes, the satrap of Drangiana. Like his coadjutor Sati- 
barzanes, he fled towards the borders of India; but being 
Execution of arrcstcd and sent back, Alexander caused him to be executed 

Baiza;ntes. n .^ i z> i • " • >, 

for the muraer oi nis sovereign. 

The route taken towards the Drangse, or more properly 
Zarangeei, meaning the inhabitants of the country round the 
lake of that name, was nearly southwards to Furrah, probably 
representing Phra, and it is a distance of 199 miles'^ to Proph- 
thasia," now supposed to be Peshawarun, which is situated on 

' Arrian, lib. III., cap. xxv. 

- By the longer route, or the northern side of the Elburz chain, it is 
about 665 miles from Saree to Fyzabad, near the |>resumed site of Susia. 
" Arrian, lib. III., cap. xxv. 

* Six hundred stadia. — Ibid. 

* Ibid. 

' Pliny, lib. VI., cap. xvii, 
7 Vol. I., p. 168. 


the northern side of lake Zcrrah/ The halt at this place became 
memorable in consequence of the execution of Philotas," who 
was prosecuted by the king himself; and sentence being 
passed by a jury of Macedonians, he was executed on the spot. 
The acquittal of Amyntas on this occasion favours the belief 
that the guilt of Alexander's most intimate and favoured friend 
was established : it is not so clear that Parmenio, who was Death of 
arraigned in his absence, and afterwards executed, deserved his 
tragical fate. 

After some delay, and with embittered feelings, Alexander 
followed the lower part of the Etymander or Helmand river, 
and he reached the district of the Ariaspae (breeders of horses),^ 
a quiet agricultural people of limited number; on whom, in 
return for supplies opportunely furnished to his army, Cyrus 
had bestowed the honourable appellation of E verge tse, bounti- The Ariaspae 

„ , or Evergetse. 

lui or beneiactors. 

Being pleased with a state of civilization, which this people 
had preserved, owing to their isolated and almost insular situ- 
ation, which was formed by the lake Zerrah and two rivers, 
Alexander declared them free, offering them an increase of ter- 
ritory, of which however they only availed themselves to a 
limited extent.^ 

Resuming his march he received the submission of the Ge- Submission of 
drosi and the Arachosi. The capital of the latter territory ^ is aud Arachosi. 
supposed to have been in the Ghilziyeh country, not far to the 
south-eastward of Kandahar, or Alexandropolis, and at a place 
now named U'lan Robat," or Shahri-Zohak.^ The distance 

' Ariana Antiqua, by H. H. Wilson, M.A. F.R.S. p. 154. 

'^ Compare Arrian, lib. III., cap. xxvi., Quint. Curt., lib. VI., cap. vii., 
viii., with Diotl. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xxiv. 

^ Supposed to be derived from the Indian word 'Aryaswa. — Ariana 
Antiqua, by H. H. Wilson, M.A., F.R.S., London, 1841. 

* Arrian, lib. III., cap. xxvii. ; Quint. Curt., lib. VII., cap. iii, ; and 
Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xxiv. 

* Arrian, lib. III., cap. xxvii. 

® Arachosiorum Oppidum. — Plin., lib. VI., cap. xvii. 

^ Not Deh Zangee, the Huzarah capital, as stated, by mistake, p. 169, 
vol. I. 

^. Major Eawlinsoii's Letter from Kandahar, vol. XII.. pp. 112, 113, of 
Royal Geographical Journal. 

X 2 



[chap. X. 


Death of 


Pursuit of 

The great 
chain of the 

thither from Peshawarmi, in a direct line, approaches 300 
miles ; but including the circuit made to the territory of the 
Gedrosians, it probably would be about 460 miles, which would 
coincide with the 4,600 stadia given by Eratosthenes,^ and 
approaches the 515 Roman miles of Pliny .^ 

The adjacent territory of the Indi who had sent back Bar- 
zsentes, next engaged the attention of Alexander, notwith- 
standing the mountainous nature of the country and the deep 
snows of this tract, which corresponds with the rugged district 
around Ghizni or Ghaznein.^ Intelligence having been brought 
of the irruption of Satibarzanes at the head of some Bactrian 
cavalry, and, at the same time, of another revolt of the Arians, 
for once an important service was entrusted to others, namely, 
two Persians and two Macedonians, who, being despatched 
with an adequate force, succeeded, after a well-contested battle, 
in which Satibarzanes was killed, in dispersing the Arians ; and 
the great barrier of the Paropamisus was now almost the only 
protection left to Bessus. 

The grand object of Alexander being thus accomplished, of 
securing his rear by subjecting the tribes southward of the great 
chain, he prepared, notwithstanding the physical difficulties 
of the country, to pursue Bessus with nearly the whole of his 
forces, which had just been augmented by the troops lately com- 
manded by Parmenio ; as well as reinforcements from Greece, 
and 30,000 eastern youths, who were to be trained to arms 
in the Macedonian manner.* 

The army marched 2,000 stadia^ to Karura, or Kabura, the 
Ortospana of Strabo,^ and onward from thence till they halted 
at the root of the vast chain, here called the Paropamisus,^ but 
westward bearing, as has been seen, at different places, the 
names of the Elburz, the Masula, and the Taurus. It may be 

' P. 175, Ariana Antiqua, by H. H. Wilson, M.A., F.R.S., London, 

* Lib. VI,, cap. xvii. 

' Ariana Antiqua, p. 178, and above, vol. I., p. 169. 

* Pint, in vita Alex. 

* Stated to be 250 Poman miles. — Plin., lib. VI., cap. xvii. 

* Lib. XI., p. 514, and vol. XII., p. 113, of Royal Geographical Journal. 
' Vol. L, pp. 161, 172. 


followed for a distance of 1,950 geographical miles, namely, 
from the shores of the Propontis, through lesser and greater 
Asia; till, under the names of the Hindu Kush and Himalaya,^ 
it forms the water-shed between India and Chinese Tartary. 
Bearing the name of the Yun Ling mountains, it runs north- 
eastward through China Proper, and finally, as the Kinghan 
or Sioiki chain, it traverses Mongolia in the same direction, 
till it unites with the stupendous Altai, in about fifty degrees 
north latitude, and before the latter terminates on the shores 
of the Northern Pacific. 

As the inquiring mind of the great conqueror is not likely ^^^^^^^^'^ 
to have neglected the sources of information at his command, knowledge of 
there is every reason to conclude that Alexander was not only 
aware of the vast length of the great chain at which he had 
now arrived, but that he had also a general knowledge of the 
extensive regions by which it is traversed. Whilst in Phoenicia, 
Alexander had a fidl opportunity of ascertaining particulars 
regarding the Indian trade. Indeed, his letter sent with a 
present of frankincense and myrrh to his former tutor, of itself 
establishes this fact f while the construction of the Syrian, and 
afterwards of the Egyptian Alexandria, may be taken as a 
further proof how much his attention had long been turned to 
this subject. Thus the products of the East afforded the means 
of carrying out, or rather of renewing the lucrative trade of the 
Phoenicians, which, as has been seen,^ extended to the most 
distant parts of the world. 

The plains northward of the great Asiatic chain were tra- Caravan 

* routes through 

versed by the two eastern caravan routes ; both, as will be Persia, &c. 
more fully described in the xviiith Chapter, converging 
upon Balkh, from whence another double line conveyed the 
goods westward. Part rounded the Caspian, and the remainder 
traversed Persia, towards the Mediterranean Sea. The latter 
line was more particularly connected with Phoenicia, to which 
territory the sea-trade between China and the Persian Gulf 

' Vol. I., pp. 72, 73, 74, and 284 to 294. 
^ See above, p. 282. 
' Ibid., p. 128, et seq. 


was also directed. This, as has been seen, passed through 

The earlier intercourse between Europe and the East was not, 

however, by any means, confined to the passage of merchants 

and their followers from one region to another. Philosophy 

and letters were, from the remotest times, diligently cultivated 

in Egypt and the East ; and between the eighth and third cen- 

Thaies and turics bcforc ChHst, learned men, Pittacus, Thales, Herodotus, 

i^ntmfctbn^in and others from the West, frequently sought instruction on the 

the East. banks of' the Nile, as well as in the more distant region of 

I'ran. From the writings of Herodotus, the voyage of Scylax 

must have been well known to Alexander. 

The central situation of I'ran connected that region on the 
one hand with India and China, and with the western countries 
on the other. At a very remote period, woven silk, furs, and 
the best kind of iron, reached the latter by the route of Persia.^ 
A political connection also existed between the Persians and 
Indians, and a portion of the territory of the latter people was 
Early use of subjected by Cyrus.^ The use of maps and plans of seas and 
^^^^' harbours in their wars against the Greeks, and particularly a 

map on copper," attest the knowledge of geography which had 
been attained by this people. The writings of Ctesias there- 
fore, and still more the archives of his adopted country, must 
have opened a wide field to the inquiring mind of the youthful 
monarch. With such materials at command, the intervals of 
repose between his brilliant campaigns were not likely to be 
spent in idleness; indeed, the successive movements demon- 
strate, in every instance, that Alexander and his engineers were 
already prepared for every contingency. The barriers which 
had been raised by the peculiarities and exclusiveness of an 
Amaimagation eastern government, were now succeeded by a complete amal- 
of eastern and p-omation of raccs, and from this period dates the fusion of the 
nations. eastern with the western countries. Persia, hitherto the 
greatest kingdom of the world, was now at the feet of the 

' Vol. I., p. 124. 

* Plin., lib. XXXIV., cap. xiv. 

^ Xen. Cyropced., lib. VIII., p. 510. 

* See above, lib. V., cap. xlix. 


conqueror, and furnished, not only the means of extending his 
conquests, but at the same time the knowledge how they could 
best be carried out. 

The formidable barrier at which Alexander had now arrived 
being as yet impracticable for an army, \he troops, in order to 
avoid the dangers of inaction and idleness, were employed in 
building Alexandria ad Caucasum, which is stated to be fifty f^'*^^^°^"a *^ 

° . . , . Caucasum 

Roman miles from Ortospana ; but as it is at the same time built, 
added that accounts vary,^ it may be inferred that the site in 
question was at or near Beghram, the Beihram of the East.^ 

Before the snow was off the ground, Alexander entered the 
mountains by the pass of Koushan, which is a little w^ay north- 
west of that place, and understood to be practicable most of the 
year. After fifteen days of great suffering from cold, hunger, 
and fatigue, the army reached the plains and more congenial 
climate of Bactria, without opposition ; for Bessus, being unable 
or unwilling to meet the invaders, had retired into Sogdiana, 
and was followed by some of his allies under Spitamenes, who 
burnt their boats after crossing the Oxus. The Bactrians 
being dispersed, the campaign terminated with the capture of 
Aorni and Bactra, the two principal cities of the province, and 
here Alexander permitted those soldiers who were wounded or 
otherwise disqualified to return to Europe ; he then resumed 
the pursuit of the fugitive Bessus. The great and rapid river Alexander 
Oxus was crossed by means of tent skins, stuffed with light oxus. 
materials, and made impermeable to water ; on which, partly 
as rafts and partly as separate floats, the whole army, not being 
opposed, was transported across in the short space of five days.^ 

This bold manoBuvre decided the campaign, the daring 
manner of effecting the passage producing a greater impression 
than the most brilliant victory •, for Spitamenes the satrap of 
Sogdiana, and Dataphernes the satrap of the Dase,^ offered to 
deliver Bessus, now their prisoner, to one of Alexander's 

' Plin., lib. VI., cap. xvii. 

^ Vol. I., p. 172, and vol. XII., p. 113, of Royal Geographical Journal. 
^ Arrian, lib. III., cap. xxix ; or six days, according to Quint. Curt., 
lib. VII., cap. V. 

* Arrian, lib. III., cap. xxix. 

312 BESSus taken: action near the jaxartes. [chap. X. 

officers ; and Ptolemy, son of Lagus, being despatched at the 

head of the taxis of Philotas (100 men according to Xenophon), 

and a select force, made a distance equal to ten ordinary 

marches in four days, and returned with the captive. On 

» being brought into his presence, naked, and led by a halter, 

Bessusiscap- Alexander subjected him to the further ignominy of being 

Seated with scourgcd, and then conducted to Bactra,^ or Zariaspa, to await 

ignominy. j^j^ doom. Alexander halted at Maracanda, the capital of 

Sogdiana, now Samarkand, to replace the horses lost in crossing 

the Caucasus, as well as to receive supplies from the rich valley 

of Al Sogd, and the rest of the province ; since designated the 

Miiliammedan paradise of Ma-wera-1-nahr.^ 

All this territory, the ancient Transoxiana, had acknowledged 
the authority of the conqueror ; but in marching onward, and 
as he approached the northern frontier, hostilities were renewed. 
In the vicinity of this river, mistaken for the Tanais, and 
variously called the Araxes of Cyrus, the Orxantes,^ Jaxartes, 
and Silys,^ some of the Macedonian horse, when foraging at a 
distance, were surprised and slain by some of the barbarians, 
about 20,000 of whom returned to their mountainous country ; 
which in the absence of precise details, may be presumed to be 
southward of the Jaxartes, and towards the border of the 
Ferganah district. Alexander lost no time in pursuing them 
thither, where he w^as bravely opposed by slings and arrows ; 
when, after several determined attacks and severe losses, besides 
receiving a dangerous wound, he succeeded in dislodging and 
dispersing the enemy.^ 

Having been shot through the leg, and the lesser bone broken 
by an arrow, the necessary repose required for the limb, com- 
pelled the active-minded prince to endure the slow motion of a 
litter ; and a warm contest was settled by deciding that the 
infantry and cavalry should alternately have the honour of car- 
rying their general. 

' Arrian, lib. III., cap. xxx. 

* Ibn Haukal ; Ouselcy's translation, p. 233, ed. 1800. 

* Plin., lib. VI., cap. xvi. 

* Quint. Curt., lib. VII., cap. vi., places the capital, Maracanda, beyond 
the Orxantes, or Jaxartes. 

' Compare Quint. Curt., lib. VII., cap. v., with Arrian, lib. III., cap. xxx. 

•wounded and 
carried in a 


All embassy arrived at this period from the Scythians of Embassy sent 

^ . the 

Europe, and another from those of Asia, namely, the Abii, Scythians to 
who are distinguished as being the most just nation upon earth.^ ^^^° "' 
Both were favourably received, without however entering into 
any kind of treaty ; but with a view to the consolidation of his 
conquests southward of the river Jaxartes, Alexander sum- 
moned the Sogdian chiefs to meet and deliberate on this 

But instead of conciliating, this step only excited the jealousy 
of his new subjects ; and Alexander's intention of constructing 
a city on the Jaxartes being viewed with suspicion, gave the 
partisans of Bessus, the Sogdians, together with many of the Revolt of the 
Bactrians, and all the Scythians within the river in question, an Scythians, &c. 
opportunity of engaging in a fresh revolt. The Scythians took 
the initiative by putting to death the Macedonian troops who 
were stationed within their territory •, and the whole withdrew 
to certain strong places southward, probably in the district of 
Ferganah. Six of these were built of that particular material 
called tapia, a kind of conglomerate f but the seventh, Cyro- 
polis, now Khojend, had stone walls and a citadel, with a 
garrison proportionate to its great importance. 

Perceiving how the mistake of the enemy in abandoning a 
desultory warfare might be turned to good account, Alexander 
sent Craterus to establish a complete blockade by lines of con- Blockade of 

n • r^ ^• i Tt • ' • ^ r^ ■^ Cyiopolis. 

travallation at Cyropolis. iieginning with (jraza," whose gar- 
rison was put to the sword, four other towns were successively 
taken, and the siege of Cyropolis was then carried on with 
great vigour. During the tedious operation of preparing the 
battering and other machines, Alexander, availing himself of 
an unexpected opportunity, led a small party one by one into 
the town, along the narrow bed of a mountain torrent which 
had been neglected. The party entering in this manner, 
opened the nearest gate, which admitted a sufficient force to 

' Iliad, lib. XIII., v. 6 ; and Arrian, lib. IV., cap. i. 

* Arrian, lib. IV., cap. i. 

^ See above, vol. I., p. 667. 

* Arrian, lib. IV., cap. ii. ; Died. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xxx. 

* Probably Ghaz, at the western extremity of Ferganah. 


Capture of tiie carry the town. It was taken after a fierce struggle, the 
citadel. garrison consisting of 18,000 men ; 8,000 of these were killed, 

and the rest retired to the citadel, which, for want of water, 
surrendered within two days.^ The fall of this city completed 
the conquest of the country ; but unfortunately the brilliancy 
of Alexander's exploits was stained by his cruelty in razing 
most of the towns and destroying their inhabitants. 

The speed and energy of these operations disconcerted the 
northern Scythians, who had arrived to co-operate just as 
Cyropolis had fallen ; but, thinking they were safe, they 
remained on the further side of the Jaxartes, taunting and 
insulting the victors. 

Exasperated by their conduct, and the interruptions they 
caused in building the city, afterwards called Eschata or 
Alexander Extreme," Alexander determined to punish them. The bold 
ja^ane^^ aud "^^^^ delicate operation of crossing a large river for this purpose, 
immediately in the face of a numerous and determined enemy, 
w'as effected by means of inflated skins for the light armed, and 
large rafts for the cavalry and phalanges ; the operation being 
covered by darts thrown from machines on the left bank, the 
soldiers kneeling behind their bucklers, with archers, slingers, 
&c., in advance, to clear the bank as they approached, the 
troops being animated by peals of trumpets. 

Owing to these masterly arrangements, the Scythians were 
unable to maintain their position on the right bank ; and the 
defeats tlie landing being effected, the subsequent defeat of the Scythians 
"cjtuans. j^ ^ severe struggle, forced them to sue for peace, and express 
their readiness to submit to the conqueror.^ This opportune 
event left Alexander free to proceed against the satrap of 
Sogdia, Spitamenes, w'ho in one inroad had destroyed a con- 
siderable body of Macedonians on the river Polytimetus, and 
he was now about to make another to renew the siege of Mara- 

' Arrian, lib. IV., cap. i. ; Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xxx. 

^ Probably the modern Aderkand or Uzkend, on the Jaxartes. near tlie 
eastern end of Ferganali district. — Edrisi, vol. VI., pp.205, 210, 211; 
Recueil de Voyages et Memoires, &c., Societo de Geo., ed. Jaubert. 

" Quint. Curt., lib. VII., cap. viii., ix. ; Arrian, lib. IV., cap. iv., v. 


A rapid march of about 1,500 stadia made in three days/ 
anticipated the latter operation ; Spitamenes retreated, and 
Alexander, after causing the country near the banks of the 
Polytimetus or Kohik river^ to be devastated, and leaving some 
of the Sogdiaiis still in arms, took up his winter quarters in 
Zariaspa or Bactra.^ 

While in this city, Alexander ordered Bessus to be muti- Aiexandcn's 
lated previously to being sent to Ecbatana ; where, agreeably bcssuI ^'* 
to the laws of the Medes and Persians, he was made to suffer a 
cruel death.'' Here also 20,000 men joined the army from 
Greece, but this number scarcely replaced the losses sustained 
during the preceding difficult marches ; and they were urgently- 
needed in order to maintain the conquests already made north 
of the Paropamisus. 

After crossing this great chain, Alexander found himself in state of the 
different circumstances from those in which he had previously people.^ ^" 
been. Southward, where a portion of the people defended 
the peaceable artizans and manufacturers who composed the 
mass of the inhabitants, the submission of the M'hole country 
naturally followed the loss of one or two battles. But north- 
ward, where, as herdsmen and husbandmen, all the inhabitants 
of a country were necessarily warriors, one defeat only led the 
way to another attempt to regain their cherished liberty. It is 
not therefore surprising, that whilst Alexander was preparing 
for his ulterior operations, the Sogdians, who occupied different Revolt of the 
strongholds,^ again rose against Peucolaiis, the satrap whom he "*^°' ''^"''' 
had appointed. 

As this circumstance interfered with the execution of his 
plans, Alexander, to avoid the delay which must be the con- 
sequence of besieging several places successively, determined to 
employ at once the whole of his army on this service ; with 
the exception of a small force which was left to vratch the Detached 
Bactrians, who had also manifested a disposition to rebel. s^m vices of the 

Alexander himself marched towards Maracanda, whilst four 

' Arrian, lib. IV., cap. vi. ; Quint. Curt., lib. VII., cap. x., says, having 
made a great distance in four days. 

^ Wiiicli passes near Samarkand. ^ Pliny, lib. V., cap. xviii. 

■* Quint. Curt., lib. VII., cap. x. * Arrian, lib. IV., cap, xv., xvii. 


other divisions under Hephsestion, Ptolemy son of Lagus, 
Perdiccas, and Coenus were successful elsewhere ;^ all having 
had the easy task of reducing cities, instead of being obliged 
to overcome the ordinary but more formidable desultory warfare 
Alexander of the Sogdiaus. Alexander took up his winter quarters at 

HFlDtGrS Sit, 

^autaka. Nautaka,^ in Sogdiana, now Karshi and the first city beyond 
the Oxus ; but that period did not pass in total inactivity. The 
ever-active Spitamenes seized this opportunity to make an 
inroad at the head of some Sogdians and Massagetas towards 

R c. 329 to Bactria, where he revenged himself by killing several of the 

o28* ^ 

corps called companions, and a good many mercenary horse, 
before he was expelled by Alexander in person. 

orspitamlnes. -^c made a fresh attempt afterwards, by attacking Gabse, or 
Bagae, on the river Oxus ; where he was defeated by Ccenus 
the satrap, with consequences which are characteristic of the 
state of the country at that time ; for his Bactrian and Scythian 
followers seized this opportunity to make their peace, by sending 
the head of Spitamenes as a peace offering to Alexander.^ 

With this chief terminated the long-continued warfare in the 
plains of Bactria and Sogdiana ; but in the remoter parts of 
the latter territory, and also in the adjoining province of 
Parsetacene, some strongholds were still occupied, one of which 
in the sequel proved to be peculiarly difficult to Alexander 
himself. Oxyartes, the Bactrian chief, whilst keeping the field, 
had placed his family with some of his own people and a party 
of Sogdians, on a rock -girt fort in the Sogdian mountains ; 
which, being amply provisioned and almost inaccessible, was 
deemed altogether impregnable. Invited, and as usual stimu- 
lated by its difficulties, Alexander reached, and summoned the 
place whilst it was still deeply covered with snow ; and the 
scoffing reply that they only feared winged soldiers, gave 

Surprise and additional interest to the enterprise. A daring plan being 

capture of tip i i i* mi 

Oxyarta. Speedily formed to attempt what appeared to be impossible, 
Alexander promised ten talents to the first who should reach 
tlie summit of the rock, nine talents to the second, and smaller 
sums, ending with 300 darics, to the last ; 300 of the most 

' Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xv. ; and Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xxxiii, 
* Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xviii. " Ibid. 


expert in clambering rocks were selected to make an attempt 
on one particular side, which was so high and so precipitous, 
that, as Alexander probably was aware, it was considered unne- 
cessary to keep watch there. By aiding one another, and by Manner of 
the assistance of short ropes with iron wedge-pins driven into thrrockf 
the ice and crevices of* the rocks, the men finally reached the 
summit before daybreak, after prodigious exertions and the loss 
of thirty or thirty-two of their number, who slipped and were 
killed during the perilous undertaking. 

Assured of their success by seeing the concerted signal of 
long pieces of linen waving from the summit, to imitate the 
motion of wings, Alexander, preparatory to an assault against 
the less precipitous part of the position, sent another summons, 
announcing that his winged soldiers had gained the summit of 
the rock ; and the surprise and consternation were so great in 
consequence, that the garrison immediately surrendered. This 
singular post, which is called by Quintius Curtius the rock of 
Arimazes,^ and Sysimithres by Strabo, is supposed to be repre- 
sented by Kurghan-Tippa on the Oxus.^ Amongst the captives 
were the family of Oxyartes ; one of whom was, by this accident, 
destined to become the bride of the conqueror. Next to the 
queen of Darius, the celebrated Koxana was considered to be 
the loveliest woman in the East ; and as she made a deep 
impression on Alexander,^ an alliance so likely to further his Alexander 
ambitious projects was speedily completed. As might have been Roxana. 
expected, it was followed by the submission of Oxyartes himself; 
and, as will presently be seen, it led to that of another formidable 

The expedition into Margiana appears to have followed this Expedition 
success, the conqueror directing his march south-westward ^"^'^ '^^^'^^'^^'^* 
from the Oxus towards the fertile district in question, in which 
he afterwards built the city of Alexandria, subsequently called 
Seleucia, afterwards Antiochia Margiana,^ and now the consider- 

" Lib. VIL, cap. xi. 

* Ariana Antiqua, by Professor Wilson, M.A., F.R.S., p. 167, London, 

* Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xix. * Ibid., cap. xx. 
' Vol. I., p. 173, and Quint. Curt., lib. VIL, cap. x. 


able town of Merw-el-Rud on the river Murgh-ab.' He marched 
to the Ochus or Tedjen, and crossed into the territory of the 
Rock of PareetaccE; in which was the rock of Chorienes,^ a still more 
sieged. formidable hill fort than that of Oxyartes. The circumference 

at the bottom was about two miles ; there was only one ascent, 
by a narrow and difficult winding approach of more than a 
mile long, and a deep and difficult ravine separated the rock 
from the only rising ground from whence it might be assailed 
with any prospect of success. Alexander determined to avail 
himself of the latter, and to effect a communication with the 
fort. In order to shorten the period of the siege by multiplying 
the hours of employment on the proposed gigantic undertaking, 
the army was divided, one-half working by day, and the other 
half in three watches by night ; the troops erecting, under Alex- 
ander's personal superintendence, covered galleries one above 
another, with the protection of wooden towers. At first the 
attempt was ridiculed, but when its gradual approach brought 
the besieged within reach of the Macedonian darts on the 
Capitulation samc level, Chorienes requested to see Oxyartes.^ The latter 
of the fort. gi^tgrgti the place accordingly, and by dwelling upon the resist- 
less power and matchless generosity of Alexander, Chorienes 
was induced to send his submission before any serious impression 
had been made. As Alexander had previously crossed the 
Tedjen,** this place was probably situated a little way from the 
south-eastern extremity of the Caspian Sea. 

The cold season being now at hand, Alexander, most unfor- 
tunately for his character and peace of mind, determined to 
winter at Zariaspa, M'here, at one of the revels to which he was 
Murder of now Unhappily addicted, he murdered Clitus. The grief caused 
by the fatal result of his ungovernable rage on this occasion, 
required to be dissipated by new conquests, which were destined 
to open the little known but wealthy regions of India, for the 
benefit of mankind. 
B.C.. -527. Leaving 10,000 foot and 1,500 horse under Amyntas,* to 

' Within a bow-shot.— Recueil de Geographie, &c., tome V., p. 466, 
Paris, 1836,, ed. Jaubert. 

- Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xxi. ^ Ibid. 

* Quint. Curt., lib. YII., cao. x. ^ Ibid., cap. xxii. 


protect the territory northward of the Ccaucasus, Alexander 
marched with an army of about 120,000 men ; and, in ten days 
from Drepsa or Drapsaca, probably Anderab or Inderab,' he 
reached Alexandria ad Caucasum, and proceeded to Ortospana, 
in crder to resume the more direct, and easier route towards 
Central India, along the southern slopes of the Paropamisus, 
from which he had diverged in pursuit of Bessus. Having 
entrusted the Paropamisan satrapy to Tyriaspes, he marched Alexander 
on Nikfea and the Kophen. This appears to have been the wards the' 
Kabul river, or rather its northern branch, which directly ^'^'^"^* 
crossed Alexander's line of march, and is formed by the junction 
of the Tagao and Punjshir affluents. At the crossing place of 
the Kophen, previously to its junction with the southern branch 
and flowing eastward, Taxiles, and other Indian princes, brought 
presents to Alexander, ofi'ering to him the use of their elephants. 
Hephsestion and Perdiccas proceeded from hence by the direct 
route, and having, after a siege of thirty days, taken the capital 
of the refractory king of the Peukelaotis^ (possibly Pe'shawur), 
their march was continued, in order that they might prepare a 
bridge of boats for the passage of the Indus by the main body.^ 
Alexander conducted the latter by a more northern route 
over diflScult mountain paths towards the river Khoes,^ beyond 
which he was advancing against the Aspii, the Thrysei, and 
the Arsa^i,^ at the head of some cavalry and 800 heavy-armed 
infantry (mounted). He was moving with his usual over- 
confident daring, when the inhabitants of one of the towns, 
probably the Aspics, were tempted by his small force to meet 
him in the field ; but by a vigorous attack in which Alexander Alexander is 
was wounded, they were driven within their twofold walls, ^^""" 
which being carried, the Macedonians, to revenge the wound 
received by the king, and their brave resistance, gave no 

' The position given by Edrisi of Anderab or Inderab, with respect to Ba- 
mian and other places near the Paropamisus, seems to coincide with Drapsaca. 
— Pp. 475, 477, tome V., Recueil de Voyages et Memoires, &c., ed. Jaubert. 

- Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xxii. ; Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xli. 

^ Quint. Curt., lib. VIII., cap. ix. 

* Probably the Kama or Kooner river. —Memoir on the Marches of Alex- 
ander, by M. Court, Journal of As. Soc, Bom., vol. VIII., p. 306. 

* Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xxiii. 



The Aspii fly 
to the moun- 

Defeat of the 

sends cattle 
into Europe. 

quarter to the flying inhabitants, and Alexander completed this 
atrocity by destroying the town.^ 

Intimidated by its fate, Andaka,^ the next place, surrendered 
on the approach of Alexander, who continuing his march towards 
the Euaspla river, the inhabitants of the capital of the Aspii 
burnt their city, and fled to the mountains. Here a battle 
followed, in which the Indian chief was killed, and Alexander 
continued his march over the rest of the mountains to Arigaium, 
which had likewise been burnt and deserted by the inhabitants. 
Alexander appointed Craterus to rebuild the place, and en- 
courage the inhabitants to return and form a settlement ;^ but 
as the spirit of the people had survived their capital, it was 
necessary to reduce a strong fort in the mountains to which 
they had removed with their cattle. Against this, therefore, 
Alexander marched his forces. Ptolemy and Leonatus com- 
manded two divisions, the third and smallest was conducted 
by the king towards the principal body of the enemy. This 
circumstance led to the victory ; for the Indians despising his 
limited force came down to meet him in the plain, where skill 
and science speedily overcame an irregular mass, and about 
40,000 souls, with a prodigious quantity of cattle, were the 
fruits of the victory.* Finding the cattle of extraordinary 
strength, activity, and endurance, with the advantage of being 
easily fattened, Alexander, notwithstanding the difiiculty of 
transporting these animals not less than 2,600 miles by land, 
ordered a selection to be sent to Macedonia to improve the 
European breed, and the hump is found on the cattle in Greece 
to this day. 

Following up the position which he claimed as the successor 
of Darius, the country of the inofiensive Assakenes was his next 
object. Perceiving that their boundary, the rapid Guzsbus or 
Euaspla (apparently the Lundye river), with a bottom com- 
posed of round stones, offered no impediment, and that the 
invaders were crossing in regular order, the enemy fled to their 
towns without attempting to obstruct the passage, and Alexander 

' Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xxiv. ; Diod. Sic , lib. XVII., cap. xli. 

- Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xxiii. ; or Alaiilera, Quint. Curt., lib. VIII., cap. x. 

"* Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xxiv. * Ibid., cap. xxiv., xxv. 


with a small force speedily encamped before the walls of the 
capital. The inhabitants of Mazaga, assisted by 7,000 Indian 
mercenaries, and confident in superior numbers, immediately 
sallied forth to attack Alexander, who, having led his troops 
away from the town, and being pursued with little order, sud- Defeat of the 
denly faced about and drove them within the walls with loss. Mazaga. 
Battering engines were then brought against the walls, but, 
though a practicable breach was made, three determined assaults 
on different days failed ; and in one of these Alexander was 
wounded in the leg and arm. The result of a fourth attempt 
was still doubtful, when in consequence of the death of the 
Indian chief, the mercenaries in his pay sent a proposal to 
Alexander to capitulate ; and having agreed that the town was 
to be surrendered on condition of passing into his service, the 
mercenaries marched out and encamped on a hill near the 
Macedonians. On the alleged ground that they intended to Cruelty and 
desert from their new engagement during the night, they \vere Alexander' 
surrounded by the Macedonians soon after dark: and besides ^^'^^'"'^^ I^® 

» _ ' people of 

committing the atrocity of putting all to the sword in cold blood, Mazaga. 
Alexander took possession of the city with as little scruple, as 
if there had been no capitulation.' Mazaga, or Mazoga, would 
appear to have been a little way eastward of the Lundye river, 
or its principal aflfluent the Suvat ; probably the former, as it 
flows nearly parallel to the Kabul river, Mhich was his line of 

Against Bazira and Ora, two of their towns near the Indus, 
which had not been intimidated by the fate of the capital, he 
sent two of his officers. Aldatus speedily took the former ;^ Capture of 
and beginning to despair of being able to defend their position oH]'^^ ^'^^ 
in the latter, although it was stronger, the Bizareans, accom- 
panied by some of the surrounding population, retired to the 
celebrated rock of Aornos, which was of a pyramidal form, 
almost inaccessible, and was deemed altogether impregnable. 
As a bridge had been constructed over the Indus, and the ter- 
ritory westward of that river was now reduced to quiet subjec- 
tion, Aornos only excepted, Alexander collected magazines for 

' Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xxvii. ; Diotl. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xliii. 
* Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xxvii. ; Quint. Curt., lib. VIII., cap. x. 





Blockade of 
the rock of 

Repulse of 

A causeway 
formed across 
the valley. 

a protracted blockade, if he should fail in the assault of that 
formidable fort ; which, according to tradition, had successfully 
resisted Hercules the son of Jupiter, from whom as we know 
Alexander claimed descent/ 

Everywhere favoured by the reputation of his princely gene- 
rosity, several natives volunteered to lead some active men by 
an unfrequented path to a part of the mountain which com- 
manded the fort ; accordingly a chosen band under Ptolemy, 
son of Lagus, moved that very night, and, unperceived by the 
enemy, gained the indicated post by daybreak.^ This proved 
to be a detached hill, or rather a kind of shoulder, which 
though separated by a sort of valley, gave an easier access to 
the body of the mountain, than could be obtained from the 
country below. Accordingly an assault was made by Alexander 
next day, but it was repulsed, notwithstanding the diversion 
created by Ptolemy's troops. That commander being now 
menaced in turn, his isolated post, although strengthened, was 
in a critical state, but it was maintained notwithstanding, till 
about noon of the following day ; when by means of repeated 
attempts, and persevering struggles, assisted by the feigned 
attacks made on the fort at the same time by the force under 
Ptolemy, Alexander's junction with the latter w^as effected.^ 
A general assault made by their united forces soon afterw^ards 
having failed, the army next day commenced, under Alexander's 
personal superintendence, a causeway, which was to cross the 
intervening hollow. For this purpose each man being allotted 
100 palisades, and all being most diligent, a furlong in length 
was nearly completed before night, and on the fourth day a 
body of Macedonians passed and occupied a kind of abutment 
projecting from, and on a level with, the mountain itself. The 
Indians sent to propose a capitulation, in order to gain time ; 
but Alexander, having notice of their intention to withdraw 
during the night, attacked and destroyed many of them in their 

' Quint. Curt., lib. VIII., cap. xi. ; Arriaii, lib. IV., cap. xxviii., xxix. ; 
Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xliv. 

* Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xxix. ; Quint. Curt, says IMullinus or Eumenes, 
Alexander's secretary, was employed on this service, lib. VIII., cap. xi. 

^ Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xxix. 


attempt to escape. On the same night he took possession of 
this remarkable rock.' 

Aornos was probably a general name for a stockaded moun- Supposed 
tain, such as that already mentioned in Bactria, and most likely ^t'.'""^ 
Hellenized from the Sanscrit 'Awara, or 'Awarana, an inclosure.^ 
As it stood on or near the banks of the Indus,^ its position should 
be found on the right bank of that river, at some distance above 
Attock ;* and here there is a spot called Akora. In conse- 
quence of a rising which took place during this daring opera- 
tion, Alexander made a retrograde movement to Dyrta, the Alexander's 
capital of the Assakeni, but he found the territory deserted, mo™?uent to 
owing to the news of his late successes. Leaving Nearchus and ^^y^^> ^'^' 
Antiochus to endeavour to capture some of the inhabitants, so 
as to ascertain the resources of the country, particularly in 
elephants, he marched to the thickets bordering upon the Indus, 
in which he recovered the elephants which had been previously 
carried off by the Assakeni.^ From these thickets some vessels 
were constructed ; and whilst part of the troops were conveyed 
down the river to the bridge which his officers had already 
prepared,*' Alexander visited Nysa and its ivy-clad mound, 
Merus. This took place at the request of the inhabitants, who 
were the descendants of Dionysus (Bacchus) or Sesostris, from 
whom they pretended to have derived their regular government, 
which at their solicitation, was now confirmed." Alexander found 
two large vessels prepared, each of thirty oars, in addition to many 
smaller, and a bridge of boats, which had been constructed in the 
neighbourhood of Attock by Perdiccas and Hephsestion, assisted 
by Mophis. This prince, who bore the title of Taxiles, had, as Embnssy sent 
it appears, sent an embassy to solicit Alexander's protection, aud'^^^^'^^' 

* Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xxix., xxx. ; Quint. Curt., lib. VIII., cap. xi. ; 
Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xliv. 

* P. 192 of Ariana Antiqua, by H. H. Wilson, M.A., F.R.S. 

' Compare Quint. Curt , lib. VII., cap. xi., with 8trabo, lib. XV., and 
Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xliv. 

* M. Court's paper on Alexander's Exploit:?, «S:c., Journ. As. Soc B., 
April, 1839, p. 309. 

* Arrian, lib. IV., cap. xxx. 

* Ibid., also lib. V., cap. vii.,and Strabo, lib. XV. 

' Arrian, lib. V., cap. i., ii. ; Quint. Curt., lib. VIII., cap. x. 

Y 2 



[chap. X. 

crosses the 

presents wliilst the king was still in Sogdiana.^ On making this request 
in person, bringing at the same time regal presents to the 
amount of 200 silver talents, 3,000 oxen, 10,000 sheep, and 
30 elephants,^ Alexander not only acceded, but promised to 
invade the territory of his rival, Porus ; although for this 
purpose, he must abandon, or at least postpone, his favourite 
object, the descent of the Indus to examine the shores of the 
Indian ocean ; and for which the necessary flotilla was now pre- 
pared at, or in the vicinity of Attock. 

Availing himself of the excuse of his new alliance, Alexander 
passed the limits which as the conqueror of Darius he had pre- 
viously claimed, and marched to the city of Taxila ; which is 
supposed to be represented by the modern Manikjala, situated 
about forty-five miles eastward of Attock. 

Here he passed the remainder of the winter, and having 
augmented the territory of his ally, although as a matter of pre- 
caution leaving a garrison in that place, he proceeded to fulfil his 
new engagements. Accompanied by 5,000 Indians, furnished 
by Mophis, and taking M'ith him on carriages the vessels used 
in passing the Indus, which for the convenience of transport 
Coenus had brought from that river in two or more parts,^ he 
marched to the banks of the Hydaspes, the Bidaspes of Ptolemy. 

?ai?um^'^^ ^" This is uow represented by the Jailum or Behut, the second 
stream of the Punjaub, which falls into the Chinab or Chan- 
drabhaga, the Akesines of Alexander's historians.'' The Jailum, 
during the season of floods, carries a considerable volume of 
water, flowing with great impetuosity over a rocky bed,^ which 
is seldom fordable during the south-west monsoon. 

The sites of Bucephala and Niksea, particularly the former, 
being determined by Mr. Masson, it may from thence be con- 
cluded that Alexander reached the river between Derapoor and 
Jelalpoor. Here he found a numerous army, consisting of in- 
fantry, cavalry, war chariots, and elephants, ready to dispute the 
passage. Porus, the king, was encamped near the opposite 

INIarch to the 

Bucephala and 

" Diod. Sic, lib. XVTI., cap. xliv. 

* Arrian, lib. V., cap. iii. ^ Ibid., cap. viii. 

* Tbid., cap. xx., iind Quint. Curt., lib. IX., cap. ii. 

* Ibid., cap. ix. and x. ; compared with Quint. Curt., lib. VIII., cap. xiii. 


bank, having placed strong posts under chosen captains to Porus pre- 
defend the river at the ordinary fords, which at this season the invaders, 
might be considered impracticable, for being near the summer 
solstice,' the river was almost full of water. There was, besides, 
a serious difficulty to be overcome, in the line of moveable 
castles, the artillery of the Indians, which Alexander was about 
to encounter for the first time. 

Hitherto rivers of even greater volume had been crossed in 
the face of an enemy without hesitation, but on the present 
occasion, though amply provided with boats, rafts, and floats, 
Alexander was induced to hesitate ; and in resorting to other 
means, he has left us one of the best of the many lessons in 
military tactics, which have been derived from this great master 
in the art of war. As it was not considered practicable to force 
a passage in the face of an equal, if not a superior force, the 
invaders were compelled to resort to some expedient by which, 
at least, a considerable part of the army, if not the whole, might 
have time to form after gaining the left bank ; thus, as it is Alexander's 
termed, stealing a passage by resorting either to a false attack, deceive him. 
or some other expedient, to deceive the enemy. 

Keeping the latter object in view, Alexander, for several 
nights in succession, caused demonstrations to be made of the 
intention of crossing, which were repeated with unusual din and 
clamour, till at length Porus was tired of sending his elephants, 
and making other preparations to repel the expected attempts ; 
and finding that these alarms were not succeeded by any serious 
attempts to cross, he gradually ceased to harass his troops by 
such repeated and useless night marches. This feeling of 
security was increased by the public declaration of Alexander 
that it was his intention to wait till the low season.^ The Porus becomes 
vigilance of Porus being thus lulled, Alexander determined to ^^'^ ^'^' ^" ' 
execute the project which he had formed, by attempting to cross 
from a rock, under cover of a wooded island in the river, about 
150 stadia above the camp.^ He destined for this service 5,000 
cavalry, consisting of the companions, with some Scythians, 
Bactrians, and mounted Dahian archers, in addition to G,000 
infantry, formed of two brigades of the phalanx, with the Agrians 

' Arrian, lib. V., cap. ix., x. * Ibid., cap. x. 

^ Ibid., cap. xi., and Quint. Curt., lib. VIII., cap. xiii. 



Preparations and bowmeii. Craterus remained in the camp to make a great 

of Alexander. . ^ ,^ i ^ j- p • 

noise, and other demonstrations oi attempting to pass at a par- 
ticular time ; he was, however, ordered to cross, in case Porus 
proceeded with the whole, or the greatest part of his force, to 
meet the king ; but to remain quiet if he withdrew only a small 
part, or none of his troops. A chain of posts kept up the 
necessary communications, and a demonstration was to be made 
by the foreign horse and foot under Meleager and Gorgias ; 
who were posted between the camp and the island, with orders 
to pass over and reinforce Alexander the moment he was per- 
ceived to be engaged.^ 
Passage of the A dark stormy night, with peals of thunder, and the usual 
defeat of the accompauimeuts, in that part of the country during the south- 
a vauce. ^^^^ monsoon, of torrents of rain, prevented the enemy hearing 
anything that was passing on the right bank, and by daybreak 
as the storm ceased, the transports pushed across and disem- 
barked, as they supposed, on the left bank : it proved, however, 
to be an island, and another still intervened ; to this they 
passed, and finally they reached the main, by fording, with the 
water up to the breasts of the infantry.^ 

The scouts had observed the transports and the floats of 
stuffed hides passing the first island, and the alarm rapidly 
passed to Porus ; who perceiving Alexander's tent still in its 
place, with the main body apparently undiminished, and making 
demonstrations, he despatched his son with 2,000 cavalry, and 
120 war chariots to deal with what he judged to be a feint, 
intended to induce him to quit his advantageous position. The 
Grecian troops had passed the river by the time the young- 
prince approached the landing place, and Alexander, per- 
ceiving the smallness of the numbers and the unprotected 
state of the latter, made an immediate attack ; in which 400 
horsemen, including the young prince, were slain.^ Porus, 
on learning from some of the fugitives the real state of things, 
and the loss of his son, immediately marched, and took post to 
give Alexander battle in an open plain. His force consisted 
of 30,000 infantry, 4,000 cavalry, 300 chariots, each with six 
men, namely, two with bucklers, two archers, and two armed 

of Porus, 

' Arrian, lib. V., cap. xii. 
* Ibid., cap. XV. 

Ibid., cap. xii,, xiii. 


drivers ; besides which there were 200 elephants bearing huge 
wooden towers filled with armed men.' The last were placed 
in the centre about 100 feet apart ; and a little in the rear was 
the infantry, so posted as to cover the intervals between the 
elephants ; on the wings, the cavalry were placed with the war 
chariots in front, aligned with the elephants, and giving to the 
whole the appearance of a city, of w hich the elephants seemed 
to form the bastions, or rather towers.^ 

The preceding movement, and this skilful order of battle, and skilful 
had anticipated Alexander's intention in hastening onward with auder, 
a body of horse to attack the camp of Porus, and he was 
obliged to manoeuvre with his cavalry to give time for the 
phalanx to come up, and also to prepare for a battle in the 
difficult circumstances in which he was unexpectedly placed. 
The previous plans required to be instantly changed, and in so 
doing, Alexander promptly adopted a course calculated to 
neutralize the almost irresistible power of the chariots and 
elephants when brought to bear in a direct attack ; this was, 
to attack by the flanks, a measure which would give scope 
for his numerically and morally superior cavalry to act, before 
Porus could have time to change his formation. 

Having matured a plan likely to accomplish these objects. Double attack 
the battle commenced by the main body of cavalry, under °^^^*^^^^^'''^* 
Alexander, making an oblique attack on the enemy's left wing, 
which was menaced at the same time by the mounted archers 
in front : Cosnus with the remainder of the horse was to make 
a similar movement against the right of the Indian army : the 
phnlanx and the rest of the infantry were commanded to stand 
fast till they saw that the preceding demonstrations were suc- 

Porus, being most apprehensive about the principal and 
double attack in front, ordered the cavalry to move from the 
right by the rear, to support his left, which was menaced ; and 
the right wing being weakened in consequence, Ccenus not only 
turned it, but pursued the Indian cavalry towards the other 

' Arrian, lib. V., cap. xv., and Quint. Curt., lib. VIII., cap. xiv. Ac- 
cording to Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xlv. ; 50,000 infantry, 3,000 
cavalry, 1,000 chariots, and 130 elephants. 

^ Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xlvii. 


wing. The result of these movements was, that the Indian 
cavalry, with inferior numbers, had to oppose a double front, 
namely, one to the cavalry under Cosnus, which had taken 
them in flank and rear, and another to the rest of this arm 
Successful led by Alexander, who at this critical moment made a suc- 
Aie^nder. ccssful charge, and obliged the chief part of the Indian cavalry 
to take refuge among the elephants ; the horses of the latter 
being accustomed to these formidable creatures, whilst those 
of Alexander would not dare to approach.' As Alexander did 
not fail to improve this advantage by continuing to make it 
chiefly a cavalry action, the victory may be said to have been 
won from this moment ; although it was still fiercely contested, 
and continued doubtful for a length of time. 

The Indian cavalry had now sufficiently recovered their 
wonted courage to assume the offensive ; and at the same time 
the elephants, having changed front, were about to charge 
the Macedonian cavalry in the rear, when the phalanx of 
Seleucus advanced and saved the cavalry by following these 
The elephants animals, and in turn attacking them in the rear. The latter 
Macedonian movement causcd the elephants to face about once more, and 
phalanx, penetrating the phalanx caused great confusion in diff*erent 
places in the ranks, which might have been altogether fatal, had 
it been followed up by a charge of cavalry ; but the Indian 
cavalry were again met and repulsed by Alexander, when on 
the way to support the elephants,^ on whose efforts the result of 
the struggle chiefly depended. Happily for Alexander, the 
Macedonians were not intimidated by the unprecedented 
struggle in which they were now engaged. Although this 
mighty animal was irresistible wherever his steps were directed, 
his power was at length paralysed. The steady resistance of 
the unbroken sections of the phalanx, and the effects of the 
missiles of the archers and Agrians, which were chiefly directed 
but afterwards to deprive the animals of their guides, caused them to become 
managea"k". frantic ill consequcncc of their wounds : some being quite un- 
governable were equally formidable to friends and foes ; whilst 
others as if by consent refused all farther efforts, bellowing in 
concert as with uplifted trunks they withdrew from the battle. ^ 

' Arrian, lib. V., cap. xvi., xvii. 

* Ibid., cap. xvii. ^ Ibid. 


During" this period, Ccdiuis had hrokeii through the enemy, 
and the whole Macedonian cavah'y being united, Alexander 
made repeated and desperate charges upon the Indian infantry, 
entirely breaking their ranks wherever he attacked. 

Alexander enclosed the confused mass, to which the Indian 
army was now reduced, by means of his cavalry, which was 
placed at intervals, and the phalanx, with shield touching shield, 
and pike protended ; and the struggle was brought to a close 
by the opportune arrival, at this juncture, of Craterus, who, as Cratt-rns 
had been arranged, crossed the river with the main body of decides the 
the army, probably including the foreign horse and foot. The '^" '^* 
whole of the chariots and elephants were captured, and 20,000 
of the Indian infantry, besides three-fourths of the cavalry, fell 
in this well-contested battle :' 12,000 were killed and 9,000 
were made prisoners ; the loss of the Macedonians, whose 
numbers greatly preponderated towards the close of the battle, 
being only 280 cavalry and 700 infantry.^ 

Porus, who did not mean to survive, fought manfully, till at Dignified con- 
the repeated request of Alexander, and being at the same time 
overpowered by thirst and the effects of a wound in the right 
shoulder, he at length consented to descend from his elephant.^ 
Both sovereigns advanced, and the Indian king met his dis- 
tinguished enemy with that gallant bearing which he had main- 
tained during an obstinate conflict of seven or eight hours ; 
and on being asked how he desired to be treated, he briefly 
replied " As a king." " That shall be done on my own 
account," said Alexander ; " but do you ask nothing more ?" 
" No," replied Porus, with much dignity ; " everything is in- 
cluded in the first request."^ Alexander was so much struck 
by the greatness of mind displayed by his defeated, but not 
fallen enemy, that he treated him with marked honour, and 
made some amends for his unjust invasion by restoring the 
kingdom,^ and giving the whole country between the Hydaspes 

' Compare Arrian, lib. V., cap. xviii. ; Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xlv. 

* Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xlv. 

'* Arrian, lib. V., cap. xviii. ; Quint. Curt., lib. VIII., cap. xiv. 

■* Ibid., cap. xix. ; Plutarch in Alex. 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. xlvi. 


Generosity and the Akcsines (a large accession of territory), to Porus, who 
ot Alexander. g^|'|.gj,^j^j.(js proved hiiuself a faithful and attached vassal of the 
vast empire of Alexander,^ 

Craterus was ordered to superintend the construction of a 
city, called Niksea, to commemorate this remarkable victory, 
and another close to the landing-place near Jerum, named Buce- 
phala, in honour of his favourite horse, whose life terminated 
on this occasion from the effects of heat and over exertion,^ at 
Lossof Buce- the age, it is said, of thirty years. Pursuing his aggressive war- 
V ^^- fg^YQ^ Alexander continued his march to the river Akesines,^ the 

modern Chinab or Chandrabhaga, receiving as he advanced 
the submission of thirty-five considerable cities ; also of the other 
Porus, called the coward, and of Abissares, who, in addition to 
forty elephants, brought considerable sums of money. Having 
Passageof the overcome the difficulties of crossing the wide, rapid, and rocky 
Akesmes. Akesiucs, in boats, on stuffed skins, and other rafts, the army 
advanced to the river Hydraotes, or Hyarotes (the modern 
Iraotu, or Ravi, of Miihammedan geographers *,^ the Sanscrit 
Iravati and Ravi), which was bordered with a thick forest of 
trees, unknown elsewhere, and full of wild peacocks.^ This was 
passed with less difficulty than the preceding stream, and the 
march was continued in a direction probably parallel to the Ravi, 
wath a view to punish the Cathseans, the Oxydracse, the Malli, 
and two other confederate tribes. Passing the city of Pemprama, 
Subjection of on thc third day, Alexander approached Sangala, also called 
CathJaiis.^" Sakala ; in whose environs he found the warlike Cathaeans, and 
some of their confederates, encamped within a triple line of 
waggons on a rising ground close to the city.^ The cavalry, 
and afterwards a body of foot led by Alexander, having been 
repulsed by the missiles of the Cathceans from behind the first 
line of carriages, the phalanx was brought up ; which succeeded 
with nuich difficulty in forcing the three barriers, and drove 
their defenders into the town. The latter was defended by 

' Arrian, lib. V., cap. xxi., xxiv. 

* Ibid., cap. xix. ; and Plutarch in Alex. 
^ Quint. Curt., lib. IX., cap. i. 

* Ariana Antiqua, by II. II. Wilson, M.A., F.R.S., p. 195. London, 

* Quint. Curt., lib. IX., cap. i. ' Arrian, lib. V., cap. xxii. 


brick walls, and on one side it had tlic further protection of a 
shallow lake. The Cathseans attempted to escape by crossing 
this piece of water at midnight ; but their purpose was antici- 
pated by Ptolemy, M-ho received them with a barrier of their 
own waggons, and drove them back into the town. Porus 
arrived at this period with many elephants and a re-enforce- 
ment of 5,000 Indians ; and the walls being breached, the town 
was carried by storm, 17,000 of the defenders being slain, 
and 70,000 made prisoners.^ The Cathsei, now the Kattias, Origin of the 
are a pastoral tribe which, from the circumstance of the name 
and the particular use of waggons, is probably of Tartar or 
Scythian origin. They constitute the chief part of the popu- 
lation between the Hydaspes and Delhi ;^ and the ruins of 
Haripa are supposed to represent the capital, Sakala.^ Eumenes, 
the secretary of Alexander, was despatched to offer favourable 
terms to the allies of the Cathaeans, but the news of the fall of 
that town had caused them to fly in a body/ probably towards 
the mountains near the sources of the Hydraotes. Alexander 
pursued them for some distance, but being too late, he returned, 
laid Sangala level with the ground, and gave the country round Sangaia razed, 
it to those Indians who had willingly submitted.^ Tempted by couquJsts. 
accounts of the rich tracts of Central India, whose inhabitants 
were said to be wisely governed and highly civilized, and 
stimulated by the hope of finding amongst this warlike people 
enemies worthy of being conquered, Alexander determined to 
proceed against the Gangaridai and the Prasii, the most 
powerful of all the Indian nations. 

Thirsting for conquests in eastern India, and desiring after- The Greeks 
wards to descend the Ganges to the Indian Ocean, Alexander nyjjhasis. 
was approaching the Hyphasis, a rapid and difficult river, seven 
stadia in width, and six fathoms deep,^ when circumstances 
occurred which put a limit to that victorious career, and those 

' Arrian, lib. V., cap. xxiv. 

* Burnes' Travels, vol. III., p. 130. 

^ III about 30° 24" : see Notes of a Journey from Lahore to Karachee, by 
C Masson, Journ. of As. Soc. Bom., vol. V., p. 57. 

* Arrian, lib. V., cap. xxiv. * Ibid. 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. li. ; Quint. Curt., lib. IX., cap. ii. 


conquests, to which no other history offers anything like a 

A spirit of dissatisfaction had led to the conspiracy at the 
foot of the Paropamisus, as well as to the conspiracies of Phi- 
lotas, and of the band of pages beyond those mountains ; but 
one much more deeply rooted now manifested itself, for Alex- 
ander learnt that discontent pervaded the whole army, including 
his own friends and favourites. Worn out by fatigue, wounds, 
and the climate during the rainy season, and seeing no limits 
to the intended conquests of their prince, in a country whose 
extent was utterly unknown, frequent meetings had taken place 
They deter- auioug the followcrs of Alexander, who stimulated one another 
cross the river, to refusc to cross the Hyphasis even if Alexander led the w^ay.^ 
The constitution of Macedonia, as has been seen, gave to the 
army almost the authority of a popular assembly ; and the 
principal commanders, looking earnestly forward to the enjoy- 
ment of their wealth and honours at home, learning also that 
they would have to encounter, near the Ganges, Xandrames, 
an Indian prince, who had blocked up the passes with 
20,000 horse and 200,000 foot, besides 2,000 chariots and 
3,000 trained elephants,^ some of them went so far in their 
meetings as to declare, that if the king required them to enter 
into new wars, his command should not be obeyed.'^ 
Alexander Lest this feeling should lead to an open rebellion against his 

summons a,i.,ji- p •, li^^ 

council of authority, and hopmg, as on lormer occasions, to rouse a better 
spirit, Alexander summoned a council of the superior officers, 
and made one of those eloquent appeals, Avhich had succeeded 
on every previous occasion : " Seeing," said the king, " that 
you do not follow me with your wonted alacrity, I have sum- 
moned this meeting, either to persuade you to advance, or that 
you may show me the necessity of returning." Seeming thus 
to make it an open question, he continued: " If you complain 
either of your own labours or of the conduct of your leader, there 
is nothing more to be said; but if by these exertions, the river 

' Arrian, lib. V., cap. xxv. 

* Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. li. ; Quint. Curt., lib. IX, cap. ii. ; Ag-grain- 
mes, according to Quint. Curt., lib. IX., cap. ii. 
^ Arrian, lib. V., cap. xxv. 

summons a 




Hydraotcs has become the limits of our empire, which extends 
westward to the iEgean sea, and northward to the river Jaxartes, 
why do you hesitate to pass the Hyphasis, and having added the 
rest of Asia to our conquests, then descend the Ganges, and sail 
round Africa to the pillars of Hercules. Life," added the king, 
*' distinguished by deeds of valour, is delightful, and so is death 
leaving an immortal name ; persevere, therefore, O ! Mace- 
donians, and I promise to exceed the wishes of every individual, 
and make him the object of envy,"^ 

A deep silence followed, which was at length broken by Result of the 
Coenus, who, in affecting language, described the past dangers 
encountered, the victories achieved, and the anxious longings 
of the soldiers to turn homewards their weary steps.^ His 
pathetic appeal caused tears to roll down the cheeks of the 
veterans, and was even too much for Alexander himself, who 
then abruptly broke up the council. The next day it was re- 
assembled, when the king angrily declared that he would 
advance, taking only those who were willing to follow him, 
adding, that the others might return and tell their families that 
their leader had been deserted in the midst of his enemies.^ 

A profound melancholy prevailed in the camp during the Alexander ap- 
three next days, while Alexander was secluded even from his tuaiiy to his 
most intimate friends ; after which, finding that the troops re- determi'iies'to 
gretted his displeasure, but continued firm to their purpose, '■^^''■'^• 
Alexander made a virtue of necessity by yielding with a good 
grace, taking that course which was best calculated to maintain 
his own dignity with apparent consistency. He sacrificed, and 
then announced to the army that owing to unfavourable auspices, 
it was his intention to return without crossing the Hyphasis. 
Shouts of joy welcomed this intelligence, and the soldiers, 
weeping aloud, implored countless blessings upon his head, who, 

' Arrian, lib. V., cap. xxvi. 

* He expatiated on the loyalt}-^ of the soldiers, and on tlieir undiminished 
devotion to tlie king, adding that they were still ready to expend their blood 
in order to render his name more celebrated ; but he concluded by stating 
that they considered it reasonable to oppose any further advance, since they 
had reached the end of the world, and were seeking an India unknown to 
the Indians themselves. — Quint. Curt., lib. IX., cap. iii. 

^ Arrian, lib. V., cap. xxvii., xxviii. 


although invincible to others, had allowed himself to be over- 
come by the wishes of his followers.^ Twelve towers were 
erected, and sacrifices being offered on these altars as testi- 
monies of gratitude to the gods, with the amusements of horse- 
races and gymnastic exercises, Alexander gave the newly- 
acquired territory to the faithful Porus, and harmony being 
Alexander perfectly rcstored, he retraced his steps from the Hyphasis to 
iiydaspi's/ ^ ^^^ Hydraotcs, and from thence to the Akesines, where he found 
the city, which he had left Hephsestion to build, almost finished. 
Thence he continued his retrograde march to the Hydaspes,^ 
where he repaired the injuries caused by the floods to Niksea 
and Bucephala. Here he was reinforced from Greece by 
6,000 horse and 7,000 infantry under Harpalus ; ^ and here an 
embassy from Abissares brought thirty elephants and other 
presents. At the same place part of the army had been 
Preparation of employed all the summcr in constructing vessels or rather boats, 
the 'iiyda"pes. 2,000 of which had been built from the neighbouring forests ; 
these were manned by Carians, Phoenicians, Egyptians, and 
Cypriots, who understood the equipment of such a flotilla, and 
were assisted in its management by the people of the country. "* 
Although cruelly disappointed by the persevering opposition 
of the Macedonians, Alexander appears at once to have turned 
his powerful mind from warlike to peaceable objects ; and the 
descent was commenced in three divisions, each of which was 
equal to a modern corps d'armee, being between 40,000 and 
50,000 men. One, under Craterus, marched along the right 
bank ; another, the larger, under Hephaestion, moved in a 
parallel line on the opposite side, with 200 elephants ; whilst 
The fleet and Alexander followed the stream itself, with a chosen body of 
the Hjdaspes. horsc and foot, ready to support and strengthen either of the 
others ; ^ Philip, the satrap of the territory westward of the 
Indus, the intended kingdom of Porus, was to follow with the 
rear guard four days later. At day-break sacrifice was per- 
formed, and the troops intended to be conveyed by the river 
having embarked, libations were offered to this stream, also to 

' Arrian, lib. V., cap. xxix. * Ibid. 

■' Quint. Curt., lib. IX., cap. iii. * Arrian, lib. VI., cap. xxiii. 

' Ibid., cap. ii. and iii. 


the Akesines, receives, and to the trunk of the whole, 
the Indus ; when the fleet moved at the sound of the trumpet. 
Nearchus was admiral, Onesicritus the pilot or master; and 
the whole forest of vessels, having its movements regulated by 
the voices of the officers, moved majestically down the stream. 
The war horses, seen through the lattice-work of the sides of 
the vessels, and the decks covered with warriors, struck the 
Indians with astonishment and admiration.^ In eight days the 
fleet reached the confluence of the Akesines, where, owing to a 
narrow channel and high banks, rapid and strong eddies are 
formed, which were attended with some inconvenience on this 
occasion. Being unaccustomed to such difficulties, the boat- 
men in alarm suspended their exertions as they approached this 
narrow part of the river ; and before they regained their Difficulties 
courage two of the galleys or long vessels fell aboard of one 
another, and sunk with the greater part of their crews ; but the 
shorter and round vessels were more fortunate." 

When this difficulty was passed, and the eddies were less 
violent, Alexander brought his fleet to the right bank, and 
having made an excursion to the westward to punish the Sibse, 
the Sivi or Saivas, he recrossed the Akesines, and caused 
Nearchus, with the greater part of the fleet, to descend to the 
country of the Malli, keeping three days in advance of the 
army.^ The latter having in the meantime been joined by the 
corps under Craterus, Hephsestion, and Philip, the advance 
took place as before in three divisions, in order to be prepared 
for an enemy. That under Hephsestion was five days in 
advance of Alexander, and the third under Ptolemy brought 
up the rear at three marches distance to collect the stragglers ; They reach 
the whole were to rendezvous at the confluence of the Hydraotes of the Hy-^°'^ 
with the Akesines." tkSLl^^ 

The exterior as well as the interior sides of the lower parts 
of these rivers were occupied by the Malli, of whom a trace is 
supposed to be found in Multan, or, as it is still called,, Malli- 
than, the place of the Malli ;^ and, having learnt that this 

' Arrian, lib, VI., c. iv. * Ibid., cap. iv. and v. 

* Ibid. ■• Ibid., cap. v. 

* Burnes' Travels, vol. iii., p. 114. 


people were about to join the Oxydracse, or Suclrakas, in order 
to oppose him, Alexander determined to anticipate the junction 
of these formidable tribes. Accordingly, on approaching the 
desert on their frontier, which had been considered an effectual 
barrier, he placed himself at the head of the equestrian archers, 
with half the auxiliary horse, the targeteers, archers, &c., and 
making a lengthened march throughout most of that day and 
the succeeding night, by the direct and unexpected route of the 
Desert march wildcmess, he fouud the Malli so little prepared, that their 
Mal^L^"^*^ ^ principal city was easily taken. Two thousand of the Malli 
who took refuge in the castle were put to the sword ; ' and 
those belonging to another city in the vicinity having fled, they 
were pursued during the night; some were overtaken, and 
killed on the banks of the Hydraotes about daylight next 
morning ; - whilst others crossed the river, and took refuge in 
a strongly fortified town. The latter place, however, was pre- 
sently carried by assault, and all being either killed or taken, 
Alexander continued his cruel and exterminating war, by lead- 
ing his army against a city and castle of Bramins, in which 
some of the Malli had been encouraged to take refuge ; both 
were stormed, with the loss of 5,000 of the Malli.^ 

The next object was the most populous city of the Malli, 
which was found deserted by the inhabitants, who to the number 
of 50,000 occupied the opposite bank of the Hydraotes. The 
river was now fbrdable, and Alexander was scarcely mid-stream 
at the head of his cavalry when the Indians retreated before 
him. But he was on the point of paying the penalty of this 
rash enterprise, for, on seeing that he was not supported by 
infantry, the Malli halted, and several vigorous charges made 
by Alexander having been repulsed, he was forced to practise 
the Parthian warfare in order to maintain his ground. This 
gave the necessary time for the infantry to come up and dis- 
perse the Malli, who fled into an adjoining strong city. Thither 
he pursued them with his cavalry, and prevented their escape 
till the infantry came up, when he regularly formed the siege * 

' Arriai), lib. VI., cap. vi. * Ibid., cap. vii. ' Ibid. 

* Ibid., cap. viii. — A city of the O-xydracse, according to Quint. Curt., 
ib. IX., cap. iv. 


of the place ; but here the career of the matchless Alexander 
had almost terminated. Resting for the remainder of the day, 
the next morning the city was attacked ; and this having been Assault of 
carried, some of the army proceeded to undermine and others 
to scale the walls of the citadel. Alexander's impatience ill 
brooked delay, and, seizing a ladder, he mounted it, protected 
by his shield, being closely followed by Peucestas, bearing the 
sacred buckler, and Leonatus ; Abrias, a soldier receiving 
double pay for merit, mounting nearly at the same time by 
another ladder. Alexander, having fixed his shield on the 
crest of the Avail, drove some of the defenders headlong from 
the battlements, and others being slain with his sword, a footing 
was gained on the wall, which Leonatus and the two others, 
by great efforts, also succeeded in obtaining, just as the over- 
loaded ladders broke down in consequence of the eagerness of 
the Hypaspists to share the peril of their intrepid leader. By 
this time Alexander's splendid armour and matchless daring 
had caused the enemy to make him the object of every missile 
that could be brought to bear from the neighbouring towers Perilous ' 
and w^alls ; when, after a moment's consideration, balancing Alexander, 
between his guards on one side, who implored him to throw 
himself backward into their extended arms, and, on the other, 
the chance of appalling the barbarians by the boldness of the 
deed, he leaped down into the citadel, placing his back against 
the wall that he might the more readily defend himself. 
Determined either to conquer or die gloriously, he slew some 
with his sword, amongst whom was the Indian governor, and 
wounding others with stones, he maintained his ground, being 
presently assisted by his three followers, who leaped down and 
fought valiantly to save him.^ Abrias was killed by an arrow ; 
another arrow pierced the breastplate of Alexander, and 
w^ounded him so severely, that at length he fell forward on his 
shield from loss of blood. He was, however, defended on one 
side by Peucestas with the sacred shield, and on the other by 
Leonatus ; but both of these being severely wounded, the fate 
of the king became more and more hopeless, and it was, in 
fact, on the point of being decided, when some of the j\Iace- 
' Arrian, lib. VI., cap. ix. 



[chap. X. 

of Alexander. 

donians reached the spot, and encircled their beloved general 
Dacring rescue at the very instant when life seemed to be extinct. Some had 
effected an entrance by scaling the ramparts with the assistance 
of iron pins driven into the face of the walls, others effected 
the same object by hoisting one another to the top, a larger 
body, by forcing a gate, reached the inside ; and the assailants 
having glutted their revenge by putting every creature to 
death, they bore off the king upon his sliield, not knowing 
whether he was still alive or dead.^ 

After the difficult operation of cutting out the head of the 
arrow, there was a gradual improvement ; and in the course of 
seven days Alexander was able to occupy a tent on two boats 
lashed together for this purpose ; in this state he was conveyed 
down the river to the camp and rendezvous of the army, at the 
confluence of the Hydraotes and Akesines. Finding that the 
report of his death had produced lamentation and despondency 
throughout the army, he first showed himself on a couch, and 
subsequently, by a still greater effort, he appeared on horse- 
back, when he was received with enthusiastic cheers by the 
soldiers, who raised their hands to heaven, with tears of grati- 
tude gushing from their eyes." 

During his tedious convalescence, the Oxydracse and some 
unsubdued portions of the Malli sent their submission, with an 
excuse from the former for being tardy, and the latter for their 
protracted resistance.^ 

Passing through the territory of the Oxydracse as far as the 
Indus, he ordered a town with docks to be constructed at the 
confluence of the Akesines with that river, and then dropped 
down to the royal palace of the Sogdi. From thence he pro- 
ceeded to the rich dominions of king Musicanus, who submitted, 
but afterwards gave some trouble, as did Sabbas or Sambus,** 
the prince of the territory, now represented by Sinde ; and, 
finally, Alexander halted at the upper extremity of the Delta, 
where he prepared to carry out his project for commercially 
connecting Europe with the eastern parts of Asia. 

His conva- 
lescence ; he 
reviews the 

readies the 
Delta of the 

' Arrian, lib. VI., cap. x., xi. 
' Ibid., cap. xiii. 

" Ibid., cap. xii., xiii. 
■* Ibid., cap. xvi., xvii. 

( 339 ) 



Preparations for the return of the Army and Fleet. — Projected Trade with 
India as the basis of the intended Commerce. — Alexander abandons his 
purposed Conquesfs in Eastern India. — Descent of the Indus and despatch 
of Forces under Craterus and Hephaestion. — Alexander crosses the 
Desert. — Tlie Difficulties of the March. — He reaches Kirman. — Slow 
descent of Nearclms. — Halt at Karachee. — Advance to the River Arabius, 
and along the coa<st of the Oritae. — Voyage to Cape 'Arabaii, the Town 
of Mosarna, and the extremity of the Coast of the Ichthyophagi. — The 
Fleet reaches Cape Jask and Harmozia. — Nearclius meets Alexander. — 
Voyage continued to Diridotus or Teredon. — Ascent of the Pasitigris to 
Agines and Susa. — Ancient and modern Distances of the Voyage. — Games 
and Sacrifices at Susa. — Asiatics and Europeans to be united by Marriao-es 
and other means. — Discontent of the Army. — The general employment of 
Asiatic Mercenaries. — Former project of Commerce. — Geography of the 
Karxin and Kerkhah. — Alexander ascends the Tigris to Opis. — Bunds and 
Dikes. — Mutiny at Opis. — Alexander goes to Susa. — Advance across the 
Zagros into Media. — Visit to the Nisaean Plains. — March against the 
Cossoci and to Babylon. — Alexander's preparations. — Reinforcements of 
vessels and troops. — His gigantic projects, and Death. — Digression on tlie 
Course, Risings, Flooding, &c. of the Indus. 

Although the attention of the historians of Alexander has 
been given almost exclusively to his stirring campaigns, yet 
some circumstances, incidentally mentioned by them, go far to 
show that the daring achievement now about to be noticed had 
been projected by him previously to making the march of 
9,265 miles, which we have just followed from ancient Tyre to 
the river Hyphasis.' The first step in establishing the great 

' Tyre to Thapsacus 376 miles. 

Thapsacus to Susa ...... 806 „ 

Susa to Beghram 3,535 ,, 

Beghram to the Jaxartes ..... 865 „ 
Return to Beghram, including various marches 
during the campaigns against the Sogdians, 

Hill fort of Oxyarfa, Aspii, &c. &c. . • 2,997 „ 

Beghram to the Hyphasis .... 686 „ ' 

Z 2 


The produc- 
tions of India 
early known 
in the West, 

with them. 

line of commercial intercourse between the inhabitants of the 
far east and those of the west seems to have been the construc- 
tion of the city at the foot of the Amanus, bearing the name of 
Alexander, and the next consisted in building the Egyptian, or 
second Alexandria, the gigantic project having no doubt been 
matured as the conqueror passed through Phoenicia. A faint 
light only had previously been thrown upon the geography of 
India ; yet the rich productions of that extensive peninsula were 
tolerably well known, having been sought for ages as the 
choicest objects of trade in Phoenicia, Palestine, and Egypt. 
From the booty of Gaza, Alexander sent specimens of the arts 
and productions of the East as presents for his mother and 
favourite sister, besides the balls of frankincense, myrrh, and 
other aromatics, already mentioned' as having been sent, with 
a note from him to his preceptor, Leonidas ; ^ from which it 
may be inferred that, during his boyhood, the king had 
acquired some knowledge of the countries yielding those pro- 
ductions.^ Nor can it be doubted that the inquiring mind of 
Alexander was early directed to the sources of the wealth 
which had made the rock of Tyre the richest mart in the world- 
The archives at Jerusalem must also have shown that, more 
than fifteen centuries anterior to the fall of the cities of Gaza 
and of Tyre, a rich land trade passed through this very terri- 
tory from distant countries ; and that upwards of six centuries 
anterior to the visit of Alexander a route was opened by sea 
with the same countries. There were other sources also from 
which information might be derived in addition to the parti- 
culars collected from Jews and Arabs, for the expeditions of 
knowkVe ^'^ Scsostris, Scmiraniis, and Darius Hystaspes would necessarily 
furnish additional knowledge of the regions of the East, more 
particularly during the reign of the last sovereign, when Scylax 
descended the Indus, and crossed the Indian Ocean to the 

' Chap. IX., p. 282. 

^ Plutarch in vita Alex., p. 356. 

^ Among these may be reckoned the sweet wood or cinnamon, the hakym 
nama of the Singalese ; while of manufactured goods he may have seen the 
hmsine siridon, or hyssus, fine linen or muslin (Herod., lib. II., cap. 
Ixxxvi., and lib. VII., cap. clxxxi.), and the produce of the cotton plant, the 
karpas of Esther (chap. I., v. 6). 


Arabian Gulf or Red Sea.' Alexander had, moreover, access 
to the work of Ctesias, who describes the manners, customs, 
and productions of India ; and he must have learned much 
from the Persians, who were conterminous with, and claimed 
part ofi the territory in question. 

With the preceding sources to guide, and a geographical A commerce 
establishment, that of his engineers, to follow out the inquiry probabiy^con- 
in detail, it is not going too far to presume that the commerce AkSder^^ 
as well as the conquest of India formed part of Alexander's 
original project. The plan of the conquest no doubt gradually 
became more mature as Alexander advanced ; so that, although 
the subjection of the territory near the Indus and the descent 
of that river might have been the objects at first proposed, yet 
fresh information on the spot would have caused the extension 
of the plan, had not the army refused to undertake the intended 
campaign into the provinces near the Ganges. 

Thwarted in his purpose of descending this great river, and 
making it the boundary of his empire, Alexander at once gave 
way as if to reason, and reverted to his previous plan, for which 
vessels had already been prepared, not only on the Indus, but 
also on one or two of its affluents, particularly in the country 
of the Xathri.^ 

The tranquil descent of the Akesines, as has been shown. His intention 
was interrupted by the campaign against the Malli and their tiiie'^ind^.'"^ 
allies the Oxydracse, and again, after the submission of both 
these, by other tribes who were not disposed to be guided by 
the renoMii of the western conqueror, and who required to 
feel, ere they could appreciate, the power of Alexander. The 
chief of one of these tribes, namely, Musicanus, who governed 
the rich country of that name, and also that of the Brahmins, 
having been crucified at the capital,^ and Oxycanus having 
submitted, Alexander was free to renew his descent, and give 

' Herod., lib. IV., cap. xliv. 

* Somewhere on the Cliin-ab, or Akesines, as the boats were floated along 
this stream. 

^ Probably the ruins of Alore, near Bukhur. — Bnrnes, vol. III., p. 138, 
of Royal Geographical Journal; and Ariana Antiqua, by Professor Wilson, 
p. 203. 


all his thoughts to the accomplishment of his extensive com- 
binations by land and water. 

With regard to the land operations, in order to husband the 
resources of the country by having several lines of march, 
Craterus was despatched with the elephants, three brigades of 
the phalanx, and with the inefficient persons, to take a central 
line through the countries of the Drangse and Arachosians to 
Kirman. Previously, however, to the march of this body of 
troops, Alexander sailed down the western branch of the Indus 
with some of the most suitable of his vessels, and, notwithstand- 
ing the difficulties caused by the high tides, which were now 
greatly increased by the S. W. monsoon causing, on the reflux, 
a violent rush of water called a bore, he passed the island of 
He sails on Cillutas, near Karachee : having, with two or three vessels only, 
the indianSea. pj.Qcee(jg(j about 200 Stadia into the open sea, and sighting 
another island, he returned and then landed, and after offering 
sacrifices to Neptune, he ascended to Pattala and gave orders for 
the construction of a haven and docks.^ He then passed down 
the lefl or eastern branch, and with some biremes and triremes 
sailed into the ocean : returning from thence he examined the 
coast on horseback, and ordered another harbour to be con- 
structed on one side of a spacious lake ; but having found the 
western branch, especially its estuary, more suited for naviga- 
tion, he returned once more to Pattala to superintend the con- 
struction of the basin and other works there. 
Nearchus ap- Depending upon the zeal and fidelity of Nearchus, who was 
command the ^^ conduct the expedition by sea as soon as a change of mon- 
expedition by gQQ^ would permit, the army was put in motion about the 
beginning of September ; Hephsestion leading the bulk of the 
forces by a more inland route, whilst the king at the head of 
the targeteers, the archers, and most active troops, kept nearer 
the coast ; sinking wells occasionally for the use of the fleet 
being the main object. 

Taking a westerly direction from the bifiircation of the 
Indus, Alexander appears to have first touched the sea near 
the estuary of the river Arabius, a little way eastward of Son- 

' Arrian, lib. VI., cap. xix., xx. 



meciny. The people, the Arabitae, made their escape into the 
interior, and as the Orita?, a free people originally from India, Alexander's 

A 1 ^ 1 • 1 ^ pursuit of the 

followed the same prudent course, Alexander, leavmg the toot Oritse. 
to follow at more leisure,^ divided his horse into several parties 
that they might cover more space as they advanced, and pro- 
ceeded in pursuit ; many of the fugitives were in consequence 
either slain or taken prisoners." Being joined at the next 
halting place by the corps under Hephsestion, the army ad- 
vanced to Rambacia. At this large village, which was con- 
sidered the capital, Leonatus was left with a force to keep the 
Oritse in order, also to construct a city, and collect provisions 
to assist the fleet, and here he remained till Nearchus arrived 
at the port of Kokala.^ 

The united forces afterwards entered the desert country of Productions of 
the Horites,* now the Urhu, and doubtless once the Oritse, district.^ 
keeping more into the interior. This country produces a 
number of myrrh-trees much taller than elsewhere, also spike- 
nard, and a thorn with such thick-set prickles that hares are 
caught by the down as birds are taken with birdlime.^ With 
the assistance of the camel a tract of this kind may be traversed 
with moderate difficulty, but when deprived of this invaluable 
animal a forbidding wilderness, scantily supplied with water/ 
becomes really formidable to an army :, and accordingly the 
march from the borders of the Oritee, probably by Kedje or 
Chodda," to Bunpur and to Pura or Pareg, was attended with 
many difficulties and great privations ; not so much from the 
nature of the country, as because Apollophanes, the satrap of 
Gedrosia, had shamefully neglected his duty in providing 
supplies which, although thinly peopled, Gedrosia might have 
furnished. The supplies, together with the camels, horses, and 
mules, which were brought by Stasanor for the use of the army, 
arrived after the completion of the march across the desert. 

' Arrian, lib. VI., cap. xxi. " Ibid. 

* Ibid., cap. xxi., xxii., and Ind., chap, xxiii. 

* Quint. Curt., lib. IX., cap. x. 

* Arrian, Ind., cap. xxii., and Quint. Curt., lib. IX., cap. x. 

* For a description of these desert tracts, see vol. I., pp. 78, 79 ; and for 
those of Mekran and Baluchistan, vol. I., pp. 178, 179, 184. 

^ See vol. I, p. 179. 


Firmness of 

Distress of the The historian tells us that the beasts of burthen first perished, 
desert!" then the sick or weakly persons, and lastly a portion of the 
army^ which, as might be expected under such circumstances, 
had become disorganized. The influence of the oflicers had 
ceased, and even the semblance of Alexander's authority was 
nominally preserved, by seeming to be ignorant of those irre- 
gularities which could not be remedied; and the soldiers 
suffered as much from excess when supplies, particularly of 
water, chanced to be abundant, as from scarcity. 

Alexander met these diflaculties with his usual greatness of 
mind ; and it was on one trying occasion that the well-known 
circumstance occurred of pouring into the sand the helmet-full 
of brackish muddy water, which by great exertions they had 
collected for the use of the king. The succeeding portion of 
the march from Pareg was accomplished without difficulty to 
Kirnian, where Craterus joined the king ; after making the 
prescribed detour by Arachosia and through Drangiana," fol- 
lowing the valley of the Helmand to the borders of lake Zerrah, 
and thence in a south-westerly direction to the capital of the 

The previous campaigns must have made Nearchus ac- 
quainted with the affluents of the Indus, and his stay at Pattala, 
as well as the explorations by Alexander, would naturally give 
him similar information regarding the trunk itself; which in all 
probability was almost as well known at that time as it is at 
present, when the source and much of the upper part of the 
stream have still to be explored. 

Nearchus was to commence his voyage after the change of 
the monsoon, taking with him the largest and most suitable 
vessels, leaving the others on the Indus, where from the use of 
boats it is evident that navigation of some kind must previously 
have existed ; and it is probable that Alexander was aware that 
the Persian Gulf communicated with the Indian Ocean, and 
that the estuaries of the rivers Eulseus and Euphrates might 
be reached by the fleet. 

Why it is not stated, but instead of delaying a couple of 
months for the favourable season, the two admirals, after burn- 
' Quint. Curt., lib. IX., cap. x. == See above, vol. I., p. 228. 

The Indus 
known in 


ing some of the vessels which were not required/ quitted the 
station near Pattala early in October, and descended the Slow passage 
western arm of the river with unaccountable slowness, con- river, 
sidering that the stream had been previously explored by 
Alexander himself In fact only nine miles were made during 
the last six days as the fleet approached Coreatis, a place still 
within the estuary ; where the freshness of the air, the mixture 
of sweet with bitter water, and the surprising periodical eff'ects 
of the tide, were experienced, of which such a natural and lively 
description is given by Quintus Curtius.- 

Early on the seventh day, however, by cutting a canal of 
five stadia through the mud along the western side of the 
entrance, the vessels passed into the open sea without being The ships gain 
forced to encounter the heavy surf on the bar. Once clear ^^^ ^^^^ ^*^^' 
of this difficult river, the fleet made 150 stadia (from Coreatis) 
to the sandy island of Krokola^ at the commencement of 
the territory of the Arabii.^ The island opposite to Karachee 
appears to correspond with this station, being about fourteen 
miles, following the sinuosities, from the Pili mouth of the 
Indus. The modern Karachee is situated on a large, commo- 
dious, and safe inlet, capable of containing vessels of two or 
three hundred tons burthen, and it has a considerable trade 
with Kach'h, Bombay, and the Malabar coast. The houses of 
the town are chiefly composed of mud and sandstone, forming 
very narrow streets ; the country immediately around is desti- 
tute of vegetation, and the water is brackish; but corn is 
brought from Haider-abad, and rice from Kach'h and the coast 
of Malabar.^ Thence, after remaining one day, the ships pro- 
ceeded on their voyage, having the mountain Irus on their right 
hand,® and a low flat island on their left; and going through the 
narrow passage thus formed they came to a safe haven, which, 
being both large and commodious, was named Port Alexander. 
Opposite to the mouth of this haven, at the distance of two 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. Ivii. ^ Lib. IX., cap. ix. 

^ Pliny, lib. VI., cap. xxi. * Arrian, Ind., can. xxi. 

* Lieut. Kemptliorne, Indian Navy, vol. V., p. 263, of Royal Geographical 

* In the interior, w estward and northward oi Karachee, there are several 
mountain?, one of which no doubt represents Irus. 


The island stadia, there is an island called Bibacta/ partly sheltering it ; 
and as the Etesian winds (the S. W. monsoon) grew very bois- 
terous, blowing directly on the shore, Nearchus landed his men, 
when surrounding the camp with a stone wall, as a protection 
from the barbarians, he remained twenty-four days^ awaiting 
the termination of the monsoon ; having in all likelihood found 
supplies which had been provided by Alexander. 

The sheltered anchorage at the western side of the inlet or 
bay of Karachee, between Cape Tent and Munoora Point, seems 
to answer to Port Alexander, which is sheltered by a sandy 
island, possibly Bibacta, and the passage thither at high tide 
inside of the sandy island opposite to the present town coin- 
cides with the description of Nearchus. The next station of 60 
stadia, after the wind abated, was the desolate island of Domas,^ 
probably one of those near the entrance of the inlet ; and the 
succeeding voyage was round Munoora Point to the country of 
Saranga ; from whence it is 300 stadia to the commodious haven 
of Morontobara,* probably the estuary of the Bahur river, some 
distance northward of Cape Monze. 

Having with some difficulty gone through the narrow rocky 

entrance of this harbour, the fleet, with the assistance of the 

tide, passed through a narrow channel between an island, pro- 

Ariivai r.t the bably Chulua, and the main, and made 70 stadia; 120 stadia 

Arabius. more brought the vessels to the mouth of the river Arabius, 

where was found a large and safe harbour, but no fresh water.* 

Sonme'ciny, a small fishing town governed by a sheikh, marks 

p V rt • fth ^^^^^ situation. The people are hospitable but poor, living 

people. chiefly on rice and dried fish. The inlet has water for vessels 

of one or two hundred tons, and is sheltered from all winds; 

but there is an extensive bar at the entrance which can only be 

passed by vessels of small burthen at high water.^ This river 

separates the last part of the country of the Arabitse from the 

Oritse : these last are clothed and armed like the Indians, but 

' Bibaga, Pliny, lib, VI., cap. xxi. - Arrian, Ind., cap. xxi. 

'^ Perhaps the Torallibus of Pliny, lib. VI., cap. xxi. 
* Arrian, Ind., cap. xxii. ^ Ibid. 

" Lieut. Kempthorne, Indian Navy, vol. V., p. 264, of Royal Geographical 


their customs and manners appear to be different from those of 
their neighbours.' 

Sailing- about 200 stadia along the coast of the Oritai, the 
fleet anchored near the island of Pagala, and from thence 430 
stadia more brought it to Kabana, where the anchorage being The fleet 

vj.i 1 ii.1* J. v'l encounters a 

bad, three vessels were lost durmg a storm which was encoun- storm at 
tered. From hence 200 stadia were made to Kokala, probably ^'*^^"^- 
the existing Mahee Makace, and the port of Rambacia or Alex- 
andria,^ the capital of the Oritai country, where Alexander 
ordered a colony to be established.^ Here were found supplies 
which had been left by Alexander, also the corps under Leo- 
natus, who had defeated the Oritse and their allies with the loss 
of 6,000 men."* At this place the fleet was refitted, and those 
men who were unwilling to bear the fatigue and exertions of the 
voyage were replaced by others sent by Leonatus f for as the 
perils of the sea were more dreaded than those of the land, no 
doubt the latter was the favourite service. After a rest of ten Arrives at the 
days the voyage was resumed, and having the benefit of the °™*^'''^^- 
N. E. or favourable monsoon, the fleet made 500 stadia in 
one day to the river Tomerus,^ probably the Hingol river, 
whose estuary forms a kind of lake near the shore." Here the 
landing was opposed ; but the natives being defeated, and many 
of them captured, the fleet remained six days refitting among 
the shaggy and wild-looking barbarians,^ who occupied low 
huts supported by fish-bones. Another stage of 600 stadia 
brought it to Malana or Hormarah (Ras Malm), the western 
limits of the Oritse, now the Urhu tribe, and the commence- 
ment of Gedrosia, as well as the territory of the Ichthyophagi.'' 
A stage of 60 miles brought the fleet to Bagasira, a haven 
capable of receiving it, and having the village of Pasira at 
about 60 stadia from the shore.'" The bay is now known by Tiie bay of 
the name of 'Arabah or Hormarah : it is deep and commodious, '^•■^^^^• 
with good anchorage, well sheltered except from the southward 

' Arrian, Ind., cap. xxv. * Pliiy? lib. VI., cap. xxiii. 

^ Arrian, lib. VI., cap. xxi. ^ Ibitl., cap. xxiii. 

* Ibid. '^ Tonderan.— Pliny, lib. VI., cap. xxiii. 

^ Arrian, Ind., cap. xxiv. " Ibid., cap. xxv. 

^ Ibid., cap. XXV., xxvi. '" Ibid. 


and eastward.^ Rather a large fishing village (once Pasira) is 
situated on a low sandy isthmus, forming another bay on the 
western side of the promontory, now Cape 'Arabah. The 
people, who are Baluches, have little trade and are very poor, 
Dwellings of living chiefly in huts of cajan^ sticks, covered with date-tree 
leaves ; they are hospitable, and have some goats, fowls, and 
dried fish, but melons are the only thing grown.^ 

After halting one day, the fleet sailed round the adjoining 

high and rugged promontory, and having gained 200 stadia it 

came to Kolta, whence departing at day-light it made 600 

The fleet stadia morc to the village of Kalama, where were found some 

Kaiamaand datcs and grccu figs. Here there was an island about 100 

Karnine. Stadia froui the shore, called Karnine, where Nearchus was 

hospitably entertained, receiving presents of cattle and fish. But 

the former, says Nearchus (probably sheep), eat fishy, not much 

unlike sea-fowl, being fed upon fish,"* there being no grass upon 

the island. Ashtola, a desolate island of about five miles in 

circumference, and twelve miles from the coast of Mekran, 

represents this station: it is inaccessible except at one place 

where there is a sandy beach, being surrounded by cliffs rising 

abruptly about 300 feet; latterly it was a rendezvous of the 

Jawasimi pirates.^ 

Making 200 stadia from Karnine, the fleet put to shore on 
the coast of Karbis, not far from the inland village of Cysa or 
Kysa, where were found some small boats belonging to poor 
fishermen who had fled, but no corn. From thence, sailing 
round a high rocky promontory, now Passense, running 150 
stadia into the sea, the fleet came to the safe fishing haven of 
A Gedrosian Mosama, whcrc was obtained a Gedrosian pilot, who engaged 

pilot obtained. ... 

to conduct them safely to the coast of Carmania, with which 
doubtless this port had commercial intercourse.'' Under the 

' Lieut. Kempthorne, Indian Navy, vol. V., pp. 264, 265, of Royal Geo- 
graphical Journal. ^ Cytisus cajau. Ibid. 
=* Ibid. 

* In many places, both here and in Arabia, the cattle are fed entirely on 
dried fish and dates mixed together. — Lieut. Kempthorne, Indian Navy, 
vol. v., p. 270, of Royal Geographical Journal. Arrian, Ind., cap. xxvi. 

* Ibid , and vol. V., p. 266, of Royal Geographical Journal. 
" Arrian, Ind., cap. xxvii. 


guidance of the Gedrosian, the fleet made, in one stage of 750 
stadia, the coast of Balonius, and from thence another of 400 
stadia brought it to Barna, a village with palm and other fruit 
trees, also myrtles and various flowers. In another stage of 
200 stadia it reached Dendrobosa, and 400 stadia onward the 
haven of Kophas or Kophanta. This was probably the bay 
westward of Ras Gwadel ; and it appears to have been a large 
fishing station, where the people had slight boats with paddles, 
which were used, says Arrian, as diggers do their spades.' 

Making 800 stadia from thence, the fleet anchored near The fleet 
Kyiza, which being a barren rocky coast, it proceeded onward Kyiza^^ ^ 
without landing ; and having by fraud surprised a small town, 
situated on a hill, probably at or near Gwutter bay, there was 
obtained a small supply of corn, and, what was more common, 
some meal made of dried fish ground to powder.^ Thence the 
fleet proceeded to the rock or island of Bagia, probably Ras- 
Briefs, and onward, 1,000 stadia from thence, to the commodious 
haven of Talmoua, where the crews were permitted to land. 
This seems to coincide with the existing bay of Charbar or Taimona pro- 
Choubar, in which there is a walled town of the former name, presJn?Bay 
subject to the Imam of Mask at, and having an extensive trade °^^^^^^'^''' 
with different parts of India, which is chiefly carried on by 
Banian merchants. It contains about 1,500 inhabitants, living 
in meanly-built houses, chiefly mud, with flat roofs. The streets 
are narrow and dirty, and in the vicinity are some date groves, 
also a few fields producing corn and vegetables.^ 

At 400 stadia from thence the fleet came to the ruined city 
of Kanasis, where there was found a well and some palm trees; 
and sailing all night and the day following along a barren coast 
to Kanates, it anchored, the crews being unable to land for the 
usual purpose of cooking and refreshing themselves : it then 
made 750 stadia to the country of the Traesi, which contained The fleet 
some poor villages, with a little corn and some dates, and here ?^nt?y^onhe 
the followers of Nearchus captured or plundered seven camels/ ^^^^^ 

' Arrian, Ind., cap. xxvii. - Ibid., cap. xxviii. 

" Lieut. Kemptliorne, Indian Navy, vol. V., p. 271, of Royal Geographical 

* Arrian, Ind., cap. xxix. 


The next stage of 300 stadia brought the fleet to Dagasira, 
a town frequented by herdsmen, and in another of 1, 100 stadia 
it reached the extreme limits of the Ichthyophagi. According 
The coast of to the prcscut voyagc this coast extends 10,000 stadia; Strabo 
Sfa^f**^^"' gives it only 7,400 stadia, and the distance on the charts is but 
449 miles. At present, as in the time of Nearchus, fish, both 
fresh and reduced to meal when dry, forms a large part if not 
the whole sustenance of the people, as well as of their cattle.^ 

On reaching Badis, a port of Moghostan, towards the 
southern extremity of Kirman, which appears to be repre- 
sented by the town of Jask, near the well-known cape of that 
name, Nearchus found stores of vines and corn, with plenty of 
fruit trees, except olives. Passing Bambarak, or Kove Mubar- 
rack, named by Nearchus the second mount of Semiramis, 
and having made 800 stadia, the fleet anchored opposite the 
Arabian promontory, called Maceta,^ now Coomza, and the 
adjoining small island of Bas Musendom. Next day the fleet 
The fleet entered the Gulf of Persia ; and going along the northern shore 
Persian Gulf, by Ncoptaua, now Karroon,^ a fishing village, it made 800 
stadia to the mouth of the river Anamis,^ where uncertainty as 
to his voyage, and the chief difiiculties in accomplishing it, 
were at an end. 

More powerful incentives to a great undertaking can scarcely 
be imagined than those which influenced Nearchus. After 
being selected in preference to all others by the king, he re- 
ceived instructions in person to carry out an enterprise which 
the monarch had previously destined for himself, as the last 
and greatest object to complete his vast undertakings, and 
there was from time to time during the voyage the animating 
incitement of endeavouring to keep pace with the parallel 
movement of the king. But, on the other hand, the difficulties 
were sufficient to outweigh all these considerations, and deter 
almost any other commander. The vessels could only carry a 

' Lieut. Kempthorne, Indian Navj^, vol. V., p. 270, of Royal Geograpliical 
Journal ; Arrian, Ind., cap. xxix. 
* Arrian, Ind., cap. xxxii. 

" Vol. V. of Koyal Geograpliical Journal, p. 273. 
■' Arrian, Ind., cap. xxxiii. 



limited vSiipply of provisions, for four or five days at most; and 
the want of more than sitting space for the rowers, rendered it 
absolutely necessary that they should have daily opportunities 
of taking refreshment on shore ; and supplies even of water 
were very doubtful. 

But notwithstanding these serious considerations, the admiral Boldness ot 
did not hesitate to venture into an unknown sea, rowing from comlucting" 
one headland to another of a strange coast, which, in case of "'^ '^■"y^se- 
the requisite supplies being obtained, might or might not con- 
duct the fleet to its destination in the Persian Gulf. 

Owing, as has been seen, to an imperfect knowledge of the 
seasoUvS, Nearchus was exposed for some weeks to the S. W. 
monsoon, at a period when the coast is even now considered 
impracticable. But he hauled up at one moment, and per- 
severed at another, till he joined Leonatus on the coast of the 
Oritae. Subsequently all assistance ceased, and all communi- 
cation with the army, so much so as to induce a suspicion that, 
being no longer under the eye of Alexander, the voyage had The voyage 
become in some measure predatory; but, how^ever this may havrbeen"in 
have been, trusting to his own resources in digging wells and p^""' predatory. 
collecting provisions, the admiral conducted his fleet to Har- 
mozia, a city situated in an agreeable, and with the exception 
of the olive, a fruitful country. Here there was abundance, 
instead of the scanty supplies previously obtained with such 
difficulty ; and to his great surprise Nearchus learnt from a 
Greek, who had strayed to the coast, that the king was at 
Salmonte,^ at no great distance from thence. It is difficult to 
account for the conduct of the admiral on this occasion, for 
having ascertained fi-om the prefect that the intelligence was 
correct, instead of either going in person or immediately send- 
ing a report to the king, Nearchus hauled up his fleet on the 
banks of the Anamis or ISIinnow, and secured it by constructing 
a double rampart with a deep ditch, which could be filled from 
the river. During these defensive preparations, the prefect 
proceeded to the camp of Alexander, and Nearchus was ordered 
to report his voyage in person ; when, after a journey of five 
days on foot, he and his followers arrived with untrimmed 
' Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. Iviii. 


Nearchus re- 
ceived by 

The fleet 
arrives at 

The admiral 
visited by 

beards, and were scarcely recognizable, owing to their soiled 
clothing and their sun-burnt, swarthy, and emaciated bodies. 
They found Alexander and the army enjoying a luxurious rest 
after the difficulties of the desert march. 

The reception of the admiral, according to his own narrative, 
was most flattering ; for it is said that with tears of joy Alex- 
ander declared that the preservation of the fleet was more 
acceptable than the conquest of Asia itself, and that Nearchus 
should not be exposed to any fresh toils and hazards.^ 

The latter circumstance, taken in conjunction with the forti- 
fications round the fleet, and the despatch of messengers to 
bring Nearchus to the camp, would imply that all had not been 
right during this remarkable undertaking ; but, whether Near- 
chus avoided communication with the king, fearing to be 
questioned concerning the events of his voyage, or from other 
motives, the request that he might be allowed to preside over 
the fleet till it reached Susa was granted. Nearchus being 
despatched, offered sacrifices at Harmozia to Jupiter the pre- 
server, and on the 1st January, 325 B.C., proceeded by Organa, 
now Ormuz." The fleet made 300 stadia to another island 
(Oaracta),^ larger, well inhabited, and fully 800 stadia in 
length : and at this place arrived Mazanes, the governor, who 
offered his services, probably by^ command of Alexander, to 
share and control the authority of the admiral. From thence 
the fleet sailed 200 stadia along the southern shore to another 
port on the same island. Passing an island sacred to Neptune, 
now called Angar or Angam,^ the fleet encountered a storm, 
and was much exposed on what is now Bassadore bank,*^ till 
with great difficulty the ships got into deep water: it then 
made 400 stadia to another island, probably the Little Tomb. 
From hence, leaving Pylora, now Polior, on the left hand, the 
fleet arrived at Sidoddne, a small town, probably represented 
either by Duaii or the fishing village of Mogoo, ' both situate in 

' Arrian, Ind., cap. xxxv. ^ See above, vol. I., p. 229. 

" Pliny, lib. VI., cap. xxiii. * Arrian, Ind., cap. xxxvii. 

'•' INIore properly Hinjiini or Hanjam, vol. V., p. 279, of Koyal Geo- 
graphical Journal. 

« Ibid., p. 280. " Ibid. 


a bay of the same name, and now, as in the time of Nearchus, 

only afFordinp: fish and water. From thence the fleet sailed The fleet 

T 1 p m • r^ r~i rounds Cape 

300 stadia to the promontory of Tarsias, now Cape Certes or Certes, and 
Has Jerd ; and from thence it made 300 stadia to Cata,^a, a 
barren rocky island at the extremity of Carmania, which is 
sacred to Mercury and Venus ; probably Kenn or Keis, an 
island next in importance to Kishm.^ Proceeding onward 40 
stadia the fleet came to a place upon the Persian shore called 
Has, now Chiroo, opposite to which was the island of Caican- 
drus, which forms a haven, now the channel inside of Inderabia, 
or Hinderabi, an island almost without cultivation." Nearchus 
next arrived at an inhabited island where he says pearls are 
found, now Busheab ; and 40 stadia from this station the fleet 
entered a convenient harbour supposed to be that at the western 
extremity of the same island.^ From thence the fleet sailed to 
Ochus, a high mountain promontory, probably Kas Nabend, arrives at the 
where it found a safe haven inhabited by fishermen, now called soioo. 
the bay of Alsaloo. 

Proceeding onward 400 stadia the fleet reached Apostani, a 
harbour in which they found many ships at anchor, and where 
there was a village 60 stadia from the shore.^ This haven is 
probably represented by the bay of Congoon, on the western 
side of Cape Berdistan or Verdistan ; the next station, called a 
noted bay, with many villages at the foot of a mountain,^ seems 
to be that formed between Monsaly island and Has Monsaly. 
Thence the fleet passed on about 600 stadia further, and 
anchored at the mouth of the brook of Areon in the country 
of Gogana, which most likely is represented by the existing 
small town of Cogoon. The next station, about 800 stadia 
from thence, was Sitakus, where the fleet found plenty of corn 
and other supplies which the king had provided for their use ; 
and being a safe harbour, the ships remained twenty-one days The ships refit 
to repair and refit.* This station no doubt is represented by ^ow Ab^' 


' Vol. v., p. 279, of Royal GeographicalJournal ; and see above, vol. I., 
p. 230. 

* Lieut. Keinptliorne, vol. V., p. 281. of Royal Geographical Journal, 
^ Ibid. ■* Arrian, Ind., cap. xxxviii. 

* Ibid. « Ibid. 

VOL. n. 2 A 



Sitakus or the well-knowii port of Abii Shehr or Bushire,^ which being the 
"^ ^^^' only safe haven on this part of the coast, was on this account 
chosen for this important object by Alexander himself 

Advancing from thence, the fleet made 750 stadia to Hierates, 
a place well inhabited, and having a canal called Heratemis, in 
which the fleet was accommodated f probably the present Bander 
Eeicht. Sous Poshoon, or Cape Bang, appears to represent 
the peninsula of Mesambria, near the river Podargus ; and 
Cool-baud-creek seems to be in the vicinity of another station, 
at about 200 stadia distance, called Taoce, near the mouth of 
the river Granis ; at which there is a palace of the Persian 
monarch 200 stadia from the coast.^ Two hundred stadia on- 
ward, the fleet reached the mouth of the river Eagonis, where 
it found a safe haven,* possibly one of the two Khdrs, a little 
way eastward of Eas el Tombe ; and from thence it made 
400 stadia to the mouth of the Brizana river.^ From this 
spot, most likely Bander Delem, by taking advantage of the 
tide, the fleet anchored at the mouth of the Arosis, which being 
the largest river met by Xearchus, and having the Persian 
territories on one side, with those of Susiana on the other, is 
doubtless represented by the Tab or Indian.^ 
Intricacy of The difliculties previously encountered in navigating the low 
the coast "of alluvial coast of Susiana greatly increased from hence, and are 
made prominent in the narrative of the admiral, who mentions 
the use of huge posts, and pieces of timber, to guide the vessels 
through these intricate channels J We also perceive, and it may 
also be inferred, that a separate independent government pre- 
vailed in this territory, like that of the Sheikh of Chaab at 

About 500 stadia from the estuary of the Arosis, the fleet 
anchored at the mouth of a lake called Kataderbis, which was 
well stored with fish, and had a small island called Margastana 
lying opposite. The fishing inlet called Khor Miisa, and the 

' See above, vol. I,, p. 209. * Arrian, Ind., cap. xxxix. 

=* Ibid. •• Ibid. 

* Ibid. " See above, vol. I., p. 202. 
^ Arrian, Ind., cap. xli. 

* The Susians live according to tlieir own laws. — Arrian, Ind., cap. xl. ; 
see above, vol. I., p. 202. 



island of Derail, as well as the narrow channels, appear to cor- 
respond ; and the distance on the map, of thirty miles by the 
windings, is nearly three-fifths of that given by Nearchus, or 
about the general pro])ortion between the positive and the com- 
puted distances of this part of the voyage. 

From Kataderbis the fleet advanced through narrow channels Termination 

n ^^^ ,. 11, • • -1 of the voyage. 

in the same direction for 600 stadia, no doubt experiencing the 
greatest difficulty in keeping clear of the Alio Meidan bank, 
and not daring to put into any port for the crews to refresh 
themselves. Keeping off the shore that night and all the next 
day, it made 300 stadia, or 900 in all, and from Kataderbis' it 
came to a small village in the Babylonian territories named 
Diridotis (Teredon) ; and thus was completed one of the most 
daring voyages on record. The port at which they had arrived 
was not unknown, being frequented by the Arabian merchants 
who transported thither their frankincense and other spices for 
sale. The distance from the mouth of the river to Babylon 
was estimated at 3,300 stadia, or 330 miles f by the Euphrates 
itself it would be about 354 miles, or nearly 74 more than by the 
Pallacopas, which is 280 miles, including the distance along the 
Euphrates from its second or lower head to Hillah. The fleet, 
in following the windings of the channel, might be carried much 
beyond the Shatt el 'Arab, which is easily missed, and thus it 
might have reached the supposed mouth of the Pallacopas oppo- 
site to the island of Boobian. It is probable that the channel 
westward of the latter was the passage used by the vessels pass- 
ing from Gerrha to Teredon. The site of the latter city, the Teredon sup- 
supposed work of Nebuchadnezzar,^ is presumed to be at Jebel jebei Sanlm. 
Saucim, a gigantic mound near the Pallacopas branch of the 
Euphrates. This spot is about 23 miles S.S.AV, of Basrah, 13 
or 14 S. by W. of Zobeir, and nearly 18 miles N.W. of the sup- 
posed estuary opposite the island of Boobian, near the Khdr 
'Abd-ullah ; but at the time in question the latter may have been 
near, or even have touched Jebel Sanam. 

At Diridotis, Nearchus received a messenger bringing news 
of the approach of Alexander, wherefore the fleet steered soine- 

' Arrian, Tnd., cap. xli. ° Ibid. 

' Eusebius, from Abydenus, apud Grotium, lib. III., cap. xvi. 

2 A 2 


what backward in order that it might sail by the river Pasitigris 
to meet the army.^ 

We are told^ that, keeping the comitry of Susa on their left 
hand, they passed through the lake by which the Tigris empties 
itself, and thence 600 stadia onward to a village of the Susians 
called Agines, which is 500 stadia from Susa.^ Now the latter 
The Pasitigris territory would have been equally on the left, whether Diridotis 
the K^niu^ ^ wcrc situatcd on the Pallacopas or on the Shatt el 'Arab, and 
there would have been the same necessity for the fleet " to steer 
somewhat backward," in order to enter the Pasitigris ; whose posi- 
tive geography, if this river be represented by the river Kariin, 
will be found to correspond with the movements of the fleet. 

The bed of the lake, once formed, according to Polybius, 
by the Choaspes, Eulgeus, and Tigris, may still be traced."* 
It extended over most part of the country lying between Diri- 
dotis and Agines (Ahwaz), and its waters were discharged by 
the separate channels of the Euphrates, or rather by the Shatt 
Former bed of el 'Arab and Karun. The old bed of the Kariin exists below 
the site of the lake ; and, no doubt, served the fleet in ascend- 
ing to the latter, whose waters appear to have terminated 600 
stadia from Agines,^ or about the existing village of Ismaili ; 
where, in fact, the ground becomes a little more elevated. 
Agines itself is stated to be 500 stadia from Susa, and the sup- 
posed site of Ahwaz is 42 miles from thence by the air line, and 
47 miles along one of the ancient beds of the Shapiir, following 
its supposed course from Susa till it met the Kariin at Ahwaz.® 
On receiving fresh news of the king's approach, which seems 
to have occurred after ascending the lower part of the Pasitigris, 
Nearchus continued his voyage to the bridge, newly built for 
The fleet the king's forces to pass towards Susa, where he met part of the 
Siia? "^ ° army. In obedience to orders, Nearchus'' proceeded to wait 
upon the king at Susa, probably going by land, as the passage 
of the fleet is not mentioned ; but being afterwards at the city, 

' Arrian, Intl., cap. xlii. * Ibid. ^ Ibid. 

* Ainsworth's Assyria and Babylonia, p. 19i. Parker, 1838. 

' Ibid., p. 193; Arrian, Ind., cap. xlii. 

« See above, vol. I., pp. 198, 199. 

^ Arrian, Exp., lib. VII., cap. v., and Ind., cap. xlii. 



it must have ascended either by the ancient Shapiir or Shawer 
river, or else by the canal of the Shatt el ]\Iaktiiah (cut river), 
which once connected the rivers Kerkhah and Kariin.^ 

The distances given by the admiral in his account of the Comparative 

„ , ^ , , . . . ^.distances. 

voyage irom the Indus, only approxnnate in two portions oi 
the coast, and those the shortest, namely, along the Arabitae 
and Oritse. Throughout the rest of the voyage they do not, 
however, by any means correspond with those determined by 
maps laid down from the recent surveys. 

Carefully following the sinuosities, the distances are : — 

Geographical „ ,. Nearchus 

Miles. ■ gives 

From the Pettee, mouth of the Indus, to 1 ^ , , ^„ , ^^^ , ^^^ 

c, - ' J .. • A u- } 104 to 108, or 1.080 1,000 

bonmeany and the river Arabius . j ' ' ' 

From Sonmeany to Cape Malin, on tlie ] , ^„ , , ^ , , ^^ , ^^^ 

^ ., : ' 108 to 110, or 1,100 1,600 

Ontaean coast ) ' 

From Cape Malin to Cape Jask, on the ) ^ ._ . .^ , ,^^ ,^^„^ 

. f*i T u*i 1 • M47 to 449, or 4,490 10,000 

coast of the Ichthyophagi ... J ' ' ' 

From Cape Jask to Cape Nabon, the ] ,^^ ,^- , ^^^ „ ^„ 

. /,. ., fn • MOO to 40^;, or 4,020 3,700 

ancient limits oi Carmania ... J ' ' ' 

From Cape Nabon to the Indian or 1 ^ „ ^ 

. . ^ , e^ . [ 298 to 300, or 3,000 4,400 

Arosis, on coast oi i^ersis ... J ' ' 

From tlie Arosis to the Pallacopas or i 

coast of Susiana, following the Khors 1112 to 115, or 1,150 2,000 

and passages in and out .... J 

14,840 22,700 

It thus appears that the actual length of the voyage is but Length of the 
about two-thirds of the estimate of Nearcbus ; and taking this Nearchi?s^ 
proportion from Cape Malin to the Pallacopas, and allowing 
ten stadia to the geographical mile, the stations mentioned may 
in general be traced. 

It appears that so soon as Nearchus was despatched to com- 
plete his great enterprise, Alexander moved westward, where 
his presence was urgently required to put an end to the mis- 
government and irregularities which had sprung up in his 
absence. The main body was committed, with the elephants, to 
HephcBstion, with directions to march by the longer but more 
convenient route along the coast, that is, in a south-south-westerly 
direction to Laristan, passing, according to tradition, through 

' See vol. I., pp. 195, 199. 



[chap. XI. 

■visits Pasa- 

Orsines put to 
death for mis- 

to abolish 
national dis- 

Benarooz and Beruz.^ Alexander, at the head of some mfantry, 
a few bowmen, and the companion cavalry, crossed the hills by 
a direct line to Pasagarda. Finding that the tomb of the great 
Cyrus (Mader-i-Soleiman)^ had been plundered during his ab- 
sence,- of the cups, scimitars, jewels and other valuables, with 
the exception of the golden coffin, w^hich the robbers had not 
been able to carry off,^ Alexander left Aristobulus to restore 
everything to its former state, and build up the door M^th solid 
masonry, and proceeded to Persepolis and Pasargada, whose 
melancholy ruins caused him much regret. Here the misgovern- 
ment was speedily remedied by putting Orsines to death for 
oppression and misconduct; and Peucestas was appointed to 
succeed to the satrapy, as a reward for his faithfiil services in 
defending Alexander's life at the most critical moment among 
the Malli.^ 

After a short delay Alexander continued his march, most 
likely along the route by which he had originally advanced, 
through the Susian rocks to the bridge over the Kariin or Pa- 
sitigris, going from thence to Susa. Here he was speedily 
joined by Xearchus and Oncsicritus, and in all probability by the 
vessels also, for there is little doubt that their crews were present 
when sacrifices were ofiered for the safety of the fleet and army: 
these were ,as usual, accompanied by the exhibition of various 
kinds of sports, to commemorate the accomplishment of the 
voyage, and a scarcely less extraordinary march^ through the 

The fate of Orsines awaited the satrap Abulites and his son, 
on the accusation of the Susians for plundering their temples 
and oppressing the people." Like many other satraps, they had 
thus acted under the belief that Alexander would not return to 
have a day of reckoning, and exercise control over those whom 
he had placed in authority. But Alexander was not only de- 
termined to punish the guilty, whether Macedonians or those of 
other nations, with impartiality, but also to make a strong effort 

' See vol. I., p. 228. * Ibid., p. 209. 

^ Arrian, Exp., lib. VI., cap. xxx. * Ibid. 

* Arrian, Ind., cap. xlii., and Exp., lib. VI., cap. xxiii., xxiv. 

" Ibid., lib. VI., cap. xxx. 


to settle the governnicut of his vast empire. The basis assumed, 
was at once novel and difficult, being the removal of na- 
tional distinctions, and of the assumption by the Greeks of 
superiority over conquered nations. Whilst in Egypt, he formed 
the project, which he was now about to put in execution, of 
bringing the people of his vast empire to coalesce as one nation, 
enjoying equal rights and privileges, though differing in religions, 
language, and manners; and marriages were to be part of the 
means of accomplishing this great object. Alexander had al- 
ready availed himself of the Macedonian custom of taking a 
wife from another state ; and as the Greeks were more than 
likely to be influenced by his example, he married Barsine or He marries 
Statira. He disposed of many noble maidens to Hephaestion, 
Nearchus, Craterus, and others ; and about 10,000 of his people 
appeared to receive their brides at a public wedding, including 
that of the monarch. This was celebrated in the Persian man- 
ner, with five days' festivities ; and not only were dowries 
bestowed upon all, but Alexander took this opportunity of 
paying the debts of his soldiers, to the amount, it is supposed, of 
five millions sterling.^ This was followed by the distribution Distributes 

£.1 1 1 . .1 • ,• f. honorary re- 

01 honorary crowns, and some changes in the organization oi compenses. 
the army ; the object of which will presently be seen, and for 
which the Epigoni, and the levies trained in the Grecian disci- 
pline, afforded ample materials. 

The partial use of the Persian language in the army, and the 
adoption of the Macedonian dress by Asiatics, gave umbrage to 
the European soldiers; and even the exercise of justice towards 
barbarians was a serious ground of complaint with the Macedo- 
nians. But, as will be seen, Alexander was prepared to meet 
the discontent which had been for some time ready to break out 
in the army. 

The grand project of opening, or rather extending, the exist- Reorganiza- 
ing commerce with eastern countries, was only second to the 
projected change by which the conqueror purposed, quietly, to 
substitute for the Macedonian army a more general organization 
of troops to be raised amongst the most warlike nations then 
under his dominion. 

' Arriaii, Exp., lib. VII., cap. iv., v. 

tion of the 


The employment of mercenary troops had long prevailed 
both in Macedonia and Greece, and the extension of this system 
was in fact adopted by Alexander soon after his career of con- 
quests commenced. The Agema, it will be remembered, did 
good service at the Issus, as well as in the subsequent struggle 
Mounted at Arbcla. To these the mounted archers and other levies were 
to the army, added ; for the practice of the principal nations in Asia, the 
Medes and Persians, had gradually overcome the prejudices 
entertained in the outset by Alexander against that species of 
troops. But we are nowhere informed at what period, during 
the retrograde march from the Hyphasis, the more sweeping 
change was planned. It has just been seen that it was first 
developed at Susa, where it was based upon a wide system of 
intermarriages, when his own union with Statira gave him an 
additional claim to the throne of Darius. 
Proofs that a The Other part of his plan, trade with India, undoubtedly 
India was Originated at a still earlier period — having been contemplated 
pkted!'°"^^™" when the Egyptian Alexandria was ordered to be constructed ; 
and the project itself must have been matured to a certain extent 
during his stay in Egypt_, since, in offering sacrifices to the gods 
at Cillutas on the Indus, Alexander announced that it was in 
conformity to directions given him by the oracle of Amnion.^ 
This circumstance also demonstrates that a visit to the shores 
of the eastern ocean had then been contemplated. The prayer 
offered that his fleet might prosperously make the voyage from 
the Indus to the Euphrates, Tigris, &c.,^ affords another argu- 
ment ; and the desire expressed as he passed through Pasargada 
and Persepolis to examine the two last rivers,^ completes the 
chain of circumstances. 

Alexander commenced the intended voyage by going on 
board the fleet, which lay ready at Susa, with his targeteers, the 
Agema, and some part of the auxiliary horse : with these he 
Alexander Sailed down the river Eulseus, leaving the greater part of his 
Euiseus. forces to march under Ilephfpstion. When not far from the 
mouth of this stream, he left those ships which were out of 
order, and taking the best, he sailed out into the ocean ; after- 

' Aniaii, lib. A''!., cap. xix. * Ibid. 

" Tbid., lib. VII., cap. i. 


wards, having entered the Tigris, he was joined by Hephsestion 
and the rest of the fleet, which for this purpose passed through 
a canal (now the Hafar) cut from the river he had descended.' 

A reference to the maps Nos. 10 and 11 will at once show 
that if the river here mentioned, namely, the Eulaeus, were The EuLtus 
represented by the modern Kerkhah, into which Alexander modem' '"^ 
might have passed his fleet from Susa, by means of a canal, the ^'*'"""- 
stream would at once have carried the vessels into the lower 
part of the Tigris, without the necessity of entering the latter 
river from the ocean, and the whole of the equipment would 
have been ready to ascend the latter stream without the neces- 
sity of entering it, as it is stated, through a canal.^ These 
objections do not, however, apply to the Kariin Proper, into 
which it will be seen from the map, that the fleet could have 
passed by two different channels, namely, either by a canal from 
Susa into the river Kerkhah, and from thence by the Maktiiah 
canal into the Kariin, or, more directly, along the river Shapiir. 

Presuming that it was the latter, Alexander would have been 
carried along this stream from the walls of Susa into the Kariin 
near Agines ; and following this river, then probably known 
first as the Eulceus, and afterwards as the Pasitigris, the fleet 
would pass through the lake, and again into the lower river, or 
old Kariin, which no doubt was the principal stream, although 
sending a bifurcation westward. Along the latter, Alexander 
sent the smaller and damaged vessels towards the Hafar canal, 
and descended, with those which were more efficient, along the 
greater arm. On reaching the sea through the estuary of the 
Kariin or Pasitigris, he turned westward, and ascended the Shatt 
el 'Arab to the western extremity of the Hafar, from whence, 
being rejoined by the rest of the fleet, he proceeded to the spot 
where Hepheestion and the rest of the army were encamped. 
From thence the united forces ascended along the trunk of the 
Tigris as far as the city of Opis; whose site may be looked for Opis probably 
a little below the ruins of Samarrah, or in about 34° 5' N. L. : of Samarrah!'^ 
but Arrian gives no particulars of this voyage, except that 
Alexander commanded all the weirs and other obstructions, 
which had impeded his ascent, to be removed, and the channel 

' Arriaiu lib. VII., cap. vii. ^ Ibid. 



EEFects of 
removing the 
river walls. 

seized and 

to be cleared.^ No doubt the bunds or dykes, which at intervals 
raise the water to a higher level for the purpose of irrigation, 
are alluded to, and some of these, such as those still to be seen 
below Opis, on the affluent of the 'Adhim,^ and others higher up 
in the Tigris,^ which run from side to side of the river, might 
have been mistaken for defensive works ; but this could scarcely 
have been the case with the ordinary irrigating walls, since they 
overlap and leave a passage in the centre to accommodate boats 
or rafts ; and through these, no doubt, the fleet of Alexander 
passed on this occasion. 

The removal of these walls would have been favourable to 
navigation ; but in other respects it was detrimental, and par- 
ticularly so by diminishing the productions of the country, to 
the increase of which the skill and industry of the Assyrians 
had been so successfully directed.* 

Here unfortunately a blank occurs in the narrative of Arrian 
and other historians respecting the first part of the march from 
Opis, and even the cause of its being undertaken. It is, how- 
ever, tolerably clear from the history of Diodorus Siculus, that 
the movement into Media instead of being homeward, brought 
things to a crisis by causing a decided outbreak, the whole army 
mutinously calling out to be discharged, and adding, in derision, 
that Alexander might enlist another Father Amnion for his 
future campaigns. Although Alexander could not have been 
quite unprepared for this conduct, never were his intrepidity and 
presence of mind so conspicuous as on this trying occasion ; for, 
descending from the tribunal, he rushed into the crowd, followed 
by those immediately round his person, and seizing thirteen of 
the ringleaders, he caused them to be executed on the spot.* 
This being done, Alexander returned to the tribunal, where he 
made an eloquent address to the troops, then terrified into a 
state of sullen silence and astonishment. He recounted what 
they had been, and the glorious conquests of the world which 
made them what they then were, having himself no other dis- 

' Arrian, lib. VII , cap, vii. * See above, vol. I., p. 30. 

^' Ibid., p. 21. " Sequel, chap. XIX. 

' Compare Arrian. lib. VII., cap. viii., with Died. Sic, lib. XVII., 
cap. Ixiv., and Quint. Curt., lib. X., cap. iii. 


tinction, after leading them over plains and mountains, lands 
and seas, than the purple robe and diadem : he added, in con- 
clusion, that all were welcome to return, and relate at home, 
that after sharing in all these glories they had deserted their 
king, leaving him to the care of the barbarians, whom, with him, 
they had conquered. 

After thus expressing himself, he hastily retired, and for Persian nobles 
three days remained secluded in his palace; but not idle, for commands ?n 
at the expiration of that time, being still without concessions ^^^ ^™y* 
from the army, he summoned the Persian nobility to the palace, 
and as the 30,000 Epigoni, and a similar number of other 
trained Asiatics, all in the prime of life, furnished ample means, 
he proceeded to execute the plan which had been gradually 
formed, of dispensing with the services of the Macedonians, and 
admitting the Asiatics to those common rights which had been 
hitherto denied by their conquerors. Accordingly he selected 
for the command of the several bodies of his army, chiefs from 
the different provinces of Persia, who assumed the rank and 
distinctions of the Greeks. In addition to the Persians already 
admitted into the royal companion cavalry, he formed a body 
of royal companion infantry, and another of noble Persians, who 
were called Argyraspides, from their silver shields. But the The Argyras- 
most galling circumstance was the renewal of the Persian body- 
guard called royal kinsmen, who alone, in former times, had 
the privilege of saluting the king of kings. This produced the 
most decided effect ; for after remaining two days under arms, • 
the troops hurried in a body towards the gates of the palace, 
and having piled their arras to show the nature of their appli- 
cation, they loudly implored the king to come forth, and declared 
their readiness to give up the surviving ringleaders. The king's 
victory being thus complete, a reconciliation followed, with a Alexander 
public banquet for Greeks and Asiatics ; and the establishment hlsTiacedo-^ 
of a separate force under Asiatic officers, henceforth enabled °^^^ soldiers. 
Alexander to preserve a balance between his old and new sub- 
jects, in conformity with the plans which he intended to carry 

A selection was now made of the Macedonians and others 
who were incapacitated for active service, more than 10,000 of 


whoMi were sent home under Craterus ; this favourite and dis- 
tinguished veteran being appointed, in order to remove the diffi- 
culties caused in the home government by the imperious and 
ambitious conduct of Olympias. 

Unfortunately, the succeeding part of Arrian's history is 
deficient, and Qaintius Curtius equally fails. Diodorus Siculus, 
however, partly supplies the blank, at least from Susa onward ; 
but we are quite left to conjecture the route by which Alex- 
ander proceeded from Opis to that capital. It is clear ^ that 
the meeting and subsequent despatch of the invalids took place 
at Opis, whither the vessels had ascended. The circumstance 
of the fleet being on the spot, and at one of the heads ^ of the 
Alexander famous Nahrawan, and water communications being the par- 
Nahrawdn ^ ticular objcct of Alexander, it is not impossible, as already 
into the hinted,^ that Alexander, with some of the flotilla which came 

Choaspes. ' ' 

from the Indus, may have passed along the canal in question 
into the ancient Choaspes; and this is the more probable, since 
it is stated that part of the fleet which afterwards assembled at 
Babylon had been brought thither from the Persian sea by 
the river Euphrates.'* 

For some cause or other, his presence having been called for 
in Media, Alexander marched thither from Susa ; taking the 
Route to Susa. easier but longer route, which for some time skirts the southern 
side of the Zagros, he passed through the villages of Charras 
and Sittacene in four days to Sambana. At this place, which 
appears to be represented by the ruins of Samarrah, once the 
capital of iMasabadan,^ Alexander halted seven days, and in 
four marches reached Celona?, a Boeotian colony, which, in the 
time of the expedition of Xerxes, settled at this place, now 
Sirwan, or Keililn.® After halting some days, the army 
^ resumed its march towards Baghistane (the place of gardens), 
a very fine country, producing everything required for the 

' Arrian, Exp., lib. VII., cap. viii. to xi. 

* At Kaim. See vol. I., pp. 27, 28. 
^ Ibid. 

* Arrian, Exp., lib. VII., cap. xix. 

* Died. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. Ixvii., and Major Rawlinson, vol. IX., 
p. 59 of Royal Geographical Journal. 

" Diod. Sic. lib. XVII., cap. Ixvii.. and Geographical Journal, pp. 55, 56. 


necessity or jDleasure of man.' As this place, the well-known visits Bag- 
Bisutiin, was passed by Semiramis on her way to Chaone or 
Kangawar, it would naturally attract Alexander's attention, 
who turned a little out of his "way for the purpose of visiting 
it," taking, probably for convenience, the route by the gates of 
Zagros, and the high table-land of Kirrind,' to the city in 

From thence he passed into the neighbouring province, 
which it is said formerly reared 1 50,000 horses ; but Alex- 
ander, who spent a month there, found about 60,000 only in 
these celebrated pastures, which probably are represented by 
the grazing grounds of Khawah and Alishtar.* In seven 
marches from the misnamed Nisaean Plains, Alexander reached 
the Median Ecbatana, Hamadan, where Hephsestion died, 
during the gymnic sports and carousals which usually took place 
after any considerable undertaking.^ 

Alexander was now about to return to the intended seat of 
his empire ; and in order to alleviate the grief arising from the 
loss of his friend, writes Plutarch, he undertook an expedition 
against the Cossseans ; and, dividing his army into two corps, 
notwithstanding the difficulties of their mountainous country 
and their strongholds, the warlike inhabitants were subjected in 
forty days, and Ptolemy, the second in command, was left to 
complete the task, by erecting forts, to deter the people from 
living, as before, by plundering their neighbours.^ The prin- The principal 
cipal seat of this ancient people seems to have been the rock cosl^ans at 
fort of Khorram-abad, once Diz Siyah, or Kiih Siyah, which Khorram- 
originated the title of Cossoean.' 

From these mountains, Alexander continued at a slow pace 
his march to Babylon, and was met on the way thither, as well 
as subsequently to his arrival, by envoys, whom the fame of 
his exploits, and apprehension of his power, had brought thither 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVII., cap. Ixvii. * Ibid. 

^ Ibid., and Geographical Journal, vol. IX., pp. 48, 49, and 112; and 
above, p. 116-118. 

* Geo. Journal, vol. ix., pp. 100, 101. * Diod. Sic, lib, XVIL, cap.lxvi. 

' Compare Quint. Curt., lib. X., cap. iv., with Arrian, Exp., lib. VII., 
cap. XV. ; Diod. Sic, lib. XVIL, cap. Ixix. ; Strabo, lib. II., p. 795. 

^ See vol. I., p. 206, and Royal Geographical Journal, vol. IX., p. 99. 



[chap. XI. 

proposes to 
gate Araliia 
and Africa. 

Babylon se- 
lected as the 
seat of the 

from Africa, Europe, Phoenicia, and almost every other part of 
the world ; and he entered the city to receive them, notwith- 
standing the adverse warnings and predictions of the Chal- 
deans,' who may have feared that the desolation predicted by 
Jeremiah would follow his visit.^ 

In the pride of success, new and enlarged projects of con- 
quest and undertakings by sea were contemplated by Alexander; 
Africa and the peninsula of Arabia were to be circumnavigated, 
as well as subjected, and the Caspian Sea explored ; new cities 
were to be built in Europe and in Asia, the former to be 
peopled with Asiatics and the latter with Europeans ; the 
wandering Arabs were to be brought into order, the river 
Euphrates to be navigated from Thapsacus, as the Eula^us 
had been to Susa, and the Tigris to Opis, as well as the canal 
between those cities; and, finally, a great port was to be 
formed at the destined capital of the world. The first object 
was entrusted to Nearchus, the second to Heraclides, who was 
to construct vessels in order to explore the waters of the Cas- 
pian, and ascertain whether, as stated by Herodotus a century 
before, it really was an inland sea.^ Miccalus was to bring 
seamen from Phoenicia, as well as vessels from Thapsacus, to 
animate the promising maritime commerce of Persia, &c., but 
the remainder, or the fourth part of his new and vast under- 
takings, he reserved for himself* 

As a central spot between India, Egypt, and the Medi- 
terranean, the capital of Darius Hystaspes was selected as the 
seat of the intended empire ; but as an extended commerce 
and the improvement of Babylonia were contemplated, a haven 
was ordered to be constructed at the seat of government, 
capable of containing 1,000 long galleys, which in the first 
instance were to be employed in punishing the Arabs, who had 
not even solicited his friendship, and were contented with their 
wild independence. 

Archias being sent, explored the Arabian coast to Tylos, and 

' Compare Diod. Sic, lib. XVIT., cap. Ixx., Ixxi., with Quint. Curt.., lib. X., 
cap. iv., Arrian, Exp., lib. VII., cap. xv., xvi., and Plutarch, vita Alexander. 

* .Jeremiah, chap. XXV., v. 12. ^ Lib. L, cap. cciii., cciv. 

* Arrian, Exp., lib. VII., cap. xix., xx. 


his successor, Aiidrosthenes, is supposed to have made his way 

round the peninsula to the Red Sea.' Alexander himself was 

employed in the same way nearer home, having in the first 

instance sailed down the river Euphrates, and then ascending 

the Pallacopas he entered Arabia, where he built a city, and A city built in 

placed in it those Greeks Avho were disabled.^ A canal was the disabled 

cut to prevent injury from inundations during the floodings at 

the summer solstice ; but being defective in its construction, too 

great a proportion of water found an exit by this channel at 

other times of the year. 

After having by personal examination ascertained the cause 
of the defect, Alexander determined to confer a lasting benefit 
on the Babylonians by giving them the means of commanding 
this outlet, and of regulating at pleasure the level of the water 
in the great river.^ 

As the original head of the Pallacopas was above Babylon, 
it probably commenced in a bend where there is a small river 
called Hawasin, on the right bank, which, no doubt, was in the 
precincts of the ancient city. Nearly five miles higher, where the 
river makes, as it approaches Suda island, a sharp bend south- 
ward, is the canal called Hindiyeh, going to Mesjid 'All and 
onward, parallel to the Euphrates. As this cut is nearly 
twenty-three miles below the Kuthah, it clearly corresponds 
with the separation described by Abii-1-feda as taking place 
six fiirsangs from that river,^ running through Kiifah, and from 
thence into the marshy country below, the ancient Paludes 

As the first opening had been cut through a light and oozy Defects of the 
soil, 10,000 men were usually employed for three months ^ ^°" * 
annually, and sometimes ineffectually, to stop this outlet when 
the water was required in the main channel. The new cut 
was through firm and rocky ground, probably at the spot above 
indicated (Hindiyeh), from whence it was carried into the old 
channel, the former inlet to which was effectually closed. Sub- 
sequently, after steering his own galley through the marshes, 
Alexander caused another head to be cut above them, from the 

' Arrian, Exp., lib. VII., cap. xx. " Quint. Curt., lib. X., cap. iv. 

^ Arrian, lib. VII., cap. xxi. 

* Another copy has seven. — Abii-1-feda ; ]MS. translation by Mr. Eassam. 


river below Babylon to the bed of the Pallacopas, probably 

near the city which he ordered to be built. At Manawiyah, 

nine or ten miles above Diwaniyah, there are the remains of a 

canal, possibly of the one in question, which is adapted to carry 

the stream clear of the marshes. 

A fxeet col- Of the fleet which Alexander was collecting, some of the 

Alexander on vessels wcrc brought, as we have seen, from the river Tigris 

t e uphrates. ^^^^ Susiaua ; souic wcrc transported from Phoenicia to Thap- 

sacus, in order that they might descend the Euphrates; and 

the rest were built of cypress wood on the spot. 

On returning from the exploratory voyage above mentioned, 
which probably took place during the floods of the succeeding 
season after his arrival, Alexander found that a second embassy 
had arrived at Babylon, with golden crowns, sent as presents 
from the Grecian republics, and also with large reinforcements 
from Greece, Lydia, and Caria, to supply those who were 
lately discharged. Peucestas also arrived with 20,000 Persians, 
besides a body of Cossseans and Tapurians.^ The leading 
object of Alexander's studious care, the formation of the fleet, 
was now far advanced ; and but little was wanting to unite his 
subjects on the Indus, the Euphrates, and the Nile, by the 
powerful interests of commerce, when he was cut off" in the 
prime of life, after an unexampled career of glory. A fever, 
He dies of a caught in the marshes of Lamliim, cut short those great pro- 
[rthemaiShcs.J^^^^' which Only could have been planned by the vast and 
capacious mind of this mighty conqueror, who had never 
known anything like failure in his plans, or a defeat in either a 
battle or a siege. 

Some account of the great river which had been navigated 
by Alexander, and was also one of his chief objects of interest, 
Sources of the will uot here be out of place. The Indus, or Sindus," has its 
springs in two great arms towards the southern borders of 
Tibet, on the slopes of the great range which, more westward, 
is known as the Buliit Tagh, or Cloudy Mountains,^ and here as 
the Himalaya.'* 

The water-shed of tiiis parent range seems to be on the 

' Arrian., lib. VII., cap. xxiii. * niny? lib. VI., cap. xx. 

^ See above, vol. I., p. 161. 

* A part of the Caucasus, called Paropamisus. — Pliny, lib. VI., cap. xx. 


northern side, and is marked by the two contiguous sacred Sources of the 
lakes, Mepang:, or Manas Sorowar, and Rawan Rhud ; from 
which mountain basin, or its vicinity, come four noble rivers, 
viz., in a western direction, the great river Sanpoo, or Brahma- 
pootra ; the Gogra, or Ganges, flowing south-east ; the Sutlej, 
running south-westward ; and the Indus. 

The last, called also the Singzing-kampa or Eckhung-choo 
river, apparently commences a few miles north-westward of the 
lake, with which it may have a communication. About seventy 
miles onward it receives the other branch, the Sing-he-tsiu, The Sing-he- 
and continues to flow in the same direction, for about 200 addi- branch, 
tional miles, to the town of Leh, or Li. A little beyond this 
place it receives the Seechoo, or Lingtee, a considerable tributary 
coming from the south-south-east ; and again, about sixty miles 
onward in the same direction, it receives another river on the 
opposite side, which flows first southward from the Kara Korum 
mountains in Tibet; then, by a bold sweep westward, and after- 
M'ards southward, it enters the main stream ; but little more is 
known than its bare name, the Shayuk. 

About sixty miles onward, the united waters take a western The Indus 
direction for a like distance, and then bend southward as this Himalaya 
great stream breaks through the Indian Caucasus, or Himalaya. ^^°^^' 
Here, taking the name of the Sinde, it inclines a little to the 
west, passing Kaspatyrus to Attock ; just short of which place 
it receives the only considerable stream coming from the 
western side, namely, the Kabul river.' When clear of the 
mountains near Attock, the river, which is of a considerable 
breadth and contains a great volume of water, washes for about 
seventy miles the abutments of the Afghan mountains on one 
side, and the great plain on the other, as far as the village of 
Maree. Having passed the Salt range near this place, the 
great river separates for a time into three and sometimes four 
channels, which, after continuing parallel at a short distance 
from one another, reunite near the town of Xowakot, in about 

32° 10' :n'. L. 

Continuing a southerly course, nearly parallel to the Hala its course 
mountains, and having a small part of the great plains inter- ^°"^ "^^^ ' 
' See vol. I., p. 170. 
VOL. II. 2 B 


vening on the right side, the Sindus, or Indus, passes Dera 
Isinael Khan and Kakuree, where it is 1,000 yards broad and 
twelve feet deep. From thence it flows southward by Leia to 
Dera Ghazee Khan, and onward to Mittun, just short of which 
place it is joined by the united waters of the Panj-ab, which 
give it a south-western direction, after having enriched the 
, large and fertile tract of country bearing that name.^ The 
principal of the streams, the Sutlej, or ancient Hesidrus, comes 
from Lake Rawan Ehud, not far from the source of the parent 
stream, and after flowing to the west, along the northern slopes 
of the Himalaya, breaks through this range in a south-v/esterly 
direction : it continues to flow through a mountainous country 
Joined by the to Hurrekcc, where it is joined by the river Beas, the upper 
Hurrekee. part of the Celebrated Hyphasis, which flows south-westward 
from the slopes of the Himalaya to the point of junction. 

After receiving this stream near Hurrekee, the Sutlej con- 
tinues the previous course, passing a little westward of Fero- 
zepiir, and so on to Fulehpur, Bhawulpilr, and Ooch. Latterly, 
however, this stream has been better known as the Ghara than 
by the » previous name of the Sutlej. The Beas, Beeah, or 
Bypasa, no doubt represents the Hyphasis of Alexander, which 
appears to have had a separate channel to the northward, 
flowing usually at the distance of about twenty miles, and 
nearly parallel to the present channel, from the neighbourhood 
Junction of of Hurrekcc, till it falls into the present bed. This takes place 
and the just bcforc its juiictiou with the Chinab,, whose trunk brings 

thither the united waters of the other three rivers of the 
Panj-ab. The Chinab, once the Akesines, and the largest of 
the streams,^ appears to have its source in 78° E. L., from 
whence it flows north-westward along the southern slopes of 
the Himalaya, till, at Kishtawar, on the borders of Kashmir, 
it takes a south-western direction, nearly dividing the territory 
of Lahore as it flows by Jumbo, Vezir-abad, Jelalpiir, to Lai 
Kango and Trumoo ferry, where it receives the western river, 
the Jailum, or Hydaspes. This considerable arm, which, 
according to Pliny, is the recipient of the other stream,'' 

' Burncp, vol. III., p. 139, of Royal Geographical Jotirnal. 
- Ibid., p. 147. * Lib. VI., cap. xx. 



appears to be formed by three branches coming through Affluents of 
Kashmir, namely, the Suti, which springs north of the *''*' ^^'°'^^" 
Himalaya, and the Pir Panj-ab, and the Jailum, or Behut, 
both of M'hich rise southward of that range. The last passes 
through Kashmir itselfj at some distance westward of which it 
receives the Sutf, and, bending southward, is joined by the 
Pir-Panj-ab, ten or twelve miles short of Jailum, and the sup- 
posed site of Bucephala.^ From hence, inclining a little west- 
ward, the Behui, or Bedusta, and also the Jailum, or Hydaspes, 
flow to the battle-ground of Nika^a (near Jelalpiir), from 
whence they run for a time to the south-west, and again south- 
ward into the Chinab, at the ferry already indicated. 

Preserving the latter name, the trunk takes a south-westerly Meets the 
course for nearly sixty miles, till it meets the last of the so- ?ear sSee. 
called five rivers a little below Biralee. This stream, the 
ancient Hydraotes, and now the Ravi, appears to rise on 
the borders of the district of Lahoul. It flows westward to 
Chuniba, where it takes a south-west course by Noorpiir, 
Lahore, and onward, by an exceedingly tortuous course, to the 
point of junction already mentioned. Preserving the name 
of the central branch, it flows south-westward, passing near 
Alultan, and, having afterwards received the Ghara, the 
Chinab takes the name of the Panj-nud, till this appellation, 
as well as its Avaters, are lost in those of the Indus. 

With the accession of the Panj-ab tributaries, the Indus Magnitude of 
presents a great body of water as it flows onward, its breadth receiving ^he^ 
often exceeding 1,000 yards,- with a depth of fifteen feet and pJnP^Sf ^^® 
upwards; and it forms several islands in its south-western 
course from Mittun to the bend at Duturna, below Bukkur 
and Ravi. Below these towns, and near to Larkhanu, the 
bifurcation of the Narra takes place ; the branch continues at 
first nearly parallel to the great stream, both afterwards 
inclining more westward, and again southward, and they 
reunite at Sehwan, once Sindomana,^ below Lake Manchur, 

' Pliny, lib. VI., cap. xx. 

- Memoir on the Indus, by Sir Alexander Burnes, vol. III., p. 135, of 
Royal Geographical Journal. 
" Ibid., p. 138. 

2 B 2 



The Indus 
flows near 

It enters the 
sea by six 

after forming a succession of islands on the main stream, 
which is frequently three-quarters of a mile broad, with a 
current of about two miles and a half per hour."' Here the 
Indus takes a south-easterly direction as far as Sallarah, from 
whence it flows southward, passing near the western side of 
Haider-abad, and on to Banna, but sending previously the 
Feleili branch through the former city, and thence south-south- 
eastwards by Kotri to the sea at the Kdre mouth. Banna may 
be considered as the apex of the existing delta, one side being 
formed by the Pinyari or Goongroo river, which runs south- 
south-eastward by Maghribi to its estuary, called the Sir ; and 
the other is the main river, which during its onward course 
sends out five branches on the western, and a short one, namely, 
the Mall, near its termination, on its eastern side. One of the 
former, which is now usually dry, runs westward from T'hat'hah 
(Tattah) till it meets the Garah river, which flows from that 
place to the vicinity of Karachee. The next, called the Bagar, 
is sent out a little below T'hat'hah, and it has a south-western 
course till it falls into the sea by six mouths, which are open, 
and more or less navigable, during the season of floods. These, 
taking them from west to east, are the Piti, now almost closed, 
the Dub'hu, the Khan, the Pintiyani, the Juwah, and the 
Richel ; the third is the Titiyah, which quits the trunk thirty- 
five miles from the sea, and runs south-eastward, with a channel 
of thirty yards wide, and a stream about two feet deep only, in 
the dry season. It terminates in the Richel river, below the 
villages of Kdteri and Be'man-Jo-poro. The fourth is the 
Hajamari, or, as it is called, the upper part of the Siyahan river, 
which is the most winding and intricate, yet presenting more 
facilities for navigation than any of the other branches. It 
quits the parent stream about twenty-two miles direct distance 
from the sea, and makes a tortuous course to Bander Yikkar, 
or Bciri Gora, which, although a miserable place, has consider- 
able trade. It subsequently makes a winding course, as before, 
in the general direction of west-south-west, to its funnel-shaped 
estuary, which is twenty miles from thence. There are only 

' Memoir on tlie Indus, by Sir Alexander Burnes, vol. IIT., p. 132, of 
Royal Geographical Jonrnal. 


seven and a half feet water on the bar at high tide, but nowhere 
within it, is there less than twelve feet as far as Vikkar. 

The fifth river is the Iv'hediwari, which diverges sixteen The K'hedi- 
miles below the preceding branch, and reaches the sea after an 
irregular west-south-western course. The entrance of the 
K'hediwari is formed by a channel of four miles long, and 
from 600 to 800 yards broad, with a depth of sixteen or 
eighteen feet at high tide ; and about three miles within the 
bar it receives the Ad'hiyarf, coming from the parent stream, 
over which it has, in consequence, some advantages. Revert- 
ing to the latter, after sending out the Bagar, it flows 
south-south-westward to its estuary, the Kiikewari mouth, 
which is about fifty-five miles from thence by the stream and 
forty-eight in a direct line. It takes the name of Wanyani 
below Hajamari, and that of Manija as it approaches the The Maniji 
estuary. At present there is but one entrance, which varies ^^^^ ' 
from 1,100 yards to one mile and a half wide, with two 
channels, the preferable of which is 500 yards broad at the 
outer, and 130 yards wide at the interior side: it has a depth 
of from twelve feet to three fathoms and a half, and a current 
in the dry season of less than three miles and a half per hour, 
which is increased to seven miles and one-tenth at the maximum 
during the freshes. The Hajamari and the K'he'diwari are, 
however, the only other mouths which may be entered during 
the dry season. 

But at no very distant period, the mass of the waters of the Changes 
Indus appear to have passed along the Bagar channel, from tikeVpiace^at 
which four beds, now dry, appear to have carried a portion of the Uuius^^^ 
the stream south-eastward across what is the existing main 
channel, and onward to the sea, discharging at the Wari, the 
Kajah, the Riidah, and the Kha'i mouths. Besides these 
alterations, the fact of extensive changes having occurred is 
placed beyond doubt by a large vessel, the Fateh Jang, once 
carrying forty guns, being found near the village of 'Ali-abad,' 
besides the embedded hull of a gun-brig near Sikkar; " both 

' Vol- VIII., p. 348, of Royal Geographical Journal. 
* Ibid., vol. X., p. 530. 



[chap. XI. 

Rise, and de- 
crease of the 

being at some distance from any of the existing arms. But a 
great and rapid river, bringing dovm three cubic inches of 
alluvium to a cubic foot of water, on a flat open coast, ^ is suf- 
ficient to account for these remarkable alterations, and for the 
circumscribed width of the present delta. The 1,000 stadia 
mentioned by Arrian,- if taken from the higher ground near 
the Piti mouth, would reach to the coast of Kach'h in about 
69° E. L., from whence it is a like distance to Haider-abad ; 
possibly, therefore, the apex of the Delta and the port of 
Pattala may have been somewhere near that city. 

The Indus begins to rise, and increases gradually, from the 
23rd of March, but is subject to a slight decrease occasionally 
up to Julv, during which month, and the early part of the 
following, there is no decrease ; and on the 7th of August it is 
at the highest, the maximum total rise being 15 feet 2-8 inches. 
During the rest of the month, and most of the following, the 
fall is tolerably regular, with an increase occasionally, till the 
22nd, when there is a second maximum rise of 13 feet 11*5 
inches ; after which it is on the decrease, with a good deal of 
regularit)', to the 23rd of JMarch. 
Times of ap- The delta of the Indus is exposed to gales in February, but 
delta from the it may bc approachcd occasionally till the middle of March, or 
^^^' even towards the end of April, ^ and of late, by steamers, up to 

June, but Avith much difficulty, being then flooded for some miles 
inward at high tide. About 100 vessels are profitably employed 
in fishing on this coast, but almost entirely from the beginning 
of October to the middle of March, during which period there 
is neither difficulty nor danger on the coast of Sinde.^ Land 
and sea breezes prevail alternately, at this period,^ with cold 
■weather; and the tides are everywhere extremely irregular.^ 

' The Ind'is conveys to the sea annually 10,503,587,000 cubic feet of 
mud. — Commander Carless, vol. YIII., p. 356, of Royal Geograpliical 

* Lib. VI., cap. xx. 

' Commander Carless, vol. VIII., pp. 331, 332, of Royal Geograpliical 

■* During the months of June, July. August, and part of September, the 
communication between Bombay and Sinde may be said to be cut off. 

* Commander Carless, vol. VIII., p. 331, of Royal Geographical Journal. 


The boat in use, called a dilndi, is well adapted for the Construction 
navigation of the river and the transport of goods. The shape the lujus!^ °° 
is peculiar, being without a keel, flat-bottomed ; and both the 
bow and stern, which are perfectly flat, rise from the water at 
an angle of about 30°, to suit the shelving banks of the river. 
It is rigged with a square sail aft, and a lateen sail forward, 
and is steered by means of a large triangular rudder, hung over 
the slanting stern : the largest are eighty feet long, and carry 
sixty tons, drawing only four feet water. For want of better 
materials, the boats of the Indus are formed of innumerable 
small pieces of wood, fastened by bamboo pegs, and they are 
consequently liable to accidents ; but any great deviation from 
the principle of their construction would not be an improve- 
ment.^ Between Bukkur and Mittun, the boat most in use, 
called a zohruy, is built of the talee tree, of an oblong square 
shape, flat-bottomed, and rounded at the extremities. Some 
exceed eighty feet in length and twenty in width, with only 
one mast.' 

Ever since the time of Alexander, this great stream and its 
tributaries have been navigated by the above kind of flat boat, 
in one of which the late enterprising Burnes ascended at the 
favourable season to Lahore, a distance of nearly 950 miles, in 
sixty days.^ 

The ordinary trade is carried on at a moderate rate, namely. Trade on the 
twelve or thirteen shillings for 15 cwt, from Bander-Vikkar °'^"^' 
to Shikarpiir. The distance is about 390 miles, chiefly 
through a delta, which, owing to the changes constantly taking 
place at its estuary, is beset with difficulties. But the river 
has now become known by the careful surveys of Commander 
Carless and Lieutenant Wood, of the Indian Navy ; and, fol- 
lowing the steps of the late Sir Alexander Burnes, a steamer 
has ascended as high as Yezir-abad, on the Chinab, a distance 
of about 1,000 miles; while, on another occasion, the Meanee 
steamer reached Ferozepiir, on the Sutlej, and more recently 

' Commander Carless, vol. VIII., p. 355, of Royal Geographical Journal. 
* Sir A. Burnes, vol. III., p. 135, of Royal Geographical Journal. 
^ Vol. III., p. 113, of Royal Geographical Journal. 



Manner of 
troops to 

the capital (Lahore) : troops, also, are constantly conveyed 
by steamers to reinforce or relieve our stations near Ha'ider- 
abad. This is sometimes effected by crossing the bar with 
one of the river steamers to meet the larger one outside, but 
more generally by marching from Karachee to the lower part 
of the Bagar, there to embark. But this difficulty, and also 
the passage of the bars, might be avoided, by cutting a canal 
from Karachee to some part of the trunk of the Indus : this 
would require but a moderate amount of labour, and would 
greatly facilitate our growing commerce on the river. 

Adverting to what has been said on page 252, a careful 
computation of the routes of the army has given the following 
approximative tables of the 

Marches of Alexander the Great. 


European Routes. 

Pella to Widdin, below Lom, on the Danube 

Back a^ain to Pella 

From Pella to Thebes 

From Thebes to Dia 

From Dia to the Hellespont 

Total . . . 

Routes in Lesser Asia. 

From the Hellespont to the Graniciis 

The Granicus to Ilium 

Ilium to Sardis 

Sardis to Ephesus 

Ephesus to Halicarnassus 

Halicarnassus to Alindae and Makri . 
Makri to Xantlius and Telmissus 

Telmissus to Mount Climax 

Mount Climax to Salagassus 

Salagassus to Celsene 

Celaene to Yerma, probably Gordium 

Gordium to Ancyra 

Ancyra (higli route) to the Camp of Cyrus . 
Tlie Camp of Cyrus to Tarsus .... 
Tarsus into Rugged Cilicia and back 
Tarsus to Myriaudros and back to the Issus 

Total . . . 

Carried forward 





Broutrht forward 

Routes in Si/ria. 

From the Issus by Aradus to Tyre . 

Tyre to Jaffa 

Jafi'a to Jerusalem 

Jerusalem to Gaza 

Gaza to Pelusium 

Total . . . 

Routes in Africa. 

Pelusium to Memphis 

Memphis to the Sea ....... 

The Sea to Paraetonius 

Paraetonius to the Temple of Ammon 

Ammon to Memphis 

Total . . . 

Routes through Syria and Mesopotamia. 

Memphis to Pelusium and Gaza .... 

Gaza to Tyre 

Tyre to Aradus 

Aradus to Antioch 

Antioch to Tliapsacus 

Thapsacus to Haran, Mardin, and Eski Mdsul 

Eski Mosul to Arbela 

Arbela to the Tigris, at the Great Zab . 

The Great Zab to Opis 

Opis to Babylon 

Babylon to Susa 

1 "otal . . . 

Persian Routes. 

Susa to the Pasitigris 

The Pasitigris, north-eastward to M;il-Amir 
The Uxian city to Kal'eh Sefid .... 

Kal'eh Sefid to Persepolis 

Persepolis to Ecbatana (Hamadan) . 
Hamadan, by Rliagai, to the Caspian Gates . 
The Caspian Gates to Hecatompylos . 

Hecatompylos to Zadracarta 

During the campaign of the Mardi and Reten 

Tlience to Zadracarta 

Zadracarta to Susia in Aria 

Susia in Aria to Herat 

Herat to Prophthasia (now Peshawarun) 
Peshawarun to U'lan Robat, or Sliahri-Zohak 

U'lan Robat to Kabul 

Kabul to Beghram 

Total . . . 

Carried forward 































Brought forward 



Routes in Bactriana. 

Beghram to Inderab 


Inderab, or Drepsa, to Balkh, Bactra or Zariaspa 


Zariaspa to Karshi, or ISautaka 


iN^autaka to ]\Iaracanda, or Samarkand . 


Samarkand to tlie River Jaxartes. 


March into the Fergana district 


Second campaign to Gaza, Cyropolis, and Eschata 


Eschata to Polytimetus River and Zariaspa . 


Zariaspa to Maracanda and Nautaka 


Kautaka to Kurghan-Tippa 


Kurghan-Tippa to Merw-el-Rud . . . • 


Merw-el-Rud to the Rock of Oxjartes . 


The Rock of Oxyartes to Zariaspa .... 


Zariaspa to Beghram 


Total .... 
Routes West and East of the Indus. 




J \J\Jx. 

Beghram to Kabul and Attock 


Attock to Taxila 


Taxila to the Hydaspes 


The Hydaspes to tlie Hydraotes ..... 


The Hydraotes to Sakala and the Hyphasis . 


Tlie Hyphosis, back to the Hydaspes 


The Hydaspes to the confluence of the Akesines 


The Akesines to the Malli, and back to theHydraotes 


Descent of the Hydraotes and Indus .... 


Total .... 
Routes in I' ran. 



From the Indus to Susa 


Susa to the Sea 


The Sea to Opis 


Opis to Susa 


Susa to Baghistan 


Baghistan to Hamadan 


40 days* campaign against the Cossseans 


Hamadan to Babylon 


Total .... 



TCU 1 



( 370 ). 



State of the Empire at the time of Alexander's Death. — Threatened Hos- 
tilities. — Arrangements for the Succession. — The various Governors retain 
their situations. — Roxana puts Statira and her Sister to Death. — Eumenes 
enters Cappadocia. — Death of Perdiccas. — Defeat and Blockade of 
Eumenes. — Invasion of Phoenicia, and March towards Babylonia. — The 
Army of Eumenes escapes from an Inundation, and enters Susiana. — 
Eurydiceand Philip put to Death by Olympias. — Campaigns in Susiana. — 
March through the Cossaean Mountains. — Campaign in Media. — Drawn 
Battle, and Death of Eumenes. — Antigonus settles the minor Govern- 
ments. — Combinations against, and Preparations of Antigonus. — Antigonus 
marches into Asia Minor. — Demetrius Defeated near Gaza. — The Kaba- 
theaus, and Expeditions of Antigonus against Petra. — Roxana and her 
son Alexander murdered by Cassander. — Barsine, Hercules, and Olympias 
put to Death. — Antigonus and the other successors of Alexander assume 
regal titles. — Expeditions of Antigonus and Demetrius: they proceed 
against Egypt, and are repulsed. — Demetrius besieges Rhodes, and fails 
in repeated Attacks, — Sieges of Fortresses in ancient and modern times. — 
Seleucus extends ins Empire into India. — His Treaty with Sandrocottus, 
and March into Asia Minor. — Forces assembled under Seleucus and 
Antigonus near Ipsus. — Result of the Battle.— Subdivision of Alexander's 
Empire into four great Kingdoms. — Demetrius is taken, and dies in 
Captivity. — Death and Character of Seleucus. — Accession of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus. — Prosperity of Egypt under this Monarch. 

The voyage of Nearchus, and especially the preceding cam- a knowledge 
paigns of Alexander, had made eastern Persia and the ad- ,ived ftom" 
joining countries practically known to the Greeks ; but the ^Im^^vms^ 
knowledge thus acquired of these regions would have speedily 
passed away, had it not been preserved by the subsequent wars : 
it was at the same time turned to account by the commercial 
relations which in consequence sprang up. The protracted and the wars 
contests for dominion which followed the mitimely death ofsois. 
Alexander must, however, claim immediate notice, since they 




Joint regal 



The several 

retain their 

Tloxana puts 
her rivals to 
deatli, and 
gives birth to 
a sou. 

took place in the kingdoms lying between the Nile and the 
Indus, which had submitted to the power of the conqueror. 

Alexander appears to have anticipated these fearful struggles, 
for in bequeathing his colossal empire to him who should prove 
the bravest, he added, that his generals, in fighting one with 
another, would offer ample funereal sacrifices to his manes.^ 

Scarcely had a reign of unparalleled conquests terminated 
with these words, when Perdiccas, to whom the king had con- 
fided his signet, commenced operations at the head of the 
cavalry, by surrounding the phalanx, which was then under 
Meleager, in Babylon. 

Bloodshed, however, was for the moment averted by the 
prudent efforts of Eumenes, the late king's secretary ; and as 
no individual could expect support from his competitors for 
power, all agreed to the proposal that Arida?us, the natural 
brother of Alexander, should share the regal office jointly with 
the expected son of Boxana; an infirmity of mind to which the 
former was subject, and the prospective infancy of the latter, 
having united all suffrages in their favour. It was at the same 
time decided that a magnificent procession should convey 
Alexander's remains into Africa,^ and that Taxiles and the 
other Asiatic chiefs should retain their satrapies, as part of the 
intended empire ; ^ while its western portions were severally to 
continue under Ptolemy, Antigoims, Eumenes, and others. 
It was also determined neither to construct the pyramidal 
monument to Philip, nor the six splendid temples which were 
to have been raised, nor even the thousand long ships which 
had been intended to command the shores of the Mediterranean; 
and thus the ample funds which had been expressly left by 
Alexander for these purposes, became available for other 
objects. With the decision to make these changes regarding 
the intentions of the late king, the momentary unanimity of his 
captains terminated. 

Boxana, shortly after endeavouring to secure the regal suc- 
cession by putting to death Statira and Drypetis, the daughters 
of Darius, gave birth to a son, in whose name, jointly with that 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVIII., cap. i. 
' Ibid. 

Ibid., cap. ii. 


of Aridcuus, now called Philip, the government was nominally 
carried on ; the real power, however, was exercised by lloxana, 
assisted by Perdiccas. 

After quelling an insurrection in Greece, and another in Eumencs con- 
Thrace, Perdiccas turned his attention towards Cappadocia ; in CitppaUoda. 
when, the strongholds of Isaura and Laranda being taken, and 
Ariarathes, the king, crucified by his orders, he entrusted the 
government of that kingdom to Eumenes. Leaving him to 
prosecute the war, Perdiccas proceeded to invade Egypt, now 
become a consolidated kingdom. Eumenes, in the mean time, 
being appointed generalissimo of Caria, Lycia, and Cappadocia, 
had organized an army, with which, in the first instance, he 
defeated and killed Craterus, and ten days later he gained a 
more signal battle over Neoptolemus.' 

But these successes were not sufficient to turn the scale in invasion of 
favour of his chief, Perdiccas, whose unjust attack upon murder 'of 
Ptolemy, in Egypt, terminated in his defeat, after which he P^''^^*=*="^' 
was put to death by his own troops. Antipater, who was now 
chosen sole protector of the kingdom, with sovereign power, 
proceeded to make the following allotment of the provinces, 
*:he details of which are calculated to show the vastness of the 

Ptolemy retained Egypt, and Laomedon Syria ; Philoxenus Antipater dis- 
had Cilicia ; Amphimachus obtained Mesopotamia and Arbi- provinces of 
litis ; Babylon fell to Seleucus, the commander of the troops p|^ 
called companions ; and Susiana to Antigonus.^ With regard 
to the eastern portion of the empire, Peucestas received 
Persia; Tlepolemus, Carmania; Stasander, Aria and Drangia; 
Philip, Parthia ; Stasanor, Bactria and Sogdia ; Syburtius, 
Aracosia; Oxyartes had the region of Paropamisus, while 
Pithon had Media and the tract eastward from thence to 
India, in which region Porus and Taxiles retained their former 
possessions. In Western Asia, Nicanor received Cappadocia ; 
Phrygia Major, and the tracts near the coast, were given to 
Antigonus, Caria to Cassander, Lydia to Clitus, Lesser 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVIII., cap. xi., compared with Plufarcli, in vita 

- Diod. Sic, lib. XVIIl., cap. xiii. 

the new em- 



Antigonus de- 
feats Eumenes 
in Cappadocia. 

B. C. 31S. 

assumes the 
offensive in 

13. C. 317. 

inarches alonj 
tlie Tigris, 
and encamps 
near the Hiii. 

Phrygia to Aridseus. Cassander was appointed general of the 
horse, and the command of the household troops was given 
to Antigonus, with orders to prosecute the war against 
Eumenes, who, on account of his fidelity, was now reputed a 
public enemy.^ The latter lost no time in preparing to defend 
himself; and Antigonus immediately marched into Cappadocia, 
where he gained a decided and well-contested victory over 
Eumenes. Defeated, but not discouraged, the latter retreated 
into Phrygia, where he defended the castle of Nora~ so suc- 
cessfully, that Antigonus, although at the head of 60,000 
infantry and 19,000 cavalry, was glad to grant him very 
favourable terms. The faithful Eumenes now received the 
appointment of commander of the king's forces in Asia,^ and 
immediately commenced extensive preparations for the coming 
campaign. By unremitting exertions he collected about 15,000 
men ; and hoping to maintain the royal cause, he hastened to 
take the bold step of commencing operations on the side of 
PhcEnicia, which was at the moment invaded by Ptolemy; but 
finding himself deprived of the expected support of the king's 
fleet, in consequence of its recent defeat on that coast, and 
having besides to contend with the forces of Antigonus, who 
had followed him thither, he placed the river Euphrates be- 
tween his troops and those of his antagonist, and then took 
post at the neighbouring city of Carrhae. 

The inactive season was employed in preparations for the 
approaching campaign ; and amongst other appeals to the sup- 
posed adherents of the royal cause, embassies were sent to the 
satrap of Media, and to Seleucus, the governor of Babylonia. 

Early in the spring, in consequence of the equivocal answer 
of the latter, Eumenes marched against him at the head of 
20,000 men, hoping to seize the treasures of Susa, and at the 
same time to receive reinforcements from the upper satrapies. 
With these objects in view, he appears to have advanced along 
the Tigris, till he encamped on its banks at about 300 stadia 
from Babylon. The distance here given'' nearly corresponds 
with that between the city and the Tigris at the bifurcation of 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XVIII., cap. xiii. 
Ibid., cajj. xvii. 

Ibid., cap. .\vi. 

Ibid., lib. XIX., cap. iv. 


the Hai, near which he, no doubt, intended to cross the prin- 
cipal stream. 

Whilst collecting boats for this purpose, it appears that Perilous situa- 
oeleucus cut a dyke, probably that oi the canal in question menes' army. 
which crosses this part of Mesopotamia. The country was in 
consequence so rapidly inundated, that it was only by occupying 
some elevated ground, and by the speedy use of boats at the 
same time, that Eumenes saved his troops from destruction, 
and gained the left bank, leaving his baggage behind.' The 
latter was, however, recovered the next day, when Eumenes 
found means to restore the dyke and drain the water. Seleucus, 
finding that his stratagem had failed, was glad to make a truce, 
and his opponent immediately occupied Susiana, dividing his 
army into three corps, to facilitate the means of obtaining 
supplies,^ whilst he awaited the expected reinforcements from 
the upper provinces. 

Antigonus still hoped by a rapid march to recover what had 
been lost by the skill and boldness of his g,dversary ; but 
arriving too late, he employed the winter season, which had 
now arrived, in concerting measures with Seleucus and Pithon 
for another campaign.^ 

Whilst thus occupied, events occurred elsewhere Avhich were 
well calculated to hasten, if they did not give rise to, those 
bloody contests which ere long convulsed the empire from one 
extremity to the other. 

At the instance of Polysperchon, Olympias returned from oiympias puts 
Epirus, her place of banishment, to Macedonia, and having EurvSiceto 
obtained possession of Philip, as well as of her rival Eurydice, *^^'*''^- 
she treated the captives with the greatest rigour,^ and after- 
wards caused them to be put to death : thus terminated the 
nominal reign of Philip, after a period of six years and a half." B.C. 317. 

One barrier to his ambition being thus removed, Antigonus, Antigonns 
the self-appointed regent, moved early in the spring towards i^oJa.^ ^ ^' 
Babylonia, taking his whole force, including the contingents of 
Seleucus and Pithon. Having crossed the Tigris in boats,* he 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XIX., cap. iv. 

^' Ibid. 

^ Ibid. 

* Ibid., cap. V, 

* Ibid., cap. vi. 



Marches to the 
river Coprates. 

Eumenes by 
a manoeuvre 
routs the 

retreats to 

He assumes 
the ofi'euiiive. 

directed his march on the capital, to encounter Eumenes, and 
the reinforcements drawn by him from Carmania, Ariana, 
Drangiana, &c. 

Finding a determined resistance, he left a body of troops to 
besiege the castle of Susa, and advancing against Eumenes, he 
exposed his army to a trying march from thence to the river 
Coprates, at a season when the heat was at the greatest, and 
everything completely burnt up. Using boats, and rafts formed 
of inflated skins, which were propelled by means of poles, 
6,000 horse and 2,000 foot were transported across the lower 
part of the stream in question, probably the river of Diz, with 
orders to excavate a ditch and prepare a camp within it for the 
whole army. Eumenes, who was posted behind a river, pro- 
bably the Karun (here called the Tigris'), and only eighty 
stadia from the enemy, was perfectly aware of all that was 
taking place, and determined, in conformity with the tactics of 
the school in which he had been educated, to make the best of 
his position by becoming the assailant. He therefore crossed the 
Tigris (Kariin) at the head of 4,000 foot and 1,500 horse, where 
he found 6,000 men collecting forage, under the protection of 300 
cavalry and 3,000 infantry : these he attacked and routed, 
before there was even time to form, causing the whole to fly in 
the greatest disorder. Antigonus and the rest of his forces, 
after an ineffectual effort to cover or protect the fugitives, were 
obliged to witness the sudden destruction of 4,000 men, who 
by rushing headlong into the boats, and causing the greater 
part to sink, either perished in the water or were taken pri- 
soners, without the possibility of receiving assistance. Nor 
was the loss confined to those killed and drowned, for numbers 
were sacrificed by exposure to the sun during the subsequent 
retreat to Badaca.^ After reposing here for a short time, 
Antigonus put the army in motion, and proceeded towards 
Media, that he might be near the provinces from which he was 
to receive reinforcements. In this march he had choice of two 
routes, the longer and easier of which ho determined to avoid, 
because it would have exposed his troops to the heat of the sun 

' The Pasitij2^ris of Quint, Curt, and Arrian. 
^ Diocl. Sic, lib. XIX., cap. vi. 


for forty davs : he therefore preferred to move by the shorter March 

•' ' ^ , n \_ r^ through the 

and more dirhcult route through the country oi the Uossajans, cossican 
his intention being to force his way, contrary to the advice of * 
Pithon, who suggested that he should endeavour to purchase 
the good will of these hardy mountaineers. The route thus 
chosen, which is described as being irregular, narrow, and pre- 
cipitous, badly supplied, and occupied by hostile tribes, but 
cool,' appears to be that which passes up the valley of the 
Kerkhah to A'bi-Garm, and from thence crosses the mountains 
to Khorrara-abad." Nearchus, one of the generals, was sent in 
advance, at the head of a body of archers, some slingers, and 
other light troops, with orders to drive the Cossseans from their 
principal strongholds, and having done so, to line the roads, so 
as to ensure the safety of the main body. Antigonus followed 
with the latter, and a chosen body of horse, under Pithon, 
covered the rear.^ 

Nearchus, as instructed, preceded the main body, and seized 
several commanding points ; but many others were overlooked, 
and these, being occupied by the enemy, caused great annoy- 
ance and serious loss to those who followed. Those imme- 
diately round Antigonus suffered most, and were greatly 
exposed to the stones and darts of the Cossseans. They sue- The army 
ceeded, however, in making good their passage, after having pfJs'a'gJ'into 
been exposed to this harassing warfare for nine days, during Media. 
which they incurred a heavy loss in men, elephants, and 
horses. On entering Media, abundant supplies, with a remount 
for the cavalry, in some measure restored the wonted tone 
of the army, and the march was continued to the higher 

Eumenes now broke up his camp on the banks of the Eumenes 
Pasitigris (Karun), to pursue his enemy; and taking the route "^^ug^ifthe 
of the ladders, or Pyla) Persicae, and subsequently passing Pyi^s Persica;. 
through the shaded valleys ar.d gardens^ of Basht and Failioun, 
he reached Persepolis in twenty-four marches. The soldiers, 
who had been scantily supplied during this time, found their 

' Diod. Sic. lib. XIX., cap. vi. 

* Major Rawlinson, Eoyal Geographical Journal, vol. IX., p. 63. 
^ Diod. Sic, lib. XIX., cap. vi. * Ibid., cap. vii. 

VOL. II. 2 C 


toils rewarded by a great feast, which, like that of Alexander 
The army is qh a greater occasion, had been prepared by Peucestas for the 

feasted by '^ ^ •' 

Peucestas. wholc arinv. An altar, dedicated to the conqueror, and another 
to his father Philip, occupied the centre, round which the 
generals, masters of the horse, nobles, and chiefs of Persia had 
their several tables, forming an interior circle of two stadia ; a 
second, of four stadia, was occupied by officers of the second 
order; and a third, of eight stadia in circumference, was 
destined for the Argyraspides, and those who had served under 
Alexander: the fourth, or that intended for the mercenaries 
and auxiliaries, was ten stadia in circumference.^ 

Eumenes out- Eumcnes, having drank hard at this and another banquet 

gonus. ^ ^ which he subsequently gave to his troops, was attacked by 
fever, which in the latter part of the march obliged him to be 
carried in a litter. By making a forced march in this manner, 
he succeeded in anticipating the intention of Antigonus, by 
throwing himself between the latter and Gabene, in the district 
of Paraetacene. 

On the appearance of the enemy's advance, Peucestas 
ordered the line of battle to be formed ; but the soldiers, who 
suspected that Eumenes was dead, at first refused to obey. 
Eumenes was therefore brought out in his litter, with the 
curtains drawn back, in order to convince them that their 
general was still alive.^ Eumenes had 35,000 foot and 6,000 
horse, with 114 elephants, while Antigonus had only 28,000 
foot, 8,500 horse, and 65 elephants. The latter, who out- 
flanked his enemy on this occasion, attacked in echellon from 
the right, and repulsed the left of Eumenes ; ^ but after a long 
and obstinate struggle, with various skilful manoeuvres and 
alternate advantages on both sides, the contest ended at night- 

in the battle fall to the disadvantage of Antigonus. He retained, however, 

which cnsu6S 

Antigonus is ' part of the battle-ground, and buried the dead before he retired 
^^^^ ^ ■ to winter at Gadamolis, or Gadarlis, in Media. On the other 
hand, Eumenes secured his object by marching from the battle 
ground into the unexhausted district of Gabene. 
Positions of Tlic two amiics having moved in almost opposite directions 
wL^r^"^''"^ from the recent field of battle, were now separated by a distance 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XIX., cap, vii. ° Ibid., cap. viii. ' Ibid. 


of twenty-five inarches, through inhabited countries, but of 
nine only by the more direct route, which was, however, 
entirely without the means of subsistence.' Antigonus being 
aware that the troops of his rival were dispersed in different 
winter quarters, for the sake of supplies, formed the bold pro- 
ject of surprising and attacking them with a superior force, 
before they could assemble. 

Accordingly, ten days' supplies were prepared ; and giving Antigonus 
out that he was about to traverse Armenia, he moved the ^^prise 
whole army by forced marches across the mountains towards Eumenes. 
Gabene. Strict orders were issued that no fires should be 
lighted at night, lest his approach should be discovered from 
the heights ; but after obeying this order for five nights, the 
soldiers, on account of the severity of the winter, made fires, 
and these being seen by the inhabitants, notice of an approach- 
ing enemy w^as immediately given to Peucestas and Eumenes. 

The former, who had charge of the advance, was about to Happy expe- 
make a hasty retreat, lest he should be cut off", but Eumenes, Eumenes. 
arriving at the moment, encouraged him to maintain his post 
on the borders of the desert, assuring him that he knew how to 
delay the enemy till the army could be collected. Ever fertile 
in expedients, this commander ordered all the troops that he 
could assemble at the moment to follow him quickly to the 
elevated ground overlooking the plain, and choosing the most 
conspicuous places, he caused fires to be lighted at each. At 
nightfall they were to be very large, as if supper were in pre- 
paration ; but in the second and third watch they were 
gradually to become extinct, thus having the appearance, from 
a distance, of an army encamped on the spot. This simple 
stratagem completely succeeded; for Antigonus and Pithon, 
believing that the whole army was in their front, immediately 
halted, to allow their troops the necessary time for refreshment 
and repose, preparatory to a general engagement. During this 
interval, Eumenes was equally prepared, and both armies being The two ar- 

, . „ /. 1 ' f. 1 1 • 1 J ""^'s prepare 

encamped withm forty lurlongs of each other, it was resolved for battle. 
to decide the war. 

Antigonus placed his cavalry in the wings, having the 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XIX., cap. x. 

2 C 2 



[chap. XII. 

Eumenes com 
mences the 
refusing his 
right wing. 

Eumenes is 
put to death. 

arranges the 

Fifteen thou- 
sand talents 
taken at Susa. 

infantry in the centre, the elephants in front, and light-armed 
troops occupying the intervals between these animals. 

Eumenes, with the elite of the cavalry, placed himself in the 
left wing, opposite to his adversary, having sixty elephants, 
forming an oval, in his front, here also with light troops filling 
up the intervals. Philip, the satrap of Parthia, commanded 
the right wing, and had orders to retreat rather than risk its 
safety by a general engagement. The whole force amounted 
to 114 elephants, 36,700 infantry, and 6,050 cavalry, all 
animated with the best spirit. 

The battle, w^hich commenced with the elephants and cavalry, 
terminated, after a lengthened struggle, with mutual advan- 
tages, the cavalry of Antigonus having defeated its opponents, 
■while, on the other side, the infantry of Eumenes was victorious. 
But the families of the Argyraspides having been taken, these 
troops sacrificed their honour to recover their wives and childen ; 
for on a hint from Antigonus that such an exchange would be 
acceptable, the Macedonians delivered up their general. 

The talented and upright Eumenes, being now for the second 
time in his power, Antigonus, without hesitation, caused him to 
be put to death ; and having gone through the form of honour- 
ing his remains with the public rite of burning, he completed the 
mockery by sending the ashes in a funereal urn to his relatives. 

Antigonus now occupied winter quarters between the Median 
Ecbatana and Rhages, and took advantage of this interval of 
repose to confirm those governors who were too powerful to be 
dispossessed, removing others who were inimical to his interests. 
Amongst the latter were Pithon, who was tried and executed, 
and Peucestas, the satrap of Persia. Having personally super- 
seded the latter, he assumed the title of king of the country, 
and sovereign of all Asia: he likewise confirmed Oxyartes, 
Evitus, and others, in their governments ; after which he pro- 
ceeded towards Susa, where he found the celebrated golden 
vine, and other treasures valued at 15,000 talents.' 

During this period the flames of war continued to rage in 
Europe, chiefly in the territories governed by Cassander, by 
whom Olympias had been invested in Pydna since the murder of 

' Diod. Sic , lib. XIX., caj). xv. 


Aridaeus and Eurydice. At length famine overcame the bravery oiympias is 
of the defenders of that place, ^heu the haughty Oiympias, 
deserted by her troops, fell into the hands of her enemies, and 
the mother of Alexander was put to death, by the kindred of 
those who had already suffered by her orders ; but Koxana and 
her son, who were destined to experience a similar fate, still 
remained in captivity. 

Favoured by these circumstances, Antigonus marched to- Combinatioa 
wards Babylon, and on his approach Seleucus fled to Ptolemy, ptoiemy'^^and 
whose authority then extended over Syria and Phoenicia as Cassander. 
well as Egypt. He was well received ; and he soon induced 
Ptolemy to join with the rulers of Macedonia and Thrace in a 
combination against Antigonus, who now openly aimed at 
uniting the whole of the Macedonian conquests under his 
dominion. He prepared for the approaching conquest by esta- 
blishing beacons and couriers to secure speedy intelligence 
throughout Asia, by raising troops, by building a fleet, and 
at the same time strengthening his party by an alliance with 
Khodes and Cyprus. 

His advantageous position between Ptolemy on the one side, Antigonus 
and the confederates in Asia on the other, was speedily turned preparftlons. 
to good account. A fleet being urgently required to cope with 
that of Ptolemy, which, under Seleucus, threatened the coast 
and menaced the camp before Tyre, numerous shipwrights 
were immediately employed to construct vessels at Tripoli, 
Sidon, and Byblus, and also on the coast of Cilicia. The 
forests of the Taurus supplied materials for that coast, and 
1,000 pairs of bullocks were employed in transporting the 
magnificent pines and cedars of Lebanon to the ports of Syria.^ 

Leaving, in addition to the necessary protection at these 
places, 3,000 men, under Andronicus, to blockade Tyre, 
Antigonus proceeded southward, and having secured his flank 
on the side of Egypt by subjecting the cities of Joppa and 
Gaza, he returned to resume in form the siege of the first 
-place.^ During its progress, however, the operations of Ptolemy siege of Tyre, 
in Greece, and those of the confederates in Asia, called for par- 
ticular attention to the northern provinces. Leaving, therefore, 
' Diod. Sic, lib. XIX., cap, xviii. * Ibid. 


marches into 
Lesser Asia. 

B. C. 313. 

Ptolemy de- 
feats Deme- 
trius at Gaza. 

B. C. 312. 

Result of the 

sends a force 
against the 

his son Demetrius at the head of an ample force, Antigonus, 
after experiencing some loss from the snow, crossed the Taurus, 
and put his army into winter quarters at Celsene in Phrygia, 
being supported by his newly-constructed fleet from Phoenicia.^ 
He had now obtained command of the sea, and by the skilfully 
conducted campaign that followed, the greater part of Caria 
fell into his hands. During that and the following year, he 
gained the alliance of most of the Peloponnesus, of Euboea, 
Thebes, Phocis, and Locris ; in consequence of which a treaty 
followed with Cassander, who, from a formidable opponent, be- 
came a dependent ally. 

But these successes were clouded by a serious reverse 
experienced elsewhere by his forces. Ptolemy having been 
successful in Cyrene and also in Cyprus, had just returned to 
Egypt. From thence, at the instance of Seleucus," he marched 
to attack Demetrius with a superior force ; and the latter 
being routed in a pitched battle near Gaza, fled to Tripoli and 
despatched a courier to entreat his father's speedy assistance.^ 
As the consequence of this battle, Ptolemy recovered the cities 
of Phoenicia, with the exception of Tyre, and Seleucus was 
enabled to resume his government of Babylonia. With this 
resumption commenced the celebrated era of the Seleucidse. 

The approach of Antigonus, and the defeat of Cilles by 
Demetrius, caused Ptolemy to retire into Egypt, leaving his 
enemy master of Coslo-Syria, &c.^ 

Elated with these successes, Antigonus determined to turn 
his arms against the Nabathean Arabs. By their laws, this 
particular section of the Arab race, like the Rechabites of an 
earlier time,^ were forbidden to drink wine, to sow seed, and to 
build or possess houses. Being almost wholly without cultiva- 
tion, their food was necessarily limited to the milk and flesh of 
their flocks, with the addition of fruits, roots, wild honey, and a 
sort of pepper, which, says Diodorus Siculus, they mixed with 
the last.® Athenseus, the general to whom Antigonus entrusted 
the enterprise, having ascertained that the bulk of the Naba- 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XIX., cap. xx. 

=> Ibid. 

' Jer., chap. XXXV., v. 2-10. 

" Ibid., cap. xxiii. 

■* Ibid., cap. XXV. 

* Lib. XIX., cap. xxv. 


tlieans ^vere absent at a fair on the borders of Syria, made a Amigonus 
forced march of 220 miles in 72 hours, and seized Petra their capital *^"^ 

But the Arabs, being apprized by some of the fugitives that 
their enemies were not on the alert after their success, made a 
sudden attack during the third watch, and killed Athenseus 
and all his troops, with the exception of some 80 horsemen, 
who escaped wounded.- Antigonus now despatched Demetrius Second expe- 
with 4,000 light armed foot and as many horse to avenge the rjemetrius!^ 
death of Athen8E?us ; but being unable to make any impression 
on a people, who for the sake of freedom occupied the caverns 
of Petra in the heart of a desert, without even ordinary sup- 
plies, he gladly consented to retreat towards Lake Asphaltites, 
on condition that the Nabatheans would send deputies with 
presents to appease his father. The expected profit from the 
bitumen of the lake was, however, some compensation to the 
latter for the failure at Petra, and turning his thoughts to a 
still higher prize, Demetrius was despatched to recover 

This undertaking had almost succeeded, one castle being b. c.sii. 
taken, and the other about to fal], when the recall of Demetrius 
to assist his father in Asia Minor, enabled Seleucus to move 
from his retreat in the Babylonian marshes, and recover the 
city. The hostilities which were at this period simultaneously 
continued in Greece, were terminated by a treaty with the 
confederate princes, by which Cassander was to hold Asia in 
trust for the youthful king. But in the following year, hoping Roxanaand 
to receive the crown of Macedonia, he caused Alexander and andeTmui--^^' 
his mother Roxana to be murdered ; and thus her crueltv in ^'^''^'^• 
putting the youthful and beautiful Statira to death met a just B. c. 309. 
reward. Ostensibly denouncing this treason, Polysperchon, 
the competitor of Cassander, sent for Hercules, the remaining 
son of Alexander, by Barsine, the widow of Memnon.'' This 
had the desired effect of alarming Cassander, and he agreed to 
share the government with Polysperchon, who having thus 
gained his object, immediately put Barsine and Hercules to 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XIX., cap. xxv., p. 731. * Ibid., p. 732. 

' Ibid., pp. 733-736. " Ibid., lib. XX., cap. vi. 


Cleopatra put death. Oiie of the race, however, still remained, Cleopatra, 

to death. . . pat i tt i i i i • i i t n 

the Sister or Alexander. Her beauty and noble birth, added 
to her influence over the Macedonians, had caused her hand 
to be sought by the most powerful of her brother's captains, as 
the means of advancement. It appears that Ptolemy was 
preferred to his rivals ; and the princess was on her way from 
Sardis to Egypt, when Antigonus caused her to be seized, and 
privately murdered.^ Thus, in the brief space of fourteen 
years, the whole of Alexander's family perished by the sword, 
and the prophecy that his mighty empire should be plucked up 
and given to others was literally fulfilled.- 
Demetrius Shortly after the death of Cleopatra, operations were under- 

carnes the i i 4 • • /-^ 

war into taken by Antigonus against Cassander ; and Demetrius, at the 
^^^^' head of a powerful fleet and army, having freed the Grecian 
cities, carried his arms into Garia. He then invaded Cilicia, 
and from thence sailed to Cyprus to besiege Salamis." 

But here he met with the most determined resistance, which 
he endeavoured to overcome by the use of helepoles and various 
kinds of battering-rams. The arrival of Ptolemy during these 
operations, with a considerable fleet, caused the siege to be 
turned into a succession of naval engagements ; and, at length, 
a signal victory gained over the latter occasioned his return to 
Egypt, and Cyprus submitted in consequence to the conqueror."* 

Antigonus and Autigouus was SO iiiuch elated with his son's success, that he 

his competi- • j- ^ ^ it* tx 

tors assume immediately assumed regal dignity, and caused Demetrius to 

rega tit es. ^^ ^^^ saiuc. Ptolcmy Hkcwise proclaimed himself king, as did 

Seleucus, Cassander, and Lysimachus ;^ Antigonus continuing, 

as before, to occupy a place between the kingdom of Ptolemy 

on one side, and that of Seleucus and Macedonia on the other. 

But the newly-acquired diadems of both father and son were 

destined to be tarnished during the operations which now took 

place, by land and sea, against Egypt. 

Expedition of Demetrius, who was recalled from Cyprus to assist in the 

Antigonus ., . i«in 

against projcctcd cxpcdition, was placed m command of the fleet, with 

orders to keep along the coast, in sight of the land forces; 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XX., cap. ix. * Dan., chap. XI., v. 4. 

'' Diod. Sic, lib. XX., cap. xii. * Ibid. 

* Ibid. 



whilst the latter, consisting of 80,000 foot, 8,000 horse, and 
83 elephants, marched to Gaza. 

Antigonus, having procured a number of camels from Arabia to 
carry the requisite supplies, advanced by a forced march, hoping 
to surprise Ptolemy, relying on the fleet for sustenance when the 
ten days' provisions carried by the army should be exhausted. 

This movement appears to have taken place just before the The fleet en- • 

counters ta 

change of the seasons ; the calms, therefore, which had delayed storm on the 
the fleet in the first instance were followed by the usual strong *^"''^'" ^■^^' 
northerly gales which commence in the early part of May, and 
make the open coast of Egypt unapproachable.^ A large por- 
tion of the fleet was lost near Raphia (Rafah) ; some vessels 
returned to Gaza, and the few that remained, with great diffi- 
culty rode out the gale at anchor, probably near Cape Starki 
beyond El Arish, without the possibility of communicating with 
the army, and suffering greatly from the want of water. But 
the unexpected cessation of the storm relieved the weather- 
beaten mariners from the fear of death, and they found 
refreshment in the camp of Antigonus. He, after vainly ex- Antigonus ad- 
pecting to be joined by the vessels w^hich had separated in the JriVnbackby 
early part of the storm, now advanced towards the Nile. By P^^iemy. 
this time, however, Ptolemy was prepared at all points, and 
the attempts of his enemy to enter Egypt not only failed by 
land, but, subsequently, both at the Pelusiac and Tanitic 
branches of the Nile. Repulsed at every point, and finding 
his army rapidly decreasing by sickness and desertion, Anti- 
gonus was obliged to retrace his steps, and encounter for the 
second time the privations and exposure incident to traversing 
the desert tract lying between Palestine and Egypt. 

The next operation was the siege of Rhodes. The Rhodians Demetrius • 
had, it seems, been secretly inclined to support the cause ofa^ai^list^ 
Ptolemy ; w^hich circumstance, added to the wealth they had ^^^°'^'-'^- 
lately acquired by trading as a neutral territory, determined 
Antigonus to undertake the subjection of that island. Deme- 
trius was therefore sent thither with a sufficient force and a 
powerful fleet, provided with all kinds of engines for the 
intended siege. The Rhodians, finding their towii beleaguered, 
' Diod. Sic, lib. XX., cap. xvi. 


of the Eho- 
(lians against 
the besiegers. 

and that Demetrius refused to listen to any terms, prepared 
for defence, sending at the same time to request the assistance 
of Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander, on account of whom, 
in fact, the war had taken place. As an encouragement to the 
citizens during the coming struggle, it was decreed that those 
servants who proved most faithful should obtain their freedom, 
and that the parents and children of those who died in the 
cause should be maintained at the public expense. With these 
and other promises all were excited to the highest pitch of enthu- 
siasm, and the noblest spirit animated the Rhodians throughout 
a siege which has become most remarkable from the skill, per- 
severance, and valour which were displayed on both sides. The 
effects of the darts and stones thrown from the walls were nearly 
counteracted by means of the testudo ,• and huge double towers, 
of sufficient height to be on a level with the top of the wvall, 
being floated on vessels, were placed alongside the fortifications. 
These moving castles w^ere, however, met by others placed by 
the Rhodians at the entrance of the harbour, to hurl stones, 
darts, and arrows against the enemy. The vessels of Deme- 
trius succeeded, however, in approaching the walls, which were 
fiercely assaulted, and as obstinately defended, till, at the 
expiration of eight days, Demetrius was obliged to retire to 
the outer harbour.^ After repairing his shattered fleet, he re- 
entered the port, and made a still more formidable and con- 
tinuous attack, which had almost carried the town, when the 
desperate efforts of the Rhodians were once more successful; 
and many of the besieging vessels being destroyed by fire and 
other means, the rest again retreated to the outer port.^ 
Renewed Deuietrius now resumed the siege by land, chiefly using for 

hUfd side" with this purpose an helepolis, consisting of several loop-holed 
fresh ma'- storics. The machine was put in motion by eight immense 
wheels, and was propelled by .3,400 of the strongest men m the 
army. To this machine numerous testudos, battering-rams, and 
covered galleries w^ere added, with everything that ingenuity 
could devise. The whole means of assault employed 30,000 
workmen, and occupied a space of four furlongs along the walls. 
The besieged, however, were equally active ; for, by using the 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XX., cap. xvii. * Ibid. 

Vessels and 
used by 


materials of their houses, and even of their temples, they had Countermines 
raised another wall within that which was being battered down. theVefeuce! 
Things were in this state, when a deserter informed the citizens 
that the miners of Demetrius were already almost within the 
defences of the city. Countermines now became their only 
resource, and both besiegers and besieged speedily met, as it 
were, on equal terms, under ground.^ 

Bribery was now resorted to, but equally without success, and 
the besiegers renewed their efforts above ground. The w^alls 
were fast giving way before such powerful means from without, 
whilst famine was assisting the enemy within, when Ptolemy's 
fleet arrived most opportunely with provisions and reinforce- 
ments. Encouraged by this assistance, the besieged, under 
cover of their engines, which launched fire-balls, darts, stones, 
&c., made an unexpected and vigorous sally, from the effects of 
which only a portion of the besieging engines were saved, and 
that with extreme difiiculty.^ AVhilst these were being repaired, 
to renew the attack, fresh means of defence were employed by 
the Rhodians, who formed a crescent-shaped entrenchment, 
embracing the whole of that portion of the walls which was 
attacked. Demetrius, with equal perseverance, advanced his 
machines, and carried a considerable portion of the defences ; 
but as the centre tower still resisted his efforts, he resorted to a 
general night attack by sea and land. On this occasion, some 
of the assailants forced their way into the town, but after a The Rhodians 
lengthened and bloody struggle the Rhodians were successful, assaiit'and'^ 
and a peace followed, by which the city was to continue under ™^'-' p*^^*^*^ 
its own laws, and at the same time enjoy its own revenues ; 
while they agreed to assist Antigonus in any wars which he 
might undertake, excepting those against their ally Ptolemy.^ 

This place furnishes a striking example of the methods of 
attack and defence employed in ancient times ; the greatest 
skill, perseverance, and valour having been equally displayed 
for more than twelve months, both by the besiegers and besieged. 
ISIever were assaults more frequent and energetic, or courage 
more indomitable. When one wall ceased to resist the pon- 

' Diod. Sic, lib. XX., cap. xix. * Ibid. 




mines em- 
ployed iu the 

throw off the 

B. C. 305 to 

Seleucus pre- 
pares to ex- 
tend his ter- 
ritory beyond 
the Indus. 

derous machines of Demetrius, another appeared within, offering 
a more impenetrable barrier than the first. The remains of the 
helepoles and other machines, which were presented- by Deme- 
trius to the Rhodians, as a just tribute to their valour, realized 
a sufficient sum to erect the colossal statue, which was considered 
as one of the wonders of the world. 

At a later period, this fortress witnessed the first employment 
of that branch of the military art, which has since contributed 
greatly to the superior efficiency of the attack over the defence 
of fortresses. In 1522, more than 100,000 enthusiastic Muslims 
commenced the siege of this fortress under Suleiman II. 
But notwithstanding the use of a powerful artillery, and of the 
other means employed at that time, besides a great sacrifice of 
life, a band of 6,000 warriors, under the knights of St. John, 
resisted successfully, until the besiegers resorted to the expedient 
of explosive mines : from that period such mines have often 
accelerated the fall of a besieged ])lace. 

As the government, which had hitherto been carried on in the 
names of a weak-minded prince and an infant king, had ceased 
to exist, the ambitious designs of Alexander's generals were 
no longer concealed ; and his vast conquests were regarded as 
an inheritance, which might be lawfully secured by the most 
powerful among them. 

The position of Seleucus at Babylon, and his tact in turning 
his attention eastward, rather than mixing in the contests to the 
westward of that city, gave him the largest portion of the spoils, 
so that he extended his dominion with little difficulty to the 
borders of India ; but his ambition being little short of that 
of Alexander himself, the Iranian empire' was insufficient. 
Seleucus therefore prepared to extend his territory, and cir- 
cumstances were particularly favourable to him, for he was in 
alliance with Ptolemy, Cassander, and Lysimachus ; and whilst 
the forces of Antigonus were still employed in besieging 
Rhodes, he proceeded from Babylon at the head of a powerful 
army, hoping by a rapid march to recover the provinces, 
beyond the Indus, which had recently shaken off the Mace- 
donian yoke. Being master of the intervening kingdoms, 

' From the Indus to the Euphrates. 



with the necessary supplies at command, and the certainty of 
receiving constant reinforcements, a march through I'ran was 
not attended with any particular difficulty. But on finding 
Sandrocottus, the sovereign of the whole country, with 600,000 
men, and a proportion of elephants ready to oppose him beyond Treaty with 
the Indus, he took the prudent course of renouncing all pre- aud'^retum"^' 
tensions to that territorj'^, in consideration of being furnished by f™'" ^°^'^- 
Sandrocottus with 500 elephants ; then, making a retrograde 
march, he Mas in time to take a decided part in the concerns 
of the west, which, since the truce made at Rhodes, had 
become more complicated. Demetrius, who was serving as Antigonus and 
generalissimo of the Greeks, was opposed by Cassander in opposed\y 
Europe, while Lysimachus had taken from Antigonus, not p^jj^^"^"^^ '" 
only all Phrygia and Lydia, but the whole of the territory 
between the Propontis and the Mseander. 

This state of things obliged Antigonus to hasten in person 
from Syria by forced marches ; and, with the public funds, he 
raised the requisite forces to march against Lysimachus. 
Seleucus, in the mean time, having re-formed his army in 
Babylonia, marched into Cappadocia to meet Antigonus ; who 
was obliged in consequence to recall Demetrius' with all speed. B. c. 302 to 
He was, besides, pressed on the other hand by Ptolemy, 
who had taken advantage of this opportunity to recover the 
tract between Egypt and Asia Minor, the cities of Tyre and 
Sidon excepted. The forces in Cappadocia and Phrygia, now 
about to contend for dominion, numbered on one side 60,000 
foot, 10,000 horse, and 75 elephants, under Antigonus and 
his son ; and on the other, 64,000 foot, 10,000 horse, 400 
elephants, and 120 scythed chariots. Demetrius attacked Battle of 
Antiochus, the son of Seleucus, with a degree of success which ^p**^- 
might have been complete, had he not been carried away in the 
pursuit till the infantry was completely separated from the 
cavalry. Seleucus, with admirable coolness, took advantage of 
this circumstance to interpose his elephants between the enemy's 
horse and foot, and the greatest part of the latter seized this 
opportunity to go over to him. 

Seleucus now made a determined attack with his infantry on 
' Plut. in Demetrius. 


Death of the main body, and thus completed the great defeat near 
° ' Ipsus/ Demetrius, on seeing his father perish nobly in the 
heat of the battle, rallied a few of the troops, and retreated to 
Ephesus, and from thence to the shores of the Mediterranean, 
accompanied by a youth, who was afterwards known as 
Pyrrhus the Great. 

The principal barrier to a peaceable settlement being re- 
moved, the territories of Antigonus were divided amongst the 
confederate princes, and the mighty empire of Alexander, now 
B.C. 301. formed four great kingdoms. Ptolemy, in addition to his 
Subdivision of posscssious in Africa and Arabia, obtained Palestine and 
^mpke.'^'''^* Ccelo-Syria ; Cassander had Greece added to Macedonia ; 
and Lysimachus, Bithynia in addition to some of the provinces 
beyond the Hellespont, Lastly, Seleucus was the acknowledged 
sovereign of the rest of Asia. Demetrius, however, retained, 
as the wreck of his father's power, Cyprus, Tyre, and Sidon, 
with the throne of Macedon ; and his influence in Greece 
enabled him to raise upwards of 100,000 men, with part of 
which he continued the war, hoping to recover his father's 
B. c. 287. dominions in Asia. Pyrrhus, however, succeeded in expelling 
him from Macedonia ; and, being joined by the greatest part of 
the opposing troops, the hopes of Demetrius were effectually 
crushed in that quarter. 
Demetrius Impelled, howevcr, by insatiable ambition, the prince con- 

makes a futile |.jj^yg^j to make Other efforts, both in the field, and by means of 

attempt to ' 'J 

regain his alliances, to rccovcr his lost ground : the last measure was a 


desperate attempt with a handful of men to surprise Seleucus 
by night in his camp. Failing, as might have been expected, 
he fled to the mountains, and there remained till hunger forced 
B. c. 286. him to surrender. Seleucus generously allowed his prisoner the 
range of ample hunting-grounds, with all the conveniencies of 
life : the temperament of Demetrius was, however, ill calculated 
to support the great change in his condition ; and he was 
gradually seized with hopeless melancholy. The elasticity of 
his mind was destroyed ; he grew oerpulent, and abandoned 
himself to drinking and gaming. The excesses of the table 
and a life of inactivity, brought on a severe distemper, which 

' Apion in Syriac, p. 122. 


terminated his existence in the third year of his captivity, and pemctriusdies 
the fifty-fourth year of his age. A striking contrast to the ^° *^^^''" ^* 
fate of this prince will be found in the life of his son, Mhose 
moderation preserved the crown of Macedonia for a lengthened 
period in the family. 

Seleucus, the successful rival of Antigonus, continued to be 
the undisputed sovereign of the greater part of western Asia, 
till he was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus, B.C. 280. A Death and 
short time before this, he had however resigned part of his Seieucus. 
empire, with his queen, Stratonice, in order to save Antiochus, 
who was pining to death for his stepmother. Seleucus was 
distinguished for his just and enlightened government, and more 
particularly for the construction of numerous cities, the most 
remarkable of which were Antioch and Apamea, both on the 
Orontes, Mith Seleucia, the port of the former ; also Theo- 
dosia, and the greater Seleucia on the Tigris. The latter was 
afterwards capital of the empire of Antiochus Theos, which 
extended from the shores of the Mediterranean to the limits of 

The second of the Ptolemies, who was surnamed Phila- 
delphus, succeeded to the throne of Egypt at this period, and 
in the first year erected in Alexandria the celebrated Pharos, The Pharos 
at the cost of 800 talents. The early part of his reign was ^"^^^'^ ' 
likewise distinguished by the formation of a nobler monument, 
namely, the great library :' the translation of the Old Testa- 
ment, now known as the Septuagint version, was one of the 
earliest fruits of this institution ; which, as will be noticed 
hereafter," had much influence on the infant literature of 

Those enlarged views, which had facilitated navigation and Commerce 
the acquisition of knowledge, were by Philadelphus extended to encouraged by 
the commerce with distant nations. A city called Berenice, P'°^^™>- 
after the name of his mother, sprang up on the w^estern shore 
of the Red Sea, through which, as will hereafter be seen,^ an 
active trade passed from and to the Nile ; again a canal leading 
to the same river, from the northern extremity of the Bed Sea 

' Strabo, lib. XVII., p. 791. ' Chap. XVI. 

' Chap. XVIII. 



[chap. XII. 

War between 
Theos and 

was executed : and, as an additional means of superseding the 
route from Elath to Ehinocolura, on the borders of Palestine, 
this prince had fleets on that sea, as well as on the Mediter- 
ranean. Intrigues, which were the natural consequences of an 
incestuous marriage, and the demoralized state of the East, led 
to a war between Antiochus Theos and Ptolemy/ from which 
the former gladly disengaged himself after losing a large 
portion of his eastern possessions. Theodotus having revolted 
and become the sovereign of Bactria, his example was followed 
in other provinces of that part of the world; but the most 
important change was that which, from a comparatively trifling 
circumstance, took place in Parthia. Agathocles, who governed 
for Antiochus, had so enraged the people by offering violence 
to Tiridates, that they put him to death ; and Arsaces, the 
brother of the youth in qiiestion, having expelled the Mace- 
donians, assumed the government of that extensive country, 
which from henceforth was destined to play a distinguished 
part in the history of the world.^ 

» Strabo, lib. VII., p. 152. ' Justin, lib. XLI., cap. iv. 

( 401 ) 


222 B.C. TO A.D. 631. 

Seleucus Callinicus invades Partliia. — His Death. — Parthia becomes inde- 
pendent. — Antiochus the Great succeeds. — Suppression of the Rebellions 
in Media and Persia. — Ptolemy Philopater gains Palestine and Coclo-Syria, 
and visits Jerusalem. — Increase of the Roman power in Asia, — Demetrius 
Nicator invades Parthia, and is taken prisoner. — Extension of the Parthian 
Dominions. — Judicious Polity of Mithridates. — Antioclius Sidetes invades 
Parthia, and is killed in battle. Pacorus, King of Parthia, seeks the 
friendship of the Romans. — Campaign of Lucullus in Armenia. — Pontus 
becomes a Roman province. — Crassus invades Parthia. — Surena takes the 
Field. — Fate of the Roman Army. — Surena's Triumph at Ctesiphon. — 
Surena's Death. — Circuitous march of Antony into Media. — Siege of the 
Capital. — Retreat from Praaspa to the Araxes. — Augustus proclaimed 
Emperor. — Preparations of ^lius Gallus. — March of the Roman Army 
into Arabia Felix. — Return of the Expedition to Egj'pt. — Siege of 
Jotapata by the Romans. — State of Jerusalem. — Siege and Capture of 
the City. — Massacre of the Inhabitants. — Trajan's Accession. — Invasion 
of Assyria, and descent of the River Euphrates. — The Nahr-Malka 
opened for the passage of his Fleet. — Capture of Ctesiphon, and descent 
to the Persian Gulf — Return of Trajan. — Siege of Atra. — Severus 
descends the Euphrates. — Passage of the Nahr Malka, and Capture of 
Ctesiphon, — Second and third Siege of Atra. — Retreat of Severus. — Wars 
of Sapor, and Capture of Valerian. — Invasion of the Roman Provinces in 
Europe by the Goths, &c. — Rise of Odenatus, Prince of Palmyra. — He 
makes War on Sapor. — Death of Odenatus. — Zenobia seizes some of the 
Roman Provinces. — Her contests witli Aurelian. — Siege and Fall of 
Palmyra. — Galerius Defeats the Persians. — "Wars of Sapor II. and Con- 
stantine. — Remarkable Siege of Nisibis. — Rise of Julian. — His prepara- 
tions for War. — Descent of the River Euphrates with a Fleet and Army 
to Anatho. — Fearful Hurricane encountered when approaching this City. 
— Descent of the River continued. — Siege and Capture of Perisaboras, &c. 
— Julian crosses Mesopotamia to Ctesiphon. — Retreat and Death of .Julian. 
— Jovian succeeds and effects a Retreat with the Roman Army. — Belisa- 
rius is Defeated by the Persians. — Cliosroes invades Syria, and Captures 
Antioch. — Cliosroes is Routed by Justinian. — vSecond Invasion of the 
Roman Territories, and total Defeat of Chosroes. — Rebellion of Varancs 
put down by Cliosroes. — Decline of the Persian power. 

During the period about to be considered, the contest which 
had previously been so general in all quarters amongst the suc- 

VOL. II. 2 D 


Science and 
learning en- 
couraged in 


Callinicus is 
defeated, aud 
dies in cap- 

B. C. 222. 

Rebellion of 
Molo and 

li.C. 219. 

cessors of Alexander, became chiefly confined to one portion of 
Western Asia, that inhabited by the Parthians : these, in their 
connexion with other countries, will now be briefly noticed. 

Ptolemy Euergetes, who at the close of the preceding chapter 
filled the throne of Egypt, was more occupied with peaceful 
than with warlike pursuits, be